• estimates
  • If you request BRR variance estimation ( VARMETHOD=BRR ), PROC SURVEYFREQ estimates the variance of the odds ratio as described in the section Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR) . (sas.com)
  • probabilities
  • In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative risk is different from the odds ratio, although it asymptotically approaches it for small probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk
  • In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alternative term risk ratio is sometimes used because it is the ratio of the risk in the exposed to the risk in the unexposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is expressed as a risk ratio or odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outcome
  • Diagnostic odds ratios less than one indicate that the test can be improved by simply inverting the outcome of the test - the test is in the wrong direction, while a diagnostic odds ratio of exactly one means that the test is equally likely to predict a positive outcome whatever the true condition - the test gives no information. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • From these data we have evidence that the odds of developing oral cancer is around two and a half times higher for heavy smokers compared with lighter (less than 16 per day) or non-smokers of cigarettes. (statsdirect.com)
  • Traditional meta-analytic techniques such as inverse-variance weighting can be used to combine log diagnostic odds ratios computed from a number of data sources to produce an overall diagnostic odds ratio for the test in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liang, K. Y. (1985), Odds ratio inference with dependent data. (springer.com)
  • less
  • Conversely, odds ratio values less than 1 imply that the variables x and y are more likely to disagree: records with y = 1 are more likely to have x = 0 than x = 1, and those with y = 0 are more likely to have x = 1 than x = 0. (r-bloggers.com)
  • This still means that females were at lesser odds of being eaten, as the odds ratio would have been less than 1. (statisticssolutions.com)
  • Likewise, the odds of someone with a score of 1 are inverted from there (1/2), or .5, to describe how much less likely they are to be eaten than someone with a score of 2. (statisticssolutions.com)
  • greater
  • An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates that the odds of a positive response are higher in row 1 than in row 2. (sas.com)
  • The diagnostic odds ratio ranges from zero to infinity, although for useful tests it is greater than one, and higher diagnostic odds ratios are indicative of better test performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • She finds this to be a good thing because when the odds ratio is greater than 1, it describes a positive relationship . (statisticssolutions.com)
  • This can be interpreted to mean that being in the (1) group, or being male, puts you at 5 times greater odds of being eaten. (statisticssolutions.com)
  • Statistics
  • In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the test being positive if the subject has a disease relative to the odds of the test being positive if the subject does not have the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex). (zanran.com)
  • Multivariable-adjusted odds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to body mass index (kg/m2 ) in men. (zanran.com)
  • value
  • When the row and column variables are independent, the true value of the odds ratio equals 1. (sas.com)
  • For most types of effect size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect, with the main exception being if the effect size is an odds ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same equation can be used for estimating the odds from an experimentally obtained value of the mean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Difference
  • The term effect size can refer to a standardized measure of effect (such as r, Cohen's d, or the odds ratio), or to an unstandardized measure (e.g., the difference between group means or the unstandardized regression coefficients). (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • The diagnostic odds ratio is undefined when the number of false negatives or false positives is zero - if both false negatives and false positives are zero, then the test is perfect, but if only one is, this ratio does not give a usable measure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, for each increase in deliciousness score, the odds of being eaten by a Jaws-like monstrosity increase by a factor of 2 . (statisticssolutions.com)
  • Now if the option of a red bus is introduced, a person may be indifferent between a red and a blue bus, and hence may exhibit a car : blue bus : red bus odds ratio of 1 : 0.5 : 0.5, thus maintaining a 1 : 1 ratio of car : any bus while adopting a changed car : blue bus ratio of 1 : 0.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • The PRR is defined as the ratio between the frequency with which a specific adverse event is reported for the drug of interest (relative to all adverse events reported for the drug) and the frequency with which the same adverse event is reported for all drugs in the comparison group (relative to all adverse events for drugs in the comparison group). (wikipedia.org)