• aquatic
  • PBT assessment under REACH: Screening for low aquatic bioaccumulation with QSAR classifications based on physicochemical properties to replace BCF in vivo testing on fish. (ufz.de)
  • The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) is a value that is calculated through aquatic toxicity tests to help set water quality regulations for the protection of aquatic life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MATC can be used to calculate the ACR as follows: A C R = L C 50 / M A T C {\displaystyle ACR=LC50/MATC} The ACR is useful for estimating an MATC for species in which only acute toxicity data exists, or for setting regulatory guidelines for the protection of aquatic life through water quality criteria by the US EPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CMC and CCC are two of the six parts of the aquatic life criterion under the WQC, and are the actual regulatory values for all priority pollutants tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the subsequent decades, aquatic toxicology has continued to expand and internationalize so that there is now a strong application of toxicity testing for environmental protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxicity tests can be used to assess the potential for damage to an aquatic environment and provide a database that can be used to assess the risk associated within a situation for a specific toxicant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquatic toxicology tests can be performed in the field or in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals
  • In OECD countries, HPV chemicals are defined as being produced at levels greater than 1,000 metric tons per producer/importer per year in at least one member country/region. (wikipedia.org)
  • A list of HPV chemicals serves as an overall priority list, from which chemicals are selected to gather data for a screening information dataset (SIDS), for testing and for initial hazard assessment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The OECD refocus was on initial hazard assessments of HPV chemicals only, and no longer extensive exposure information gathering and evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The OECD list of HPV chemicals keeps changing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, the EPA reported the most heavily used HPV chemicals in commerce were largely untested: 43% of 2,800 HPV chemicals had no basic toxicity data or screening level data at all, 50% had incomplete screening data, and only 7% of the HPV chemicals had a complete set of screening level toxicity data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following Decision C(97),186/Final of the OECD Council, data generated in the testing of chemicals in one OECD Member Country, in accordance with OECD Test Guidelines and the Principles of GLP are accepted in all other OECD Member Countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) promotes the application of Russell and Burch's 3Rs principles (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing) in meeting regulatory requirements for products such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals, soaps, detergents and cosmetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals already shown to have adverse effects in vitro are not currently used in a Draize test, thereby reducing the number and severity of tests that are carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the next two decades, the effects of chemicals and wastes on non-human species became more of a public issue and the era of the pickle-jar bioassays began as efforts increased to standardize toxicity testing techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was a member of the Animal Procedures Committee for eight years, which advises the British Home Office on issues related to animal testing, and has acted as an advisor to the government on the introduction of the new European Union chemicals legislation, REACH. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • The type of test used depends on many factors: Specific regulatory agency conducting the test, resources available, physical and chemical characteristics of the environment, type of toxicant, test species available, laboratory vs. field testing, end-point selection, and time and resources available to conduct the assays are some of the most common influencing factors on test design. (wikipedia.org)
  • LD50
  • In comparison to the older LD50 test developed in 1927, this procedure produces similar results while using fewer animals and causing less pain and suffering. (wikipedia.org)
  • The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • LD50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved alternative methods to LD50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox without animal tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms (suitable for botulinum), micrograms, or grams (suitable for paracetamol) per kilogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol has low acute toxicity with an LD50 of 1.2 g/kg in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • The body and organ weights and behavior were not changed relative to the control rats indicating that ZA does not produce acute toxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • In this procedure the test substance is given at one of the four fixed-dose levels (5, 50, 500, and 2000 mg/kg) to five male and five female rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for humans (cf. paracetamol toxicity), and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging," Accounts of Chemical Research , vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1721-1730, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Several tissue culture methods which measure the rate of chemical absorption by the skin have been approved by the OECD. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Test, approved by the OECD, detects the viability of 3T3 cells after exposure to a chemical in the presence or absence of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, the global chemical industry, organized in the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) initiative, offered to join OECD efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industrial BioTest Labs (IBT) was the most notable case, where thousands of safety tests for chemical manufacturers were falsely claimed to have been performed or were so poor that police investigators could not piece together what work had been done. (wikipedia.org)
  • Directive 2004/10/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on the harmonisation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the application of the principles of good laboratory practice and the verification of their applications for tests on chemical substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a toxicity test, the NOEC and LOEC are derived as a comparison from the negative control, or the experimental group that does not contain the chemical in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results are thus interpreted in relation to animal survival and evident toxicity (5) and it becomes possible to assign the chemical to one of the OECD classification categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • dermal
  • The following year Draize joined the FDA, and was soon promoted to head of the Dermal and Ocular Toxicity Branch where he was charged with developing methods for testing the side effects of cosmetic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The selected earthworm species for toxicity test were exposed to different concentrations of herbicides (equivalent to 100 g dry weight) by amendment method for 96 hours. (hindawi.com)
  • The test subject is commonly an albino rabbit, though other species are used too, including dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different types of toxicity tests that can be performed on various test species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of assessment factors allows for laboratory, single-species and short term toxicity data to be extrapolated to conservatively predict ecosystem effects and accounts for the uncertainty in the extrapolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, PNECs derived from single-species toxicity data also assume that ecosystems are as sensitive as the most sensitive species and that the ecosystem function is dependent on the ecosystem structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Altogether, the results prove that Nerium oleander flowers are not toxic at the tested doses and exhibit antilipimic activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Because of its controversial nature, the use of the Draize test in the U.S. and Europe has declined in recent years and is sometimes modified so that anaesthetics are administered and lower doses of the test substances used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guidance
  • The Directive requires that the OECD Revised Guides for Compliance Monitoring Procedures for GLP and the OECD Guidance for the Conduct of Test Facility Inspections and Study Audits must be followed during laboratory inspections and study audits. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • Assessment of persistence, mobility and toxicity (PMT) of 167 REACH registered substances. (ufz.de)
  • Different amounts of test substances had been mixed homogenously. (hindawi.com)
  • In 1971, before the implementation in 1981 of the modern Draize protocol, toxicologists Carrol Weil and Robert Scala of Carnegie Mellon University distributed three test substances for comparative analysis to 24 different university and state laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Draize test for skin irritancy, the test substances are applied to skin that is shaved and abraded (several layers of skin are removed with sticky tape), then covered with plastic sheeting. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the British Research Defence Society, the Draize eye test is now a "very mild test," in which small amounts of substances are used and are washed out of the eye at the first sign of irritation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed (although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass). (wikipedia.org)
  • Substances and mixtures of this hazard class are assigned to one of two hazard categories on the basis of the outcome of the test or calculation method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substances and mixtures of this hazard class are assigned to a single hazard category on the basis of the outcome of the UN Test N.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Other alternatives include the use of humans for skin irritancy tests and donated human blood for pyrogenicity studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun to approve non-animal alternatives in response to research cruelty concerns and the lack of validity/sensitivity of animal tests as they relate to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the manuals for these products do contain many environmental and human health warnings, and a 2012 European regulatory peer review of five approved strains found, while data exist to support some claims of low toxicity to humans and the environment, the data are insufficient to justify many of these claims. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHEM
  • OECD: ENV/MC/CHEM(98)17 part two GLP is a quality system concerned with the organizational process and conditions under which non-clinical health and environmental safety studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, archived and reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • P. B. Dorn, "An industrial perspective on whole effluent toxicity testing," in Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing: An Evaluation of Methods and Predictions of Receiving Impacts , D. R. Grothe, K. L. Dickson, and D. K. Reed-Judkins, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • Alternatives to animal testing are the development and implementation of test methods that avoid the use of live animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another approach has been the development of test methods that use cultured human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard methods are designed and used widely to maximize precision and accuracy for all toxicity tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2004 study by the U.S. Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods analyzed the modern Draize skin test. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of acceptable standardized test methods have been published. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the more widely accepted agencies to publish methods are: the American Public Health Association, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, American Society for Testing and Materials, International Organization for Standardization, Environment Canada, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (wikipedia.org)
  • guidelines
  • S. Browne, The role of acute toxicity data for South African freshwater macroinvertebrates in the derivation of water quality guidelines for salinity [M.S. thesis] , Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Research in the US not conducted under these restrictions or research done outside US not conducted according to the OECD Guidelines (or FDA rules) might be inadmissible in support of a New Drug Application in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Initially used for testing cosmetics, the procedure involves applying 0.5mL or 0.5g of a test substance to the eye or skin of a restrained, conscious animal, and then leaving it for set amount of time before rinsing it out and recording its effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Applicability of the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD 236) In rhe regulatory context Of REACH. (ufz.de)
  • The MATC is calculated and reported from the results of a number of standard procedures designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and other organizations to maintain high accuracy and precision among all toxicity tests for regulatory purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Values derived from toxicity tests such as the MATC are reported to regulatory organizations like the US EPA and Environment Canada so more confident regulations can be designed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the EPAA as of March, 2012 included five Directorates-General of the EC, 36 companies and six European trade associations representing various sectors of the industry In recent decades, legislation aimed at the promotion of the 3Rs in regulatory testing have systematically been introduced into Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Directive
  • The aim of the new Directive is to strengthen legislation, improve the welfare of those animals still needed to be used, as well as to firmly anchor the principles of the 3Rs in EU legislation In 2003, legislation introduced a ban on using animals for testing cosmetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The objective is to identify a dose that produces clear signs of toxicity but no mortality (22). (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the results of the first test, either no further testing is needed or a higher or lower dose is tested: If mortality occurs, retesting at a lower dose level is necessary (except if the original dose chosen is 5 mg/kg). (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Depending of the type of data used, an assessment factor is used to account for the confidence of the toxicity data being extrapolated to an entire ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Field data or model ecosystems data includes field toxicity data and mesocosm toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The GHS classification system is a complex system with data obtained from tests, literature, and practical experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • fish
  • While basic research in toxicology began in multiple countries in the 1800s, it was not until around the 1930s that the use of acute toxicity testing, especially on fish, was established. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • even though IBT superficially delivered the test results their contracts with the manufacturers specified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standardized tests offer the ability to compare results between laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • antinociceptive
  • The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity at 2 g/kg, p.o. γ -TPN (1.562 to 50 mg/kg, p.o.) showed an antinociceptive effect in the formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests. (hindawi.com)
  • γ -TPN has antinociceptive action when administered by others routes in glutamate test. (hindawi.com)
  • animals
  • To investigate the mechanisms of action, the animals were pretreated with naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, mecamylamine, or L-arginine in the glutamate test. (hindawi.com)
  • There is widespread agreement that a reduction in the number of animals used and the refinement of testing to reduce suffering should be important goals for the industries involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The animals are observed for up to 14 days for signs of erythema and edema in the skin test, and redness, swelling, discharge, ulceration, hemorrhaging, cloudiness, or blindness in the tested eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • The animals are euthanized after testing if the test renders irreversible damage to the eye or skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals may be re-used for testing purposes if the product tested causes no permanent damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that tests would: Misidentify a serious irritant as safe: 0-0.01% Misidentify a mild irritant as safe: 3.7%-5.5% Misidentify a serious irritant as a mild irritant: 10.3%-38.7% According to the American National Anti-Vivisection Society, solutions of products are applied directly into the animals' eyes, which can cause "intense burning, itching and pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2006, she was a member of the panel at the Oxford Union that debated whether "This house would not test on animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Parameters, including parasitemia, survival time, body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume were then determined using standard tests such as Peter's and Rane's test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • dose
  • Maximum effect in both tests was observed with the larger dose of the crude extract and chloroform fraction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If no signs of toxicity occur at the initial dose, it is necessary to retest at a higher dose level. (wikipedia.org)
  • extract
  • We have evaluated the protective potential of the methanol extract of M. buxifolia (MBM) in rat exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Draize
  • This method has been accepted by the EU and is intended to replace the Draize rabbit skin irritation test. (wikipedia.org)
  • uTH BADDIS The Draize Test is an acute toxicity test devised in 1944 by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toxicologists John H. Draize and Jacob M. Spines. (wikipedia.org)
  • standard
  • Standard tests, such as the Kjeldahl and Dumas tests, estimate protein levels by measuring the nitrogen content, so they can be misled by adding nitrogen-rich compounds such as melamine. (wikipedia.org)