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  • coronary heart d
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as coronary heart disease (CHD), occurs when the coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle) gradually become narrowed or blocked by plaque (a combination of fatty material, calcium, scar tissue, and proteins) deposits. (livingnaturally.com)
  • symptoms
  • Other symptoms that can occur with coronary artery disease include shortness of breath, palpitations (irregular heart beats or arrhythmias), a fast heartbeat (tachycardia), weakness or dizziness, nausea, and increased sweating. (livingnaturally.com)
  • A heart attack (myocardial infarction) may also occur, and the symptoms in men and women may differ. (livingnaturally.com)
  • While it produces relatively mild symptoms in taurine cattle, the Jembrana virus is particularly severe in Bali cattle where it has a fatality rate of approximately seventeen percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • As there is no antidote against bufotalin all occurring symptoms need to be treated separately or if possible in combination with others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Has 82% incidence in diagnosis cases) However, in actuality, only a small percentage of patients experience all three symptoms, and the full triad occurs more frequently among those who have overused alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the last stage others symptoms may occur: hyperthermia, increased muscle tone, spastic paralysis, choreic dyskinesias and coma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) was shown to occur even before the manifestation of DCM and heart failure symptoms in LMNA mutation carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjugates
  • Interestingly, the immature C27-bile acids in DBP and double knock-out mice remained unconjugated in juvenile mice, whereas they occurred as taurine conjugates after weaning, probably contributing to the minimal weight gain of the mice during the lactation period. (kuleuven.be)
  • bile acid
  • Because taurine has very diverse functions, notably, intracellular osmoregulation and bile acid formation, and is abundantly present in several organs, multiple pathways could be involved. (ahajournals.org)
  • supplements
  • People whose bodies cannot manufacture taurine must get it from their food or from supplements. (reference.com)
  • There is some evidence that athletic performance is improved by taking taurine supplements and that mental performance is improved with a combination of taurine and caffeine. (reference.com)
  • 1 Indeed, an increasing body of literature supports the use of taurine supplements. (ahajournals.org)
  • citation needed] Recent studies show that taurine supplements taken by mice on a high-fat diet reduced their overall weight. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Taurine is also often used in combination with bodybuilding supplements such as creatine and anabolic steroids. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Its inclusion in these supplements is a little puzzling because our research would suggest that instead of being a pick-me-up, the taurine actually would have more of a sedative effect on the brain," the scientists said [ 2 ] . (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • concentrations
  • High concentrations of taurine are found in animal sources whilst undetectable in vegetables. (ukessays.com)
  • Gliotransmission occurs because of the ability of glial cells to induce excitability with variations in Ca2+ concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • Hormonal disorders, also called endocrine disorders, are illnesses that occur when the body releases too many or too few hormones. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Heartworm Roundworm Toxoplasmosis Cytauxzoonosis Domestic cats are affected by over 250 naturally occurring hereditary disorders, many of which are similar to those in humans, such as diabetes, hemophilia and Tay-Sachs disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • caffeine
  • People have speculated that the post-Red Bull low was simply a caffeine-rebound effect, but it might also be due to the taurine content. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Current research on the interaction between taurine and caffeine, not to mention the interaction between these ingredients and alcohol, is nonexistent. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • cattle
  • Taurine is extracted from the intestines of cattle. (anabolicminds.com)
  • During the Neolithic Revolution, which occurred during the early Holocene, at least two aurochs domestication events occurred: one related to the Indian subspecies, leading to zebu cattle, and the other one related to the Eurasian subspecies, leading to taurine cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Eurasian aurochs were domesticated into modern taurine cattle breeds around the sixth millennium BC in the Middle East, and possibly also at about the same time in the Far East. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kittens
  • Cats that don't receive enough taurine may be unable to have kittens. (canalvethospital.com)
  • Kittens born to mothers with taurine deficiencies may face growth problems and might be more likely to experience bone fractures. (canalvethospital.com)
  • Until 2010 FCKS was believed to be caused by a spasm in the intercostal muscles, but new data has led to the conclusion that flattening is caused by failure of the lungs to inflate normally or, when it occurs in older kittens, by lung collapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • Taurine is named after the Latin taurus (a cognate of the Greek ταῦρος) which means bull or ox, as it was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taurine originated from the Latin word taurus, which means bull or ox, as it was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by Austrian scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin. (ukessays.com)
  • species
  • Myotonia congenita is a mutation in the genes that effects the skeletal muscles which causes a short term spasm of the muscles after you try to use them.This is a condition that occurs in many species, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfonyl
  • Such sulfonate esters are often prepared by alcoholysis of the sulfonyl chlorides: RSO2Cl + R′OH → RSO2OR′ + HCl Sulfonyl halide groups occur when a sulfonyl functional group is singly bonded to a halogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • tons
  • In 1993, about 5,000-6,000 tons of taurine were produced for commercial purposes: 50% for pet food and 50% in pharmaceutical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Taurine has been shown to reduce the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have also shown that taurine can influence (and possibly reverse) nerve blood flow, motor nerve conduction velocity, and nerve sensory threshold defects in experimental diabetic neuropathic rats. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Recent animal studies have shown that taurine restores cardiac functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also the zebu bull on the reverse is often shown with a nandipada taurine mark on its hump on the less-worn coins, which reinforces the role of the animal as a symbol, religious or geographic, rather than just the depiction of an animal for decorative purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • motor nerve
  • Besides the central nervous system, gliotransmission also occurs among motor nerve terminals and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycine
  • The receptor can be activated by a range of simple amino acids including glycine, β-alanine and taurine, and can be selectively blocked by the high-affinity competitive antagonist strychnine. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Alanine D-Alanine D-Serine Glycine Hypotaurine L-Alanine L-Proline L-Serine Milacemide Quisqualamine Sarcosine Taurine Ethanol Bicuculline Brucine Caffeine Picrotoxin Strychnine Tutin Lynch JW (October 2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] DHA modulates the carrier-mediated transport of choline, glycine, and taurine, the function of delayed rectifier potassium channels, and the response of rhodopsin contained in the synaptic vesicles, among many other functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like taurine, it also acts as an endogenous neurotransmitter via action on the glycine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugation with taurine (to give tauro-murocholic acids) or glycine (to give gly-murocholic acids) takes place in the liver before secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Children with William syndrome appear to have eating/food disorders frequently develop during adolescence or early adulthood, but some reports indicate their onset can occur during childhood or later in adulthood. (blogspot.com)
  • While myotonic dystrophy can occur at any age, onset is typically in the 20s and 30s. (wikipedia.org)
  • arginine
  • On a whole-body basis, synthesis of arginine occurs principally via the intestinal-renal axis: the epithelial cells of the small intestine produce citrulline, primarily from glutamine and glutamate, which is carried in the bloodstream to the proximal tubule cells of the kidney, which extract citrulline from the circulation and convert it to arginine, which is returned to the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of arginine from citrulline also occurs at a low level in many other cells, and cellular capacity for arginine synthesis can be markedly increased under circumstances that increase the production of inducible NOS (iNOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Nevertheless, some exceptions can occur in the central nervous system where the GlyR α1 subunit and gephyrin, its anchoring protein, are not found in dorsal root ganglion neurons despite the presence of GABAA receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • central
  • Edema in peripheral areas of the retina goes unnoticed by the patient and may go untreated, whereas edema occurring in the central retina (macula) causes noticeably decreased vision and is the primary cause of vision loss in nonproliferative disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • hemorrhagic retinopathy retinopathy marked by profuse hemorrhaging in the retina, occurring in diabetes, occlusion of the central vein, and hypertension. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • pain
  • Such hip pain occurs in young women and young men who place stress on their hips with sports (especially in dancers, hurdlers or baseball catchers) because these individuals' activities involve the hip moving beyond its normal constraints. (healthcanal.com)
  • Pain if it occurs may be treated with tricyclic antidepressants and nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (wikipedia.org)