• crude
  • A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. (mdpi.com)
  • compares
  • The odds ratio compares the occurrence of the outcome in the presence of a particular exposure, with the occurrence of the outcome in the absence of a particular exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung cancer
  • Thank you.This is one of questions in a problem set_neither complete output or data is given to rerun the codes.How can I determine the odds ratio of lung cancer in males with TS exposure using the information on the estimates in the table? (sas.com)
  • estimates
  • If you request BRR variance estimation ( VARMETHOD=BRR ), PROC SURVEYFREQ estimates the variance of the odds ratio as described in the section Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR) . (sas.com)
  • exposure
  • The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds ( i.e. , information gained after knowing exposure status). (mdpi.com)
  • In simple terms, if the posterior ratio of exposure is similar to that of the prior, I will end up with an equal effect, or ≈ 1, indicating no association with the disease, since it didn't change my beliefs of the exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • If on the other hand the posterior ratio of exposure is smaller or greater than that of the prior ratio, then the disease have changed my view of the exposure danger, and the magnitude of this change is the relative risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • probabilities
  • In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative risk is different from the odds ratio, although it asymptotically approaches it for small probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk
  • In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alternative term risk ratio is sometimes used because it is the ratio of the risk in the exposed to the risk in the unexposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is expressed as a risk ratio or odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outcome
  • Diagnostic odds ratios less than one indicate that the test can be improved by simply inverting the outcome of the test - the test is in the wrong direction, while a diagnostic odds ratio of exactly one means that the test is equally likely to predict a positive outcome whatever the true condition - the test gives no information. (wikipedia.org)
  • combine
  • Traditional meta-analytic techniques such as inverse-variance weighting can be used to combine log diagnostic odds ratios computed from a number of data sources to produce an overall diagnostic odds ratio for the test in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • From these data we have evidence that the odds of developing oral cancer is around two and a half times higher for heavy smokers compared with lighter (less than 16 per day) or non-smokers of cigarettes. (statsdirect.com)
  • Liang, K. Y. (1985), Odds ratio inference with dependent data. (springer.com)
  • less
  • Conversely, odds ratio values less than 1 imply that the variables x and y are more likely to disagree: records with y = 1 are more likely to have x = 0 than x = 1, and those with y = 0 are more likely to have x = 1 than x = 0. (r-bloggers.com)
  • This still means that females were at lesser odds of being eaten, as the odds ratio would have been less than 1. (statisticssolutions.com)
  • Likewise, the odds of someone with a score of 1 are inverted from there (1/2), or .5, to describe how much less likely they are to be eaten than someone with a score of 2. (statisticssolutions.com)
  • Statistics
  • In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population. (wikipedia.org)
  • value
  • When the row and column variables are independent, the true value of the odds ratio equals 1. (sas.com)
  • For most types of effect size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect, with the main exception being if the effect size is an odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same equation can be used for estimating the odds from an experimentally obtained value of the mean. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the test being positive if the subject has a disease relative to the odds of the test being positive if the subject does not have the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex). (zanran.com)
  • Multivariable-adjusted odds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to body mass index (kg/m2 ) in men. (zanran.com)
  • Difference
  • The term effect size can refer to a standardized measure of effect (such as r, Cohen's d, or the odds ratio), or to an unstandardized measure (e.g., the difference between group means or the unstandardized regression coefficients). (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • On this page you'll be able to convert sports betting odds across the three different formats, or convert chance of winning percentages to each of the different formats, hassle-free and in a flash. (bookofranovoline.net)
  • test
  • The diagnostic odds ratio is undefined when the number of false negatives or false positives is zero - if both false negatives and false positives are zero, then the test is perfect, but if only one is, this ratio does not give a usable measure. (wikipedia.org)