• RNAi
  • We have led the way in the development of what has been hailed as a major breakthrough in molecular biology: silencing gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi). (www.csiro.au)
  • CSIRO's RNAi gene silencing technology is enabling researchers around the world to protect plants and animals from diseases, and to develop new plant varieties with beneficial attributes. (www.csiro.au)
  • What is RNAi gene silencing? (www.csiro.au)
  • Because of its effect on RNA, gene silencing is also referred to as RNA interference (RNAi). (www.csiro.au)
  • RNAi gene silencing technology has enabled scientists to develop a safflower seed oil that contains more than 90 per cent oleic acid, a valuable fatty acid for industrial applications. (www.csiro.au)
  • CSIRO's RNAi technology adapts this naturally occurring process to provide a targeted and specific method of altering gene activity. (www.csiro.au)
  • CSIRO's RNAi technology can target individual genes, even among a family of closely related genes. (www.csiro.au)
  • RNAi technology can be used to identify which genes are responsible for particular traits so that breeders can produce non-genetically modified plants. (www.csiro.au)
  • RNAi is a natural mechanism that the body uses to inhibit expression of certain genes. (corporate-ir.net)
  • RNAi (RNA interference) is a revolution in biology, representing a breakthrough in understanding how genes are turned on and off in cells, and a completely new approach to drug discovery and development. (corporate-ir.net)
  • ALNY ) , a leading RNAi therapeutics company, announced today that it has completed enrollment in its Phase II trial with ALN-TTR02, an RNAi therapeutic targeting the transthyretin (TTR) gene for the treatment of TTR-mediated amyloidosis (ATTR). (aol.com)
  • ALN-PCS is a systemically delivered RNAi therapeutic targeting the gene proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, or PCSK9, a target validated by human genetics that is involved in the metabolism of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc, or "bad" cholesterol). (corporate-ir.net)
  • a poster titled "An RNAi-Therapeutic Targeting Tmprss6, in Conjunction With Oral Chelator Therapy, Ameliorates Anemia and Additively Diminishes Secondary Iron Overload In a Mouse Model Of β-Thalassemia Intermedia" in the Thalassemia and Globin Gene Regulation Poster I session being held on Saturday, December 7 from 5:30 p.m. - 7:30 p.m. (thestreet.com)
  • a poster titled "A Subcutaneously Administered RNAi Therapeutic Targeting Tmprss6 For The Treatment Of β-Thalassemia" in the Thalassemia and Globin Gene Regulation Poster II session being held on Sunday, December 8 from 6:30 p.m. - 8:30 p.m. (thestreet.com)
  • RNAi is a natural process of gene silencing that occurs in organisms ranging from plants to mammals. (thestreet.com)
  • By harnessing the natural biological process of RNAi occurring in our cells, the creation of a major new class of medicines, known as RNAi therapeutics, is on the horizon. (thestreet.com)
  • organism
  • The organism is considered opportunistic insofar as serious infection often occurs during existing diseases or conditions - most notably cystic fibrosis and traumatic burns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditionally animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is much faster, can be used to insert any genes from any organism (even ones from different domains) and prevents other undesirable genes from also being added. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, zygotic transcription of Vasa occurs at pole cells, and stays germ-line specific throughout the life of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • The "complexity hypothesis" is a different approach to understanding why informational genes have less success in being transferred than operational genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis incorporates the "continual hypothesis", which states that horizontal gene transfer is constantly occurring in operational genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cholodny-Went hypothesis, developed in the early 20th century, predicts that in the presence of asymmetric light, auxin will move towards the shaded side and promote elongation of the cells on that side to cause the plant to curve towards the light source. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic-resistance
  • Genetically engineered oilseed rape, black mustard, thorn-apple and sweet peas all containing an antibiotic-resistance gene were grown together with the fungus Aspergillus niger or their leaves were added to the soil. (dhushara.com)
  • The fungus was shown to have incorporated the antibiotic-resistance gene in all co-culture experiments (Hoffmann T, Golz C & Schieder O (1994) Foreign DNA sequences are received by a wild-type strain of Aspergillus niger after co-culture with transgenic higher plants. (dhushara.com)
  • A transposable element (TE) (also called a transposon or jumping gene) is a mobile segment of DNA that can sometimes pick up a resistance gene and insert it into a plasmid or chromosome, thereby inducing horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • But Dorfler and his student Rainer Schubbert found that when they fed a bacterial virus called M13 to a mouse, sections of its genetic material, about 700 DNA 'letters' long -- large enough to contain a gene -- survived to emerge in faeces. (dhushara.com)
  • Introduced in 1996, the genetic engineering of plants and animals today looms as one of the greatest and most intractable environmental challenges of the 21st Century. (downtoearth.org)
  • Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genetic material between individuals in the plant and fungus kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, while the pattern of gene expression is the same as in the population case, the genetic means by which this pattern is achieved are very different. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as producing hormones, vaccines and other drugs genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering could potentially fix severe genetic disorders in humans by replacing the defective gene with a functioning one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gynodioecy occurs as a result of a genetic mutation that inhibits a hermaphroditic plant from producing pollen, while keeping the female reproductive parts intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gynodioecy is determined as a result of a genetic mutation that stops a plant from producing pollen, but still allows normal female reproductive features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene duplications can arise as products of several types of errors in DNA replication and repair machinery as well as through fortuitous capture by selfish genetic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Mutational analysis of RPS2 protein and in vitro translation/translocation studies indicated that RPS2 protein is localized in the plant cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • FAM210B is a gene that which in Homo sapiens encodes the protein FAM210B. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is 9,749 bases in length, corresponding to a 192 amino acid protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This motif also is present in the tobacco kinesin-like protein gene NACK1 , which is expressed with timing similar to that of B-type cyclin genes. (plantcell.org)
  • A decrease in spleen volume, likely an on-target anti-kinesin spindle protein (KSP) effect based on pre-clinical findings and not associated with any adverse events, occurred to a greater degree on the extension study than in the Phase I trial and was most pronounced in patients receiving 12 or more doses. (corporate-ir.net)
  • From the phylogenetic analysis, horizontal gene transfer events could have contributed to the L-fucose permease sugar transporter, zinc binding alcohol dehydrogenase, membrane transporter, phospholipase/carboxylesterase, iucA/iucC family protein in siderophore biosynthesis, DUF239 domain protein, phosphate-response 1 family protein, a hypothetical protein similar to zinc finger (C2H2-type) protein, and another conserver hypothetical protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels of mRNA and protein present in the plant were dependent upon the age of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The following image contains the gene expression of FAM210B in patients with dengue fever or those who are convalescent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following image contains the gene expression of FAM210B in patients with severe bacterial pneumonia, severe influenza, and those who received the influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • PEV is a position effect because the change in position of a gene from its original position to somewhere near a heterochromatic region has an effect on its expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect is the variegation in a particular phenotype i.e., the appearance of irregular patches of different colour(s), due to the expression of the original wild-type gene in some cells of the tissue but not in others, as seen in the eye of mutated Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • From yeast to humans, progression through the cell cycle is associated with the phase-specific transcription of defined sets of genes ( McKinney and Heintz, 1991 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vasa gene, is essential for germ cell development and was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster, but has since been found to be conserved in a variety of vertebrates and invertebrates including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • Caltha palustris is a 10-80 cm high, hairless, fleshy, perennial, herbaceous plant, that dies down in autumn and overwinters with buds near the surface of the marshy soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Horizontal gene transfer could bypass eukaryotic barrier features like linear chromatin-based chromosomes, intron-exon gene structures, and the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Normally, the white gene is expressed in every cell of the adult Drosophila eye resulting in a red-eye phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vasa gene is a member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases in Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other post-translational modification includes phosphorylation of the Vasa ortholog in C. elegans, and arginine methylation in a conserved region of mice, Xenopus and Drosophila Vasa genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • These differences can lead to the loss of ability to interbreed between separated populations at a faster rate than other methods of speciation, given the relative speed with which genes are silenced following a polyploid event. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second scenario, known as epidemic dynamics, involves the arrival and loss of new cytoplasmic male sterility genes in new populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are the same genes that invade hermaphrodite populations and eventually result in gynodioecy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • We propose that molecular recognition of P. syringae in RPS2- and RPM1-specified resistance occurs inside of plant cells. (nih.gov)
  • It holds tremendous promise as a therapeutic agent to control disease and prevent infection in plant and animal cells and has been adopted by research and biotechnology laboratories around the world. (www.csiro.au)
  • Pubmed ID: 12554708 Triple-barrelled microelectrodes measuring K(+) activity (a(K)), pH and membrane potential were used to make quantitative measurements of vacuolar and cytosolic a(K) in epidermal and mesophyll cells of barley plants grown in nutrient solution with 0 or 200 mM added NaCl. (jove.com)
  • During the G1-to-S transition, a set of specific genes are induced, including G1 cyclin genes and several genes involved in DNA synthesis in yeast ( Koch and Nasmyth, 1994 ), animal ( Müller, 1995 ), and plant cells ( Ito, 1998 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Ramirez-Parra and Gutierrez, 2000 ) supports the idea that plants have evolved a mechanism for G1/S-phase-specific transcription that relies on genes analogous to those acting in animal cells. (plantcell.org)
  • One major difference is the totipotent nature of plant cells, allowing them to reproduce asexually much more easily than most animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the w[mmutant, the eye color was variegated (red-white mosaic colored) where the white gene was expressed in some cells in the eyes and not in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells on the plant that are farthest from the light have a chemical called auxin that reacts when phototropism occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes the plant to have elongated cells on the farthest side from the light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auxins activate proton pumps, decreasing the pH in the cells on the dark side of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • neofunctionalization
  • This is an example of neofunctionalization, a process where duplicated genes that were once at equivalent loci evolve to carry out two separate functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer research often focuses on prokaryotes because of the abundant sequence data from diverse lineages, and because it is assumed not to play a significant role in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant-fungus interactions could play a part in a multi-horizontal gene transfer pathway among many other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer occurs between microorganisms sharing overlapping ecological niches and associations like parasitism or symbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer could take place during plant infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that the shikimate pathway and the pentafunctional arom have their ancient origins in eukaryotes or were conveyed by eukaryote-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • RPS2 and RPM1 confer resistance to strains of the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae carrying the avirulence genes avrRpt2 and avrB, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In these gene-for-gene relationships, it has been proposed that pathogen avirulence genes generate specific ligands that are recognized by cognate receptors encoded by the corresponding plant resistance genes. (nih.gov)
  • This observation indicates that no bacterial factors other than the avirulence gene products are required for the specific resistance response as long as the avirulence gene products are correctly localized. (nih.gov)
  • phenotype
  • pin3 mutants had shorter hypocotyls and roots than the wild-type, and the same phenotype was seen in plants grown with auxin efflux inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Duplications arise from an event termed unequal crossing-over that occurs during meiosis between misaligned homologous chromosomes.The chance of this happening is a function of the degree of sharing of repetitive elements between two chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiology
  • Single-cell Measurements of the Contributions of Cytosolic Na(+) and K(+) to Salt Tolerance Plant Physiology. (jove.com)
  • Differences between plant and animal physiology and reproduction cause minor differences in how they evolve. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Individual countries have developed their own regulatory systems regarding GMOs, with the most marked differences occurring between the USA and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • For example, jasmonic acid can be used to simulate an herbivore attack on plants and thus, induce plant defences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, as the rate of inbreeding increases in a population, the more likely gynodioecy is to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic
  • A greater genomic inventory of gene family and taxon sampling has been identified as a desirable prerequisite for identifying further plant-fungus events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recurrent genomic evolution can also occur within a lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • In their youth the leaves are protected by a membranous sheath, that may be up to 3 cm long in fully grown plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • For example, variegation can be induced in a gene located several megabases from the heterochromatin-euchromatin breakpoint due to rearrangements in that breakpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several signaling molecules that help the plant determine where the light source is coming from which helps the plant, and this activates several genes, which change the hormone gradients allowing the plant to grow towards the light. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several genes involved in plant phototropism including the NPH1 and NPL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecological
  • Ecological cost results from the disruption of the many symbiotic relationships that a plant has with the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Faster
  • This is particularly the case for defensive chemicals containing nitrogen (e.g. alkaloids) as if the plant is not being attacked it is able to divert more nitrogen to producing rubisco and will therefore be able to grow faster and produce more seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Important in homeotic regulation in plants and in immediate-early development in animals [ PMID: 10805792 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • farmers
  • Viruses are a significant problem in many of Australia's crop plants, so having virus-resistant plants can mean many benefits to farmers, the environment and the economy. (www.csiro.au)
  • biological
  • Inducible defences are advantageous as they reduce the metabolic load on the plant in conditions where such biological chemicals are not yet necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • SRF function is essential for transcriptional regulation of numerous growth-factor-inducible genes, such as c-fos oncogene and muscle-specific actin genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we show that G2/M-phase-specific activation of the NACK1 promoter also is regulated by the MSA element, suggesting that a defined set of G2/M-phase-specific genes are coregulated by an MSA-mediated mechanism. (plantcell.org)
  • In addition to constitutive defenses, initiation of specific defense responses to herbivory is an important strategy for plant persistence and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an important tool in research that allows the function of specific genes to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • correctly
  • If one copy of a gene experiences a mutation that affects its original function, the second copy can serve as a 'spare part' and continue to function correctly. (wikipedia.org)