• synaptic
  • Although it has been reported in invertebrates that almost all sensory systems (including olfactory) adapt to stimuli variations and display synaptic plasticity, similarly to mammals, the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and more particularly, the involvement of the internal Ca 2+ stores remain relatively unexplored. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we address the question of whether the formation of olfactory long-term memory (LTM) could be associated with changes in the synaptic architecture of the MB networks. (jneurosci.org)
  • For this, we took advantage of the modular architecture of the honeybee MB neuropil, where synaptic contacts between olfactory input and MB neurons are segregated into discrete units (microglomeruli) which can be easily visualized and counted. (jneurosci.org)
  • axons
  • The specification of the right number and type of different neurons and the guidance of their axons to their target cells are essential in this process. (jneurosci.org)
  • retinoic acid rec
  • To address the hypothesis that retinoids produced by synthesizing enzymes present in the primary olfactory system influence the mouse olfactory sensory map, we expressed a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor selectively in olfactory sensory neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • As previously described, retinoic acid induce craniofacial malformations stage dependently and different subtypes of retinoic acid receptor gene are expressed in chondrogenic and non-chondrogenic regions of facial mesenchyme derived from the cranial neural crest. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results together with region-specificity of retinoic acid receptor gene expression, retinoic acid is suggested to be involved in chondrogenesis of facial mesenchymal eclls. (nii.ac.jp)
  • neural
  • Collectively, the results provide evidence for a role of locally regulated retinoid metabolism in neuroprotection and in determining population size of neurons at a late stage of neural circuit formation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Given the restricted expression domain of the CNTF receptor α (CNTFR) in the developing forebrain germinal zone and adult forebrain periventricular area, we have examined the putative role of CNTFR/LIFR/gp130-mediated signaling in regulating forebrain neural stem cell fate in vivo and in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • 1. Neural coding of chemical mixtures was studied with the use of the peripheral olfactory system of the spiny lobster. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In that sense, biological neural models differ from artificial neuron models that do not presume to predict the outcomes of experiments involving the biological neural tissue (although artificial neuron models are also concerned with execution of perception and estimation tasks). (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory fatigue is an example of neural adaptation or sensory adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms to sense vital changes in their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some key players in several neural systems include Ca2+ions (see Calcium in biology) that send negative feedback in second messenger pathways that allow the neural receptor cells to close or open channels in response to the changes of ion flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural decoding is a neuroscience-related field concerned with the reconstruction of sensory and other stimuli from information that has already been encoded and represented in the brain by networks of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • This highlights the crux of the neural decoding hypothesis: that it is possible to reconstruct a stimulus from the response of the ensemble of neurons that represent it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decoding of neural data would be impossible if the neurons were firing randomly: nothing would be represented. (wikipedia.org)
  • single neuron
  • A single neuron typically has several inputs (dendrites) or sensors, a relatively long cord (axon) which typically branches many times, and has several outputs connecting to other neurons or muscle tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This situation is partly the result of the many different experimental settings, and the difficulty to separate the intrinsic properties of a single neuron from measurements effects and interactions of many cells (network effects). (wikipedia.org)
  • bipolar
  • For example, cochlear hair cells, retinal receptor cells, and retinal bipolar cells do not spike. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical reaction begins with the photoreceptor sending a message to a neuron called the bipolar cell through the use of an action potential, or nerve impulse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three-neuron chain consisting of the photoreceptor (either a rod or cone), bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • Polymodality is the feature of a single receptor of responding to multiple modalities, such as free nerve endings which can respond to temperature, mechanical stimuli (touch, pressure, stretch) or pain (nociception). (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of sensory neurons have different sensory receptors that respond to different kinds of stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • After varying the range of stimuli that is presented to the observer, we expect the neurons to adapt to the statistical properties of the signals, encoding those that occur most frequently: the efficient-coding hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • glia
  • Furthermore, many cells in the nervous system are not classified as neurons but instead are classified as glia. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • Firestein S, Picco C and Menini A (1993) The relation between stimulus and response in olfactory receptor cells of the tiger salamander. (els.net)
  • Natural or pharmacological input neuron models - The models in this category connect between the input stimulus which can be either pharmacological or natural, to the probability of a spike event. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type and location of the sensory receptor activated by the stimulus plays the primary role in coding the sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functionally, it is highly possible that adaptation may enhance the limited response range of neurons to encode sensory signals with much larger dynamic ranges by shifting the range of stimulus amplitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of neurons needed to reconstruct the stimulus with reasonable accuracy depends on the means by which data is collected and the area being recorded. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Here, we applied calcium imaging to characterize the odorant response properties of single neurons from gene-targeted mice in which the green fluorescent protein is coexpressed with a particular OR. (jneurosci.org)
  • distinct
  • In primary cultures of olfactory neurons both PAR1 and PAR2 were detected by immunofluorescence and their activation by thrombin and trypsin, respectively, caused distinct morphological changes, including neurite retraction. (unica.it)
  • In contrast to the amplification observed in phototransduction, signal amplification in olfactory transduction appears to be distinct. (physiology.org)
  • While the mechanisms through which these receptors operate is unclear, recent discoveries have shown that mammals have at least two distinct types of thermoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensilla
  • D , Mean firing rates ( n = 4 flies) of a neuron recorded in ab3 sensilla of ArcLight-expressing flies. (nih.gov)
  • vertebrate
  • This approach allows unambiguous identification of connexins and determination of the membrane "sidedness" and the identities of connexin coupling partners in homotypic and heterotypic gap junctions of vertebrate neurons. (deepdyve.com)
  • depolarize
  • This influx of positive ions and efflux of negative ions causes the neuron to depolarize, generating an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • After olfactory neurons depolarize in response to an odorant, the G-protein mediated second messenger response activates adenylyl cyclase, increasing cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration inside a cell, which then opens a cyclic nucleotide gated cation channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional
  • 1998) Functional expression of a mammalian odorant receptor. (els.net)
  • We provide evidence that RARE-dependent transcription and local homeostatic control of retinoids is required for the maintenance of a population of functional neurons with established projections and that inhibition of retinoid signaling results in postnatal and adult neurodegeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • By using biochemical, immunological and immunohistochemical techniques, we have investigated the expression and functional activity of protease-activated receptor (PARs) 1 and 2 in the rat olfactory system. (unica.it)
  • interactions
  • The molecular mechanism by which a neuron forms a synapse and regulates subsynaptic membrane differentiation has been hypothesized to involve reciprocal interactions between the agrin receptor complex [agrin/muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK)] and neuregulin signaling pathways. (physiology.org)
  • mediate
  • Another way Slit-Robo signaling might mediate repulsion from the midline is by silencing the receptor of the attractive guidance cue netrin-1, Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), thereby inactivating netrin-1-mediated attraction to the midline. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • However, it remains unclear how mechanisms for temporal contrast enhancement in the olfactory system can enhance the detection of odor plume edges during navigation. (nih.gov)
  • Ultimately, biological neuron models aim to explain the mechanisms underlying the operation of the nervous system for the purpose of restoring lost control capabilities such as perception (e.g. deafness or blindness), motor movement decision making, and continuous limb control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the location and identity of the neurons, various mechanisms have been found to underlie ephaptic inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • cranial
  • Other neurons bundles which are labeled cranial nerves, connect to the brain on one end, and to locations outside the brain on the other, without having a junction inside the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerves are actually huge collections of vast numbers of individual neurons that have found common routes though the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • See also: olfactory receptor neurons Optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) Sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • One possibility is that inhibitory epochs represent periods when principal neurons are synaptically inhibited by GABAergic local neurons (LNs). (jneurosci.org)
  • The cytokines that signal through the common receptor subunit gp130, including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), interleukin-6, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and oncostatin M, have pleiotropic functions in CNS development. (jneurosci.org)
  • adaptation
  • Kurahashi T and Menini A (1997) Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell. (els.net)
  • Olfactory fatigue, also known as odor fatigue or olfactory adaptation, is the temporary, normal inability to distinguish a particular odor after a prolonged exposure to that airborne compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influx of Ca2+ ions through this channel triggers olfactory adaptation immediately because Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II or CaMK activation directly represses the opening of cation channels, inactivates adenylyl cyclase, and activates the phosphodiesterase that cleaves cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are the primary sensory cell in a system designed to detect and discriminate between a large and diverse array of chemical ligands called odours. (els.net)
  • Anatomy of the olfactory system. (els.net)
  • An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a transduction cell within the olfactory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal amplification could still be achieved in the olfactory system by increasing the probability of G protein activation. (physiology.org)
  • A biological neuron model, also known as a spiking neuron model, is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane, roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig. 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiking neurons are known to be a major signaling unit of the nervous system, and for this reason characterizing their operation is of great importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worth noting that not all the cells of the nervous system produce the type of spike that define the scope of the spiking neuron models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problems with sensory neurons associated with the auditory system leads to disorders such as: Auditory processing disorder - Auditory information in the brain is processed in an abnormal way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visual system can detect motion both using a simple mechanism based on information from multiple clusters of neurons as well as by aggregate through by integrating multiple cues including contrast, form, and texture. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Gogos JA, Osborne J, Nemes A, Mendelsohn M and Axel R (2000) Genetic ablation and restoration of the olfactory topographic map. (els.net)
  • spinal
  • Mind concepts (as in mind vs. body), and cognitive and behavioral aspects, are introduced where they have at least a fairly direct connection to physical aspects of the brain, neurons, spinal cord, nerve networks, neurotransmitters, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal cord - many neurons originate or terminate in the brain and extend down into the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal cord itself is a bundle of a vast number of neurons, with a total diameter of about 1/2 inch at the brain, thinning to about 1/4 inch diameter at vertebrae L1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The longest single human neuron currently identified extends from the tip of a toe, well over a meter, up to the spinal cord at L1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many neurons connect to the brain on one end, with the other end connected to another neuron, with the outside (the brain) junction located within the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)