**logistic regression**- Typically, a binary logistic regression analysis would give you more output than this, but today we will focus on the odds ratio. (statisticssolutions.com)
- Binary logistic regression is used to predict the odds of being a case based on the values of the independent variables (predictors). (wikipedia.org)

**prevalence**- The rationale for the diagnostic odds ratio is that it is a single indicator of test performance (like accuracy and Youden's J statistic) but which is independent of prevalence (unlike accuracy) and is presented as an odds ratio, which is familiar to medical practitioners. (wikipedia.org)
- Use of the prevalence ratio v the prevalence odds ratio in view of confounding in cross sectional studies. (bmj.com)
- Prevalence odds ratio v prevalence ratio--some further comments. (bmj.com)
- Prevalence odds ratio v prevalence ratio. (bmj.com)
- Unlike case-control studies, they can be used to describe, not only the odds ratio, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk ratio, or PRR). (wikipedia.org)

**displaystyle**- but then D E / ( D E + H E ) ≈ D E / H E , {\displaystyle D_{E}/(D_{E}+H_{E})\approx D_{E}/H_{E},} in other words, for the exposed population, the risk of developing the disease is approximately equal to the odds. (wikipedia.org)
- The diagnostic odds ratio is defined mathematically as: Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR = T P / F P F N / T N {\displaystyle {\text{Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR}}={\frac {TP/FP}{FN/TN}}} where T P {\displaystyle TP} , F N {\displaystyle FN} , F P {\displaystyle FP} and T N {\displaystyle TN} are the number of true positives, false negatives, false positives and true negatives respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- Consider a test with the following 2×2 confusion matrix: We calculate the diagnostic odds ratio as: DOR = T P / F P F N / T N = 26 / 12 3 / 48 = 34.666 … ≈ 35 {\displaystyle {\text{DOR}}={\frac {TP/FP}{FN/TN}}={\frac {26/12}{3/48}}=34.666\ldots \approx 35} This diagnostic odds ratio is greater than one, so we know that the test is discriminating correctly. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus O R = a d b c {\displaystyle OR={\frac {ad}{bc}}} This is the odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)

**estimates**- If you request BRR variance estimation ( VARMETHOD=BRR ), PROC SURVEYFREQ estimates the variance of the odds ratio as described in the section Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR) . (sas.com)
- It consists of estimates of odds ratios and their confidence limits. (sas.com)
- Consider the following PROC GLIMMIX statements that fit a logistic model with one classification effect, one continuous variable, and their interaction (the ODDSRATIO option in the MODEL statement requests the "Odds Ratio Estimates" table). (sas.com)
- Several suboptions of the ODDSRATIO option in the MODEL statement are available to obtain customized odds ratio estimates. (sas.com)

**confidence limits**- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the odds ratio by using the log transform. (sas.com)
- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the relative risk by using the log transform, which is similar to the odds ratio computations described previously. (sas.com)
- Score confidence limits for the odds ratio (Miettinen and Nurminen, 1985 ) are computed by inverting score tests for the odds ratio. (sas.com)
- When you specify the OR option in the EXACT statement, PROC FREQ computes exact confidence limits for the odds ratio. (sas.com)
- PROC FREQ computes exact confidence limits for the odds ratio by using an algorithm based on Thomas ( 1971 ). (sas.com)

**computes**- DIFF=FIRST computes differences from the first level, and DIFF=ALL computes odds ratios based on all pairwise differences. (sas.com)

**obtain the odds**- This ratio is the odds ratio (OR) and can be computed following these steps: For a given individual that has "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" For a given individual that does not have "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio (OR). (wikipedia.org)

**retrospective**- In epidemiological terms, the odds ratio is used as a point estimate of the relative risk in retrospective studies. (statsdirect.com)
- For a retrospective design called a case-control study , the odds ratio can be used to estimate the relative risk when the probability of positive response is small (Agresti, 2002 ). (sas.com)
- Both the relative risk and odds ratio are relevant in retrospective cohort studies, but only the odds ratio can be used in case-control studies. (wikipedia.org)

**risks**- table, the column 1 relative risk is the ratio of the column 1 risks for row 1 to row 2. (sas.com)
- but then the ratio of the risks, which is RR, is approximately equal to the ratio of the odds, which is OR. (wikipedia.org)

**Mantel-Haenszel**- For $2\times 2\times K$ tables, we use Taylor expansion to study the biases and variances of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and modified Mantel-Haenszel estimators of the common odds ratio using one pair of pseudotables for data without missing values and for data with missing values, based either on the completely observed subsample or on estimated cell means when both stratum and column variables are always observed. (umd.edu)
- Analytic studies and simulation results show that the Mantel-Haenszel estimators overestimate the common odds ratio but adding one pair of pseudotables reduces bias and variance. (umd.edu)

**1981**- Breslow, N. E. (1981), Odds ratio estimators when the data are sparse. (springer.com)

**estimators**- With informative missingness, estimators based on the estimated cell means do not converge to the correct common odds ratio under sparse asymptotics, and converge slowly for the large table asymptotics. (umd.edu)
- The asymptotic variance formula of the ratio estimators had smaller biases and variances than those based on jackknifing or bootstrapping. (umd.edu)

**predictors**- This second approach can be applied to categorical predictors having any number of levels, but in the case of a binary (i.e., two-level) predictor, an attractive alternative is to measure their association with odds ratios. (r-bloggers.com)

**statistic**- Odds ratio is the key statistic for most case-control studies. (statsdirect.com)
- This example compares two binomial proportions by using a log odds ratio statistic in a five-stage group sequential test. (sas.com)
- The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). (wikipedia.org)
- This results in the likelihood ratio chi-square statistic being equal to 0, which is the best model fit. (wikipedia.org)

**nonnegative**- The value of the odds ratio can be any nonnegative number. (sas.com)
- Since all of the four numbers appearing in this ratio are nonnegative, it follows that the odds ratio is also nonnegative and can assume any value between 0 and positive infinity. (r-bloggers.com)

**binary**- The odds ratio may be viewed as an association measure between binary variables, and it is defined as follows. (r-bloggers.com)
- For simplicity, suppose x and y are two binary variables of interest and assume that they are coded so that they each take the values 0 or 1 - this assumption is easily relaxed, as discussed below, but it simplifies the basic description of the odds ratio. (r-bloggers.com)
- Further, if x and y are two statistically independent binary random variables, it can be shown that the odds ratio is equal to 1. (r-bloggers.com)
- In medical testing with binary classification, the diagnostic odds ratio is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. (wikipedia.org)
- Sensitivity and specificity Binary classification Positive predictive value and negative predictive value Odds ratio Glas, Afina S. (wikipedia.org)

**1985**- Liang, K. Y. (1985), Odds ratio inference with dependent data. (springer.com)

**likelihood**- The odds ratio ((a/c)/(b/d)) looks at the likelihood of an outcome in relation to a characteristic factor. (statsdirect.com)
- A confidence interval (CI) for the odds ratio is calculated using an exact conditional likelihood method ( Martin and Austin, 1991 ). (statsdirect.com)

**equals**- When the row and column variables are independent, the true value of the odds ratio equals 1. (sas.com)

**Conditional**- Specialized algebraic methods are presented for computing exactly the p -value of the odds ratio in a conditional hypothesis test. (springer.com)

**exposure**- The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds ( i.e. , information gained after knowing exposure status). (mdpi.com)
- The odds ratio compares the occurrence of the outcome in the presence of a particular exposure, with the occurrence of the outcome in the absence of a particular exposure. (wikipedia.org)
- In simple terms, if the posterior ratio of exposure is similar to that of the prior, I will end up with an equal effect, or ≈ 1, indicating no association with the disease, since it didn't change my beliefs of the exposure. (wikipedia.org)
- If on the other hand the posterior ratio of exposure is smaller or greater than that of the prior ratio, then the disease have changed my view of the exposure danger, and the magnitude of this change is the relative risk. (wikipedia.org)

**increases**- The positive relationship means that as gender "increases," the odds of being eaten increases . (statisticssolutions.com)
- It allows one to say that the presence of a risk factor increases the odds of a given outcome by a specific factor. (wikipedia.org)
- A review in 2013 came to the result that obesity increases the risk of oligospermia and azoospermia in men, with an of odds ratio 1.3. (wikipedia.org)
- Being morbidly obese increases the odds ratio to 2.0. (wikipedia.org)

**probabilities**- In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)
- Relative risk is different from the odds ratio, although it asymptotically approaches it for small probabilities. (wikipedia.org)

**relative**- It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the test being positive if the subject has a disease relative to the odds of the test being positive if the subject does not have the disease. (wikipedia.org)
- In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. (wikipedia.org)
- The PRR is defined as the ratio between the frequency with which a specific adverse event is reported for the drug of interest (relative to all adverse events reported for the drug) and the frequency with which the same adverse event is reported for all drugs in the comparison group (relative to all adverse events for drugs in the comparison group). (wikipedia.org)

**interpretation**- Because this variable is continuous, the interpretation of the odds ratio is a little different, but we can use the same logic. (statisticssolutions.com)

**Risk**- This function calculates odds ratios and population attributable risk with confidence intervals. (statsdirect.com)
- Population attributable risk is presented as a percentage with a confidence interval when the odds ratio is greater than or equal to one ( Sahai and Kurshid, 1996 ). (statsdirect.com)
- The most informative thing to compute would be the risk ratio, RR. (wikipedia.org)
- The alternative term risk ratio is sometimes used because it is the ratio of the risk in the exposed to the risk in the unexposed. (wikipedia.org)
- odds ratios, risk difference, gains and confidence intervals. (wikipedia.org)
- This is expressed as a risk ratio or odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)

**data**- From these data we have evidence that the odds of developing oral cancer is around two and a half times higher for heavy smokers compared with lighter (less than 16 per day) or non-smokers of cigarettes. (statsdirect.com)
- Traditional meta-analytic techniques such as inverse-variance weighting can be used to combine log diagnostic odds ratios computed from a number of data sources to produce an overall diagnostic odds ratio for the test in question. (wikipedia.org)

**Outcome**- Diagnostic odds ratios less than one indicate that the test can be improved by simply inverting the outcome of the test - the test is in the wrong direction, while a diagnostic odds ratio of exactly one means that the test is equally likely to predict a positive outcome whatever the true condition - the test gives no information. (wikipedia.org)

**infinity**- The diagnostic odds ratio ranges from zero to infinity, although for useful tests it is greater than one, and higher diagnostic odds ratios are indicative of better test performance. (wikipedia.org)

**Approximate**- Approximate confidence intervals are given for the odds ratios derived from the covariates. (statsdirect.com)

**greater**- An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates that the odds of a positive response are higher in row 1 than in row 2. (sas.com)
- She finds this to be a good thing because when the odds ratio is greater than 1, it describes a positive relationship . (statisticssolutions.com)
- This can be interpreted to mean that being in the (1) group, or being male, puts you at 5 times greater odds of being eaten. (statisticssolutions.com)

**Negative**- If the odds ratio for gender had been below 1, she would have been in trouble, as an odds ratio less than 1 implies a negative relationship . (statisticssolutions.com)

**less**- Conversely, odds ratio values less than 1 imply that the variables x and y are more likely to disagree: records with y = 1 are more likely to have x = 0 than x = 1, and those with y = 0 are more likely to have x = 1 than x = 0. (r-bloggers.com)
- This still means that females were at lesser odds of being eaten, as the odds ratio would have been less than 1. (statisticssolutions.com)
- Likewise, the odds of someone with a score of 1 are inverted from there (1/2), or .5, to describe how much less likely they are to be eaten than someone with a score of 2. (statisticssolutions.com)

**terms**- This odds ratio is interpreted in terms of each unit increase on the scale (i.e., going from 1 to 2, 2 to 3, etc. (statisticssolutions.com)

**desirable**- A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. (mdpi.com)

**disease**- Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex). (zanran.com)
- Multivariable-adjusted odds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to body mass index (kg/m2 ) in men. (zanran.com)

**value**- For most types of effect size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect, with the main exception being if the effect size is an odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)
- The same equation can be used for estimating the odds from an experimentally obtained value of the mean. (wikipedia.org)

**statistics**- In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population. (wikipedia.org)

**Difference**- The term effect size can refer to a standardized measure of effect (such as r, Cohen's d, or the odds ratio), or to an unstandardized measure (e.g., the difference between group means or the unstandardized regression coefficients). (wikipedia.org)

**sample size**- Efird, J.T. Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio. (mdpi.com)

**test**- We compute the confidence interval for the diagnostic odds ratio of this test as [9, (wikipedia.org)
- The diagnostic odds ratio is undefined when the number of false negatives or false positives is zero - if both false negatives and false positives are zero, then the test is perfect, but if only one is, this ratio does not give a usable measure. (wikipedia.org)

**measure**- The odds ratio provides a simple quantitative association measure for these variables that allows us to make these comparisons directly. (r-bloggers.com)
- The odds ratio is a useful measure of association for a variety of study designs. (sas.com)

**equal**- The two distributions are both equal to the (central) hypergeometric distribution when the odds ratio is 1. (wikipedia.org)

**Thus**- Thus, for each increase in deliciousness score, the odds of being eaten by a Jaws-like monstrosity increase by a factor of 2 . (statisticssolutions.com)
- Now if the option of a red bus is introduced, a person may be indifferent between a red and a blue bus, and hence may exhibit a car : blue bus : red bus odds ratio of 1 : 0.5 : 0.5, thus maintaining a 1 : 1 ratio of car : any bus while adopting a changed car : blue bus ratio of 1 : 0.5. (wikipedia.org)