###### logistic regression

- Typically, a binary logistic regression analysis would give you more output than this, but today we will focus on the odds ratio. (statisticssolutions.com)
- Binary logistic regression is used to predict the odds of being a case based on the values of the independent variables (predictors). (wikipedia.org)

###### displaystyle

- but then D E / ( D E + H E ) ≈ D E / H E , {\displaystyle D_{E}/(D_{E}+H_{E})\approx D_{E}/H_{E},} in other words, for the exposed population, the risk of developing the disease is approximately equal to the odds. (wikipedia.org)
- The diagnostic odds ratio is defined mathematically as: Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR = T P / F P F N / T N {\displaystyle {\text{Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR}}={\frac {TP/FP}{FN/TN}}} where T P {\displaystyle TP} , F N {\displaystyle FN} , F P {\displaystyle FP} and T N {\displaystyle TN} are the number of true positives, false negatives, false positives and true negatives respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- Consider a test with the following 2×2 confusion matrix: We calculate the diagnostic odds ratio as: DOR = T P / F P F N / T N = 26 / 12 3 / 48 = 34.666 … ≈ 35 {\displaystyle {\text{DOR}}={\frac {TP/FP}{FN/TN}}={\frac {26/12}{3/48}}=34.666\ldots \approx 35} This diagnostic odds ratio is greater than one, so we know that the test is discriminating correctly. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus O R = a d b c {\displaystyle OR={\frac {ad}{bc}}} This is the odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)

###### proportional

- The reporting odds ratio and its advantages over the proportional reporting ratio. (rti.org)
- The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). (wikipedia.org)

###### estimates

- If you request BRR variance estimation ( VARMETHOD=BRR ), PROC SURVEYFREQ estimates the variance of the odds ratio as described in the section Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR) . (sas.com)
- It consists of estimates of odds ratios and their confidence limits. (sas.com)
- Consider the following PROC GLIMMIX statements that fit a logistic model with one classification effect, one continuous variable, and their interaction (the ODDSRATIO option in the MODEL statement requests the "Odds Ratio Estimates" table). (sas.com)
- Several suboptions of the ODDSRATIO option in the MODEL statement are available to obtain customized odds ratio estimates. (sas.com)

###### prevalence

- Unfortunately, there is a recognised problem that odds ratios do not approximate well to the relative risk when the initial risk (that is, the prevalence of the outcome of interest) is high. (bmj.com)
- The rationale for the diagnostic odds ratio is that it is a single indicator of test performance (like accuracy and Youden's J statistic) but which is independent of prevalence (unlike accuracy) and is presented as an odds ratio, which is familiar to medical practitioners. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike case-control studies, they can be used to describe, not only the odds ratio, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk ratio, or PRR). (wikipedia.org)

###### obtain the odds

- This ratio is the odds ratio (OR) and can be computed following these steps: For a given individual that has "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" For a given individual that does not have "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio (OR). (wikipedia.org)

###### risks

- 1 2 Thus there is a danger that if odds ratios are interpreted as though they were relative risks then they may mislead. (bmj.com)
- This short note quantifies the discrepancy between odds ratios and relative risks in different circumstances, and assesses whether such a discrepancy may seriously mislead if an odds ratio is used as an estimate of the relative risk. (bmj.com)
- There is a problem with odds: unlike risks, they are difficult to understand. (bmj.com)
- The table shows the odds for various risks. (bmj.com)
- For risks of less than about 20% the odds are not greatly dissimilar to the risk, but as the risk climbs above 50% the odds start to look very different. (bmj.com)
- The relative risk of one group compared with another is simply the ratio of the risks in the two groups. (bmj.com)
- but then the ratio of the risks, which is RR, is approximately equal to the ratio of the odds, which is OR. (wikipedia.org)
- table, the column 1 relative risk is the ratio of the column 1 risks for row 1 to row 2. (sas.com)

###### Mantel-Haenszel

- For $2\times 2\times K$ tables, we use Taylor expansion to study the biases and variances of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and modified Mantel-Haenszel estimators of the common odds ratio using one pair of pseudotables for data without missing values and for data with missing values, based either on the completely observed subsample or on estimated cell means when both stratum and column variables are always observed. (umd.edu)
- Analytic studies and simulation results show that the Mantel-Haenszel estimators overestimate the common odds ratio but adding one pair of pseudotables reduces bias and variance. (umd.edu)

###### epidemiological

- In epidemiological terms, the odds ratio is used as a point estimate of the relative risk in retrospective studies. (statsdirect.com)

###### predictors

- This second approach can be applied to categorical predictors having any number of levels, but in the case of a binary (i.e., two-level) predictor, an attractive alternative is to measure their association with odds ratios. (r-bloggers.com)

###### exposure

- The odds ratio compares the occurrence of the outcome in the presence of a particular exposure, with the occurrence of the outcome in the absence of a particular exposure. (wikipedia.org)
- ratio of two odds, but as used in the analysis of data from a case control study, a simple calculation, also called the cross-products ratio, which yields an approximate value for the relative risk of the exposure that has been examined in a case control study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Epidemiology Cross-product ratio, exposure odds ratio overdispersion A measure of association in a case-control study which quantifies the relationship between an exposure and health outcome from a comparative study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds ( i.e. , information gained after knowing exposure status). (mdpi.com)
- In simple terms, if the posterior ratio of exposure is similar to that of the prior, I will end up with an equal effect, or ≈ 1, indicating no association with the disease, since it didn't change my beliefs of the exposure. (wikipedia.org)
- If on the other hand the posterior ratio of exposure is smaller or greater than that of the prior ratio, then the disease have changed my view of the exposure danger, and the magnitude of this change is the relative risk. (wikipedia.org)

###### approximate

- Approximate confidence intervals are given for the odds ratios derived from the covariates. (statsdirect.com)

###### statistic

- Odds ratio is the key statistic for most case-control studies. (statsdirect.com)
- This example compares two binomial proportions by using a log odds ratio statistic in a five-stage group sequential test. (sas.com)
- This results in the likelihood ratio chi-square statistic being equal to 0, which is the best model fit. (wikipedia.org)

###### nonnegative

- The value of the odds ratio can be any nonnegative number. (sas.com)
- Since all of the four numbers appearing in this ratio are nonnegative, it follows that the odds ratio is also nonnegative and can assume any value between 0 and positive infinity. (r-bloggers.com)

###### Binary

- In medical testing with binary classification, the diagnostic odds ratio is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. (wikipedia.org)
- Sensitivity and specificity Binary classification Positive predictive value and negative predictive value Odds ratio Glas, Afina S. (wikipedia.org)
- The odds ratio may be viewed as an association measure between binary variables, and it is defined as follows. (r-bloggers.com)
- For simplicity, suppose x and y are two binary variables of interest and assume that they are coded so that they each take the values 0 or 1 - this assumption is easily relaxed, as discussed below, but it simplifies the basic description of the odds ratio. (r-bloggers.com)
- Further, if x and y are two statistically independent binary random variables, it can be shown that the odds ratio is equal to 1. (r-bloggers.com)

###### confidence limits

- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the odds ratio by using the log transform. (sas.com)
- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the relative risk by using the log transform, which is similar to the odds ratio computations described previously. (sas.com)

###### retrospective

- Both the relative risk and odds ratio are relevant in retrospective cohort studies, but only the odds ratio can be used in case-control studies. (wikipedia.org)

###### likelihood

- The odds ratio ((a/c)/(b/d)) looks at the likelihood of an outcome in relation to a characteristic factor. (statsdirect.com)
- A confidence interval (CI) for the odds ratio is calculated using an exact conditional likelihood method ( Martin and Austin, 1991 ). (statsdirect.com)

###### increases the odds

- The positive relationship means that as gender "increases," the odds of being eaten increases . (statisticssolutions.com)
- It allows one to say that the presence of a risk factor increases the odds of a given outcome by a specific factor. (wikipedia.org)
- Being morbidly obese increases the odds ratio to 2.0. (wikipedia.org)

###### relative

- Odds ratios are hard to comprehend directly and are usually interpreted as being equivalent to the relative risk. (bmj.com)
- For example: "The odds ratio is approximately the same as the relative risk if the outcome of interest is rare. (bmj.com)
- However, serious divergence between the odds ratio and the relative risk occurs only with large effects on groups at high initial risk. (bmj.com)
- If the condition being studied is rare, the odds ratio is a close approximation to the relative risk. (thefreedictionary.com)
- See odds ratio and relative risk ratio (below). (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the test being positive if the subject has a disease relative to the odds of the test being positive if the subject does not have the disease. (wikipedia.org)
- In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. (wikipedia.org)
- Relative risk is different from the odds ratio, although it asymptotically approaches it for small probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
- The PRR is defined as the ratio between the frequency with which a specific adverse event is reported for the drug of interest (relative to all adverse events reported for the drug) and the frequency with which the same adverse event is reported for all drugs in the comparison group (relative to all adverse events for drugs in the comparison group). (wikipedia.org)

###### relation

- A second problem with odds is that, although they are related to risk, the relation is not straightforward. (bmj.com)

###### risk

- The most informative thing to compute would be the risk ratio, RR. (wikipedia.org)
- This function calculates odds ratios and population attributable risk with confidence intervals. (statsdirect.com)
- Population attributable risk is presented as a percentage with a confidence interval when the odds ratio is greater than or equal to one ( Sahai and Kurshid, 1996 ). (statsdirect.com)
- The alternative term risk ratio is sometimes used because it is the ratio of the risk in the exposed to the risk in the unexposed. (wikipedia.org)
- A review in 2013 came to the result that obesity increases the risk of oligospermia and azoospermia in men, with an of odds ratio 1.3. (wikipedia.org)
- odds ratios, risk difference, gains and confidence intervals. (wikipedia.org)
- This is expressed as a risk ratio or odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)

###### probability

- a method of expressing probability, e.g. at odds of 3 to 2 this can be converted to conventional terminology by using each number as the numerator and the sum of them as the denominator, i.e. 3/5, 2/5 or 60% or 40% or 0.6, 0.4. (thefreedictionary.com)

###### probabilities

- In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)

###### greater

- Odds are fairly easy to visualise when they are greater than one, but are less easily grasped when the value is less than one. (bmj.com)
- An indicator of fleece type in sheep, the greater the ratio the finer the fleece. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The diagnostic odds ratio ranges from zero to infinity, although for useful tests it is greater than one, and higher diagnostic odds ratios are indicative of better test performance. (wikipedia.org)
- An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates that the odds of a positive response are higher in row 1 than in row 2. (sas.com)
- She finds this to be a good thing because when the odds ratio is greater than 1, it describes a positive relationship . (statisticssolutions.com)
- This can be interpreted to mean that being in the (1) group, or being male, puts you at 5 times greater odds of being eaten. (statisticssolutions.com)

###### interpretation

- Because this variable is continuous, the interpretation of the odds ratio is a little different, but we can use the same logic. (statisticssolutions.com)

###### outcome

- Diagnostic odds ratios less than one indicate that the test can be improved by simply inverting the outcome of the test - the test is in the wrong direction, while a diagnostic odds ratio of exactly one means that the test is equally likely to predict a positive outcome whatever the true condition - the test gives no information. (wikipedia.org)

###### data

- Traditional meta-analytic techniques such as inverse-variance weighting can be used to combine log diagnostic odds ratios computed from a number of data sources to produce an overall diagnostic odds ratio for the test in question. (wikipedia.org)
- From these data we have evidence that the odds of developing oral cancer is around two and a half times higher for heavy smokers compared with lighter (less than 16 per day) or non-smokers of cigarettes. (statsdirect.com)

###### less

- An odds of 0.2 however seems less intuitive: 0.2 people will experience the event for every one that does not. (bmj.com)
- Conversely, odds ratio values less than 1 imply that the variables x and y are more likely to disagree: records with y = 1 are more likely to have x = 0 than x = 1, and those with y = 0 are more likely to have x = 1 than x = 0. (r-bloggers.com)
- If the odds ratio for gender had been below 1, she would have been in trouble, as an odds ratio less than 1 implies a negative relationship . (statisticssolutions.com)
- This still means that females were at lesser odds of being eaten, as the odds ratio would have been less than 1. (statisticssolutions.com)
- Likewise, the odds of someone with a score of 1 are inverted from there (1/2), or .5, to describe how much less likely they are to be eaten than someone with a score of 2. (statisticssolutions.com)

###### Thus

- Thus x/(x + y) is a proportion, x:y is a ratio. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Thus, for each increase in deliciousness score, the odds of being eaten by a Jaws-like monstrosity increase by a factor of 2 . (statisticssolutions.com)
- Now if the option of a red bus is introduced, a person may be indifferent between a red and a blue bus, and hence may exhibit a car : blue bus : red bus odds ratio of 1 : 0.5 : 0.5, thus maintaining a 1 : 1 ratio of car : any bus while adopting a changed car : blue bus ratio of 1 : 0.5. (wikipedia.org)

###### contrast

- In contrast, the odds of an event is the number of those who experience the event divided by the number of those who do not. (bmj.com)

###### value

- When the row and column variables are independent, the true value of the odds ratio equals 1. (sas.com)
- For most types of effect size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect, with the main exception being if the effect size is an odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)
- The same equation can be used for estimating the odds from an experimentally obtained value of the mean. (wikipedia.org)

###### terms

- This odds ratio is interpreted in terms of each unit increase on the scale (i.e., going from 1 to 2, 2 to 3, etc. (statisticssolutions.com)

###### desirable

- A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. (mdpi.com)

###### table

- With informative missingness, estimators based on the estimated cell means do not converge to the correct common odds ratio under sparse asymptotics, and converge slowly for the large table asymptotics. (umd.edu)
- This table is produced by the ODDSRATIO option in the MODEL statement. (sas.com)

###### disease

- The odds in favor of a particular disease occurring in an exposed group are divided by the odds in favor of its occurring in an unexposed group. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex). (zanran.com)
- Multivariable-adjusted odds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to body mass index (kg/m2 ) in men. (zanran.com)

###### measure

- Odds ratios are a common measure of the size of an effect and may be reported in case-control studies, cohort studies, or clinical trials. (bmj.com)
- The diagnostic odds ratio is undefined when the number of false negatives or false positives is zero - if both false negatives and false positives are zero, then the test is perfect, but if only one is, this ratio does not give a usable measure. (wikipedia.org)
- The odds ratio provides a simple quantitative association measure for these variables that allows us to make these comparisons directly. (r-bloggers.com)
- The term effect size can refer to a standardized measure of effect (such as r, Cohen's d, or the odds ratio), or to an unstandardized measure (e.g., the difference between group means or the unstandardized regression coefficients). (wikipedia.org)

###### group

- the ratio between the rate (of mortality or some such parameter) in one group of animals and the rate in another group, used as a standard and the comparison expressed as a ratio. (thefreedictionary.com)

###### sample size

- Efird, J.T. Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio. (mdpi.com)

###### approximately

- As an odds ratio, the logarithm of the diagnostic odds ratio is approximately normally distributed. (wikipedia.org)

###### smaller

- The asymptotic variance formula of the ratio estimators had smaller biases and variances than those based on jackknifing or bootstrapping. (umd.edu)

###### given

- In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population. (wikipedia.org)

###### figure

- I am trying to develop a plot a figure in which I would like to show the odds ratios obtained from a logistic model. (ethz.ch)

###### equal

- The two distributions are both equal to the (central) hypergeometric distribution when the odds ratio is 1. (wikipedia.org)

###### statistically

- Using a logistic regression model, we show that private truncating SNVs and rare, inherited CNVs are statistically independent risk factors for autism, with odds ratios of 1.11 (P = 0.0002) and 1.23 (P = 0.01), respectively. (nih.gov)

###### estimate

- Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. (biomedcentral.com)
- In fact, it can be shown that the unconditional analysis of matched pair data results in an estimate of the odds ratio which is the square of the correct, conditional one. (wikipedia.org)

###### practice

- His stance puts him at odds not just with pedagogic practice over the last few centuries but also with a tradition going back to antiquity. (wikipedia.org)
- The fact that this often fails in practice due to the Sharpe ratio of risky assets exceeding the ratio of the volatility of the stochastic discount factor to its expectation is known as the equity premium puzzle. (wikipedia.org)

###### confidence

- Diagnosed asthma and persistent wheezing were associated with DDE at birth [odds ratio (OR) for an increase in 1 ng/mL, OR= 1.18, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.01-1.39 and OR 1.13, 95% CI= 0.98-1.30, respectively], but not with DDE at 4 years. (csic.es)
- Bar heights are Fisher's exact test odds ratio and whiskers represent 95% confidence interval bounds. (nih.gov)
- Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated as the measure of effect size. (ox.ac.uk)
- The odds ratio was 0.65, with a 95% confidence interval from 0.50 to 0.85, which was significant at P =0.001. (medpagetoday.com)
- During the first 12 weeks, the reduction was greater, with an odds ratio of 0.41 and a 95% confidence interval from 0.27 to 0.65. (medpagetoday.com)
- Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. (aacrjournals.org)

###### lower

- This is no surprise because fossil fuels have lower 13C/12C ratios than the atmosphere. (realclimate.org)
- Results Adjusting for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, women living in neighbourhoods where poverty decreased over the 40-year period had lower odds of depressive symptoms and a greater sense of control than women living in long-term, low-poverty neighbourhoods. (bmj.com)

###### years

- A byproduct of this work is that we also have a very nice record of atmospheric 13C variations through time, and what we find is that at no time in the last 10,000 years are the 13C/12C ratios in the atmosphere as low as they are today. (realclimate.org)
- Rate Ratio = Incidence Rate 1 Incidence Rate 2 {\displaystyle {\text{Rate Ratio}}={\frac {\text{Incidence Rate 1}}{\text{Incidence Rate 2}}}} Where incidence rate is the occurrence of an event over person-time, for example person-years. (wikipedia.org)

###### time

- The decrease in the 13C/12C ratio can also be observed in century long time series of corals and sclerosponges from tropical reefs. (realclimate.org)
- After the completion of the 2006 Tour, winner Floyd Landis was found to have an elevated testosterone to epitestosterone ratio on a sample taken following Stage 17 of the race, and at the time of the 2007 Tour prologue. (wikipedia.org)

###### significant

- We find that private, inherited truncating SNVs in conserved genes are enriched in probands (odds ratio = 1.14, P = 0.0002) in comparison to unaffected siblings, an effect involving significant maternal transmission bias to sons. (nih.gov)

###### often

- There is no commonly accepted threshold in terms of a ratio or percentage of hands played, but a "tight" player will often choose to fold weaker hands, while a "loose" player will bet on more of these hands and thus play more hands to the show/showdown. (wikipedia.org)
- The LOD score (logarithm (base 10) of odds), developed by Newton Morton, is a statistical test often used for linkage analysis in human, animal, and plant populations. (wikipedia.org)