• gills
  • Gills initially have an emarginate (notched) to adnate attachment to the stipe, but pull away as the mushroom matures to become seceding or almost free from attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other lookalikes include Hygrophorus subalpinus and H. camarophyllus, but these species have broad, waxy gills, and lack the characteristic odor of T. vernaticum. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a somewhat duller fruit body color, and gills that turn brown with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fruit bodies are characterized by a light grayish cap that measures up to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter, waxy gills, a dry stem, and the distinct odor of bitter almonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • A thick, white, rubbery partial veil covers the gills of the immature mushroom, and eventually remains as a ring on the middle of the stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found in the western United States, the mushroom is characterized by its stout fruit body including blue-tinted cap margin and stipe, blue-grey to bluish green gills, and odor of rancid meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • associative
  • and associative learning, the latter often measured by olfactory classical conditioning using an odor as conditioned stimulus (CS). (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to Nbea −/− mice, rg null mutants are viable and fertile and exhibit aberrant associative odor learning, changes in gross brain morphology, and synaptic architecture as determined at the larval neuromuscular junction. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mushroom bodies of the insect brain play an important role in olfactory processing, associative learning and memory. (jove.com)
  • Relatively higher preferences for the rewarded odor reflect associative learning - presented as a performance index (PI). (jove.com)
  • The conclusion regarding the associative nature of the performance index is compelling, because apart from the contingency between odors and tastants, other parameters, such as odor and reward exposure, passage of time and handling do not differ between the two groups 9 . (jove.com)
  • In larger insects, studies suggest that mushroom bodies have other learning and memory functions, like associative memory, sensory filtering, motor control, and place memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • calyx
  • Projection neuron groups are segregated innervating glomeruli groups separately and sending axons by separate routes, either through the medial-antenno protocerebral tract (m-APT) or through the lateral-anteno protocerebral tract (l-APT), and connecting with two layers in the calyx of the mushroom bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • lobes
  • In ants, several layers can be discriminated that correspond to different clusters of glomeruli in the antennal lobes, perhaps corresponding to different classes of odors. (wikipedia.org)
  • antennal
  • First, temporal structure may be imposed upon a stimulus by odor-sampling mechanisms such as sniffing in mammals or antennal flicking in arthropods ( Wachowiak, 2011 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we concentrate on honeybees by demonstrating a unique extracellular long term access to record multi unit activity at two subsequent neuropiles 1 , the antennal lobe (AL), the first olfactory processing stage and the mushroom body (MB), a higher order integration center involved in learning and memory formation, or two parallel neuronal tracts 2 connecting the AL with the MB. (jove.com)
  • In these layers is represented topographically the organization of the two efferent regions of the antennal lobe, establishing a coarse odotopic map of the antennal lobe in the region of the lip of the mushroom bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ORNs are bipolar, on one end are the olfactory dendrites with the receptors for the odors and on the other end are the axons that carry the action potential to the antennal lobe of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • KCs function as coincidence detectors for memory formation, associating odor information with a coincident punishment or reward stimulus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • flesh
  • The flesh has a mild taste, and an odor of almonds or marzipan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The odor of the crushed flesh is mild or faintly phenolic, but is usually distinctly phenolic in the base of the stipe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flesh is thick and white, with a strongly farinaceous odor similar to cucumber or watermelon rind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flesh, colored lilac to purple, has no distinctive taste, and an odor that has been compared to "curry powder, rotting meat, old goats or goat's cheese, cold mashed potato, burnt horn, or sweaty feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flesh of the mushroom lacks any distinctive taste or odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • Kasap B, Schmuker M (2013) Improving odor classification through self-organized lateral inhibition in a spiking olfaction-inspired network. (fu-berlin.de)
  • While generally the lateral horn is said to be responsible for innate behavioral responses to olfactory stimuli and the mushroom bodies is responsible for learned behavior we now have a growing body of evidence that cross-talk between the two regions which means the true nature is more complicated than that. (wikipedia.org)
  • So the learned behavioral signal from the mushroom bodies can overrule the innate behavior signal emanating from the lateral horn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, the innate behavioral signal from the lateral horn can also overrule the learned behavior signal from the mushroom bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • Odor stimuli give rise to faster waves in the range of View the MathML source, which seem to be decoupled between the hemispheres and appear either instead of or superimposed on the spontaneous waves. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The mushroom bodies show odor-specific spatial patterns of activity and are also influenced by visual stimuli. (jove.com)
  • matures
  • Initially curled inwards, the cap margin uncurls as the mushroom matures. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the mushroom matures, the cap margins curl upward, and the central depression in the cap deepens, becoming more or less funnel shaped. (wikipedia.org)
  • insects
  • The mushroom bodies or corpora pedunculata are a pair of structures in the brain of insects, other arthropods, and some annelids (notably the ragworm). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since mushroom bodies are found in anosmic primitive insects, their role is likely to extend beyond olfactory processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two organs insects primarily use for detecting odors are the antennae and specialized mouth parts called the maxillary palps. (wikipedia.org)
  • An odor may be associated with an attractive behavior, leading most insects of a species to move towards the source of that odor, yet some individuals may move away from that odor because of a past negative encounter with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • almonds
  • Hygrophorus agathosmus has a pronounced fragrant odor resembling cherry pits or bitter almonds (occasionally the odor is weak). (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Gabler S, Soelter J, Hussain T, Sachse S and Schmuker M (2013) Physicochemical vs. vibrational descriptors for prediction of odor receptor responses. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Agaricus
  • Agaricus hondensis can be distinguished from similar Agaricus species by differences in geographic range, habitat, staining reaction, and odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The edibility of Agaricus deserticola mushrooms is not known definitively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agaricus bernardii, commonly called the salt-loving mushroom, is an agaric fungus in the family Agaricaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mushroom somewhat resembles Agaricus bitorquis but it differs from that species by the reddish-brown staining of cap and stem tissue, the nature of the ring on the stem, as well as its briny odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agaricus bernardii is commonly known as the salt-loving mushroom. (wikipedia.org)
  • reinforcement
  • In a standard assay, established in the lab of B. Gerber, animals receive a two-odor reciprocal training: A first group of larvae is exposed to an odor A together with a gustatory reinforcer (sugar reward) and is subsequently exposed to an odor B without reinforcement 9 . (jove.com)
  • Meanwhile a second group of larvae receives reciprocal training while experiencing odor A without reinforcement and subsequently being exposed to odor B with reinforcement (sugar reward). (jove.com)
  • neuronal
  • To study the neuronal dynamics in the mushroom bodies (MB) of the honeybee Apis mellifera we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from different sites within the MB. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Rg is expressed in a granular pattern reminiscent of the Golgi network in neuronal cell bodies and colocalizes with transgenic Nbea, suggesting a function in secretory regulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mushroom bodies are usually described as neuropils, i.e. as dense networks of neuronal processes (dendrite and axon terminals) and glia. (wikipedia.org)
  • electric shock
  • Functional imaging experiments showed that the dopaminergic processes in four of the zones differ in response properties to odor, electric shock, or following the pairing of odor and electric shock. (frontiersin.org)
  • resembles
  • The Japanese species Hebeloma radicosoides resembles H. radicosum in appearance and habitat, but can be distinguished by its yellower cap and lack of odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hygrophorus pustulatus resembles H. agathosmus and has a similar almond odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • A modified correlation analysis shows, however, that even during odor processing there is a significant coupling between the two hemispheres of the brain. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Based on its distribution in the central brain region and the mushroom bodies, we speculate that the onychophoran arthropsin might be either a photosensitive molecule playing a role in the circadian clock, or a non-photosensitive protein involved in olfactory pathways, or both. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the insect brain, the peduncles of the mushroom bodies extend through the midbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flies
  • A Japanese field study demonstrated that male flies of the genus Suillia rest on the mushrooms and actively defend their territory from others of the same species while waiting to mate with oviparous females. (wikipedia.org)