• Mantel-Haenszel
  • For $2\times 2\times K$ tables, we use Taylor expansion to study the biases and variances of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and modified Mantel-Haenszel estimators of the common odds ratio using one pair of pseudotables for data without missing values and for data with missing values, based either on the completely observed subsample or on estimated cell means when both stratum and column variables are always observed. (umd.edu)
  • Analytic studies and simulation results show that the Mantel-Haenszel estimators overestimate the common odds ratio but adding one pair of pseudotables reduces bias and variance. (umd.edu)
  • estimators
  • With informative missingness, estimators based on the estimated cell means do not converge to the correct common odds ratio under sparse asymptotics, and converge slowly for the large table asymptotics. (umd.edu)
  • The asymptotic variance formula of the ratio estimators had smaller biases and variances than those based on jackknifing or bootstrapping. (umd.edu)
  • binary
  • The odds ratio may be viewed as an association measure between binary variables, and it is defined as follows. (r-bloggers.com)
  • For simplicity, suppose x and y are two binary variables of interest and assume that they are coded so that they each take the values 0 or 1 - this assumption is easily relaxed, as discussed below, but it simplifies the basic description of the odds ratio. (r-bloggers.com)
  • Further, if x and y are two statistically independent binary random variables, it can be shown that the odds ratio is equal to 1. (r-bloggers.com)
  • In medical testing with binary classification, the diagnostic odds ratio is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitivity and specificity Binary classification Positive predictive value and negative predictive value Odds ratio Glas, Afina S. (wikipedia.org)
  • probabilities
  • In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative risk is different from the odds ratio, although it asymptotically approaches it for small probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • relative
  • It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the test being positive if the subject has a disease relative to the odds of the test being positive if the subject does not have the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PRR is defined as the ratio between the frequency with which a specific adverse event is reported for the drug of interest (relative to all adverse events reported for the drug) and the frequency with which the same adverse event is reported for all drugs in the comparison group (relative to all adverse events for drugs in the comparison group). (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • From these data we have evidence that the odds of developing oral cancer is around two and a half times higher for heavy smokers compared with lighter (less than 16 per day) or non-smokers of cigarettes. (statsdirect.com)
  • Traditional meta-analytic techniques such as inverse-variance weighting can be used to combine log diagnostic odds ratios computed from a number of data sources to produce an overall diagnostic odds ratio for the test in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outcome
  • Diagnostic odds ratios less than one indicate that the test can be improved by simply inverting the outcome of the test - the test is in the wrong direction, while a diagnostic odds ratio of exactly one means that the test is equally likely to predict a positive outcome whatever the true condition - the test gives no information. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • Conversely, odds ratio values less than 1 imply that the variables x and y are more likely to disagree: records with y = 1 are more likely to have x = 0 than x = 1, and those with y = 0 are more likely to have x = 1 than x = 0. (r-bloggers.com)
  • This still means that females were at lesser odds of being eaten, as the odds ratio would have been less than 1. (statisticssolutions.com)
  • Likewise, the odds of someone with a score of 1 are inverted from there (1/2), or .5, to describe how much less likely they are to be eaten than someone with a score of 2. (statisticssolutions.com)
  • desirable
  • A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. (mdpi.com)
  • disease
  • Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex). (zanran.com)
  • Multivariable-adjusted odds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to body mass index (kg/m2 ) in men. (zanran.com)
  • value
  • For most types of effect size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect, with the main exception being if the effect size is an odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same equation can be used for estimating the odds from an experimentally obtained value of the mean. (wikipedia.org)
  • statistics
  • In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Difference
  • The term effect size can refer to a standardized measure of effect (such as r, Cohen's d, or the odds ratio), or to an unstandardized measure (e.g., the difference between group means or the unstandardized regression coefficients). (wikipedia.org)
  • measure
  • The odds ratio provides a simple quantitative association measure for these variables that allows us to make these comparisons directly. (r-bloggers.com)
  • The odds ratio is a useful measure of association for a variety of study designs. (sas.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, for each increase in deliciousness score, the odds of being eaten by a Jaws-like monstrosity increase by a factor of 2 . (statisticssolutions.com)
  • Now if the option of a red bus is introduced, a person may be indifferent between a red and a blue bus, and hence may exhibit a car : blue bus : red bus odds ratio of 1 : 0.5 : 0.5, thus maintaining a 1 : 1 ratio of car : any bus while adopting a changed car : blue bus ratio of 1 : 0.5. (wikipedia.org)