• embryonic
  • In particular, it analyzes how far public opinion is informed about stem cells, expectations and reservations regarding research with embryonic stem cells and differences in support for such research depending on the origin of the embryos used. (innovations-report.com)
  • Debate and regulations regarding research with embryonic stem cells try to weigh up the medical benefits that may be obtained in future (the end pursued) against the moral reservations felt about this kind of research (the means utilized). (innovations-report.com)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike previous attempts to clone monkeys, the donated nuclei came from fetal cells, not embryonic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While we understand and respect the sincerely held beliefs of those who oppose this research, we are equally sincere in our belief that the life-and-death medical needs of countless suffering children and adults justifies moving forward with this research," Summers said, referring to the controversy over embryonic stem cell work. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Research involving human embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells - which can differentiate into any cell or tissue type in the body - requires the destruction of a human embryo, albeit a blastocyst of only a few hundred cells, literally half the size of the period at the end of this sentence. (rxpgnews.com)
  • We feel that the development of disease-specific human embryonic stem cell lines from individuals suffering from genetic forms of neurodegenerative disorders will stimulate both basic research and the development of new treatments for devastating brain diseases," Dr. Stephen Minger, of the stem cell biology laboratory at King's College London, said in a release. (bionity.com)
  • It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as 'therapeutic cloning. (bootstrike.com)
  • Researchers hope the procedure, which involved injecting 100,000 human embryonic stem cells into two-week-old mice embryos, will lead to the creation of better animal models for human neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's. (seedmagazine.com)
  • What is however important to recognize is that both human cloning and cloning human beings raise important ethical questions, as whether stem cells needed for cloning of human parts leads to the dilemma if research on embryonic stem cells is embryo research that comes under the congressional ban. (hubpages.com)
  • Research advances are making all cells 'embryonic,' "ACT Vice President Robert Lanza explained to U.S. News . (slate.com)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oocyte can reprogram an adult nucleus into an embryonic state after somatic cell nuclear transfer, so that a new organism can be developed from such cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During somatic cell nuclear transfer, the oocyte turns off tissue specific genes in the Somatic cell nucleus and turns back on embryonic specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's team reported that they had created cells similar to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a major step toward someday possibly defusing the central objection to stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries sparked extensive debate in the United States Congress, with opponents of the use of embryonic stem cells from fetuses arguing that these or similar methods of creating stem cells from skin might be eventually used instead to satisfy the conflicting demands of medical research and morals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan himself is cautious about his team's work, with an early stage 2005 profile in Nature noting there was still much work to do: The hybrids still contain two nuclei: one from a skin cell and one from an embryonic stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the inner cell mass (embryoblast), which are known as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), will further differentiate to form four structures: the amnion, the yolk sac, the allantois, and the embryo itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • early embryo
  • In this technique, nuclei from cells of an early embryo are extracted using a very fine glass pipette and placed in egg cells that have been shed by a female amphibian such as a frog (after removing the unfertilized egg cell nucleus). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Play media In C. elegans, a series of asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo are critical in setting up the anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral, and left/right axes of the body plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the appearance of the blastocoele. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro fertilization
  • The oocytes used in the study were abnormally fertilized embryos generated during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments that would have otherwise been discarded, but, to be approved for clinical use, the technique would have be tested in healthy embryos, researchers say. (the-scientist.com)
  • Melton, in collaboration with Kevin Eggan and Douglas Powers of Boston IVF , has already created 31 stem cell lines using left-over frozen embryos donated by couples who went through in vitro fertilization (IVF), and has distributed those stem cell lines to scientists around the world. (rxpgnews.com)
  • scientists
  • In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is followed by a consideration of another area of administration policy criticized by the Union of Concerned Scientists: stem cell research and therapeutic cloning. (vt.edu)
  • The proposals only allow the creation of hybrids for research into serious diseases and scientists would require a licence. (newscientist.com)
  • I think it is an important step for UK science and for research in general, and will give British scientists an edge over their competitors in more restrictive countries. (newscientist.com)
  • More than 150 animal-human hybrid embryos have been created by scientists working in British laboratories over the past three years. (christian.org.uk)
  • Creation scientists countered--as they did with other alleged vestigial organs and tissues--that just because we don't know the function at the present, that doesn't mean the DNA doesn't have some important function. (icr.org)
  • Scientists have also done extensive research into the combination of genes from different species, e.g. adding human (and other animal) genes to bacteria and farm animals to mass-produce insulin and spider silk proteins . (bionity.com)
  • The scientists said the hybrid human-bovine embryos could prove useful in pursuing treatments to prevent Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's, as well as spinal cord injuries, diabetes and arthritis. (bionity.com)
  • sperm
  • After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the sperm fertilizes the egg, the sperm nucleus and centrosomes are deposited within the egg, which causes a cytoplasmic flux resulting in the movement of the sperm pronucleus and centrosomes towards one pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosomes deposited by the sperm seem to be responsible for the establishment of the posterior pole within the one cell embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Cells also contain introns, non-coding sections of DNA that are spliced out of the messenger RNA (mRNA) strand before it leaves the nucleus of a cell to become translated in the cytoplasm. (icr.org)
  • In many animals such as Drosophila and Xenopus, the mid blastula transition (MBT) is a crucial step in development during which the maternal mRNA is degraded and control over development is passed to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many organisms the development of the embryo up to this point and for the early part of the blastula stage is controlled by maternal mRNA, so called because it was produced in the egg prior to fertilization and is therefore exclusively from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two processes shift the control of the embryo from the maternal mRNA to the nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • They extracted nuclei from the fibroblasts of an aborted fetal monkey (a crab-eating macaque or Macaca fascicularis) and inserted them into egg cells (ova) that had had their own nuclei removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • This scientific research counters the evolutionary assumption that many repetitive TEs in the human genome are useless. (icr.org)
  • citation needed] The word is a portmanteau of embryo and genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • To achieve this goal, clinical scientist linkurl:Doug Turnbull;http://www.cnmd.ac.uk/researchgroups/dougturnbull and his colleagues at Newcastle University in the UK transplanted the nuclei from one human oocyte (termed pronuclei) into an oocyte whose pronuclei had been removed. (the-scientist.com)
  • The resulting embryos, which contained predominately mtDNA from the recipient oocyte, were then raised in culture for about a week. (the-scientist.com)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Attention also goes to the attitudes held on the creation of hybrid embryos for stem cell research. (innovations-report.com)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryos developed to the approximately 100-cell stage that forms after about four days of development. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Revisions to canonical name assignment allow for the free orientation of embryos in 3-dimensional space and an entirely new 3-dimensional viewing window provides a new suite of methods for exploring cell positions. (springer.com)
  • Hybrids made by taking animal egg cells (from a cow, for example), removing its nucleus and replacing it with the nucleus from a human cell are an extremely useful research tool for investigating a range of diseases, including Parkinson's. (newscientist.com)
  • These are different from adult stem cell treatments which do not involve the destruction of human embryos. (christian.org.uk)
  • This includes the creation of 'cybrids' in which a human nucleus is implanted into an animal cell. (christian.org.uk)
  • in Developmental Cell , 2004 7: 'Junk' DNA may be very valuable to embryos . (icr.org)
  • Restrictions on cloning and stem cell research makes chimera research a more attractive alternative in some researchers' eyes. (bionity.com)
  • The only bovine element would be found in DNA outside the nucleus of the cell. (bionity.com)
  • At the same time, the nucleus of an egg cell is removed. (bootstrike.com)
  • Dolly was the first mammal created using the nucleus from a cell of a mature adult mammal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The technique involved transplanting the nucleus from an undifferentiated cell of one sheep into the egg of another sheep from which nucleus had been removed. (hubpages.com)
  • The resulting egg cell was tricked into acting like an embryo, dividing and becoming all the differentiated cells of a new individual. (hubpages.com)
  • Last weekend, Michael West, the CEO of Advanced Cell Technology, announced that his company had created the first cloned human embryo. (slate.com)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the production of stem cells for biomedical research, such as research into stem cell therapies, without the use of embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • After fertilization, events are already occurring in the one cell stage embryo to allow for the first asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kevin Eggan (born 1974 in Normal, Illinois) is a Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard University, known for his work in stem cell research (also known as "therapeutic cloning"), and as a spokesperson for stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan began to explore both this process and also the reasons that cloned animals often appeared to develop abnormally, with organ defects and immunological problems - his first contact with stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, stem cell research in the United States was threatened by political pressure due to concerns over the ethics of human embryo research, and research such as this was at risk of potentially being made illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal funding for stem cell research had recently been removed, and part of his role was to obtain private funding to replace it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's work as of 2007[update] has succeeded in developing a technique of merging stem and skin cells that has obtained considerable public attention as a possible avenue to avoid moral objections regarding stem cell research in the context of serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • It suggests that ultimately, treatment of serious illnesses and understanding of stem cell development may be possible to obtain without recourse to human embryos - a highly desirable state of affairs politically, given the concurrent controversy over stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Margaret Adaline Reed Lewis (1881-1970) was an American cell biologist and embryologist who made contributions to cancer research and cell culture techniques, and was likely the first person to successfully grow mammalian tissue in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1908, Margaret Reed researched in Berlin in Max Hartmann's lab where she performed probably the first in vitro mammalian cell culture with guinea pig bone marrow by explanting the bone marrow and placing it into a nutrient-rich agar produced by fellow lab researcher Rhoda Erdmann and incubating the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the Lewises main interest was microscopic cell structures, their objective was to create optically clear media, which led to the creation of the Locke-Lewis solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, this couple's greatest impact on embryology and cell biology in the twentieth century was teaching later generations of biologists the basic factors involved in tissue culture based on what they had learned from their research. (wikipedia.org)
  • With so many avenues opened by cell culture to explore, Margaret Lewis and her husband diverged in their area of study, with Margaret Lewis choosing to focus on microbiological problems, which involved close observations of chick embryo intestines reacting to typhoid bacilli in the medium in which it was grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell type may be determined according to several criteria: location in the developing embryo, gene expression as indicated by protein and nucleic acid markers and surface antigens, and also position on the embryogenic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell markers consist of select RNAs and proteins present inside, and surface antigens present on the surface of, the cells making up the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an embryo develops from a fertilized egg, the single egg cell splits into many cells, which grow in number and migrate to the appropriate locations inside the embryo at appropriate times during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of embryogenesis can be described with the aid of two maps: an embryo map, a temporal sequence of 3-dimensional images of the developing embryo, showing the location of cells of the many cell types present in the embryo at a given time, and an embryogenic tree, a diagram showing how the cell types are derived from each other during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryogenic tree is a diagram which shows the temporal development of each of the cell lines in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, instead of each branch on this tree representing a species, as in the tree of life, each branch represents a particular cell type present in the embryo at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Eggan's research goals at Harvard were to understand how nuclear transplantation works, and to make stem cells that carry genes for specific diseases such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Alzheimer's. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSCI
  • In the HSCI experiments, aimed at understanding diseases, the nuclei will be taken from skin cells donated by patients suffering from diabetes, blood diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Bryn Mawr
  • At Bryn Mawr and Columbia she researched regeneration in amphibians and crayfish, and assisted noted embryologist Thomas Hunt Morgan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morgan received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in zoology in 1890 and researched embryology during his tenure at Bryn Mawr. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethically
  • Critics have questioned the need for such controversial research warning that it "discredits us as a country" because it cannot be ethically justified. (christian.org.uk)
  • genetic
  • In embryos, we do have the genetic make up of a complete human being and we could not and should not be spliced together with the animal kingdom. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • At about 10.30 last night, MPs voted against a bill will would have banned the creation of 'saviour siblings - babies born from embryos selected because they are a tissue match for a sick older brother or sister with a genetic condition. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • Since the Act's introduction, 155 'admixed' embryos, containing both human and animal genetic material, have been created. (christian.org.uk)
  • 1996
  • While this was tried many times, it was never successfully accomplished until 1996, in the creation of the sheep Dolly by Ian Wilmut and colleagues in Scotland . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Wilmut was the leader of the research group that in 1996 first cloned a mammal, a lamb named Dolly. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Refining their technique, the researchers were able to limit the amount of mitochondrial transfer, creating manipulated embryos with less than 2 percent donor mitochondria, "which we felt was a significant breakthrough in this area," Turnbull said. (the-scientist.com)
  • The problem with the Nazi research is that some of it was genuinely useful, as far as I understand - for example data gathered from experiments on the effects of extreme cold on bodies by the Nazis was used by Canadian researchers many years later. (newscientist.com)
  • involves
  • The term is sometimes used to sensationalize research that involves mixing biological materials from humans and other species. (bionity.com)
  • zygote
  • When this is done the cytoplasmic factors effect the nucleus to become a zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are initially distributed uniformly throughout the zygote and then become polarized with the creation of the posterior pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • stage
  • A wave of methylation then takes place during the implantation stage of the embryo, with CpG islands protected from methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • manipulation
  • In vitro manipulation of pre-implantation embryos has been shown to disrupt methylation patterns at imprinted loci and plays a crucial role in cloned animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical
  • While there is revulsion in some quarters that such creations appear to blur the distinction between animals and humans, it could be argued that they are less human than, and therefore pose fewer ethical problems for research than fully human embryos, the committee wrote. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Being against the release of horrific NAZI research done on unwilling human subjects doesn't make one anti-science and neither does having a higher ethical standard. (newscientist.com)
  • tissues
  • The other meaning of human cloning is the creation of human tissues of varying kinds such as skin, bone marrow, organs etc for the purposes of transplantation. (hubpages.com)
  • In her work with chick embryos, Margaret Lewis studied connective tissue formation within the tissues as well as outside of an environment where factors involved in coagulation are present. (wikipedia.org)