• complementary
  • The nucleic acid shell gives the conjugate unique, programmable chemical and biological recognition abilities that offer greater binding strengths and higher duplex stabilities compared to the same sequence of linear DNA, cooperative melting behavior with DNA strands of a complementary sequence, and enhanced cellular uptake without the use of transfection agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • In addition to the recombinant DNA field, the analytical hybridization technique can be applied to the detection of polynucleotides of importance in the fields of human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, and food science, among others. (google.ca)
  • Nucleic acid sequence variations have been implicated in many diseases, and reliable detection and quantitation of DNA/RNA biomarkers can inform effective therapeutic action, enabling precision medicine. (rice.edu)
  • strands
  • A dense nucleic acid loading was achieved through a series of salt additions, in which positively charged counterions were used to reduce electrostatic repulsion between adjacent negatively charged DNA strands and thereby enable more efficient DNA packing onto the nanoparticle surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • One- and two-dimensional forms of nucleic acids (e.g., single strands, linear duplexes, and plasmids) are important biological machinery for the storage and transmission of genetic information (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • MAGIChips, also known as "microarrays of gel-immobilized compounds on a chip" or "three-dimensional DNA microarrays", are devices for molecular hybridization produced by immobilizing oligonucleotides, DNA, enzymes, antibodies, and other compounds on a photopolymerized micromatrix of polyacrylamide gel pads of 100x100x20µm or smaller size. (wikipedia.org)
  • microarray
  • Several approaches, such as microarray hybridization, have become extremely popular tools for specialists in biochemistry and biomedicine, while the potential of many other advantageous techniques seems to be underestimated. (indigo.ca)
  • gene
  • The unique arrangement and orientation of one-dimensional linear nucleic acids within this three-dimensional framework results in fundamentally new chemical, biological, and physical properties, which represent a paradigm shift in the use of nucleic acids for intracellular gene regulation, molecular diagnostics, and materials synthesis applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is part of the team which holds the United States patent for "Methods of detecting cystic fibrosis gene by nucleic acid hybridization" , filed in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • The tRNA has a side consisting of the anticodon, a three-base code that matches up with a portion of the mRNA molecule called the codon, a series of three bases that stand for an amino acid. (reference.com)
  • The tRNA leaves behind the amino acid it was carrying. (reference.com)
  • The tRNA molecule then goes to find another amino acid. (reference.com)
  • Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, amino acid substitutions that change the electric charge of the enzyme (such as replacing aspartic acid with glutamic acid) are simple to identify by gel electrophoresis, and this forms the basis for the use of isozymes as molecular markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular biology
  • DNA replication and transcription of DNA into RNA both rely upon nucleotide hybridization, as do molecular biology techniques including Southern blots and Northern blots, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and most approaches to DNA sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Nucleic acid fragments have been obtained from the genome of mycobacteria, and applications of the nucleic acid fragments in the diagnosis of mycobacterial infections are described. (google.com)
  • 11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the non-radioactively labelled fragments are present in the hybridization fluid at a concentration of not less than 0.2 μg/ml. (google.com)
  • whereas
  • Immunocytochemistry is a practical procedure for rapid specific diagnosis of liver stored for months, whereas RNA-RNA hybridization is a sensitive technique which can be applied to material stored for years. (ajtmh.org)
  • Furthermore, DNA origami uses DNA hybridization interactions to realize a final structure, whereas SNAs and other forms of three-dimensional nucleic acids (structures templated with a triangular prism, rod, octahedra, or rhombic dodecadhedra-shaped nanoparticles) utilize the nanoparticle core to arrange the linear nucleic acid components into functional forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein before step(b) the resulting immobilized hybridized nucleic acids from the test medium are separated from the remainder of the reaction mixture. (google.ca)
  • 13. The method according to claim 3, wherein the fixative is a mixture of methanol and acetic acid in a 3:1 volumetric ratio. (google.com)
  • different
  • This polyvalency, along with the high density and degree of orientation described above, helps to explain why a three-dimensional nucleic acid structure fundamentally composed of linear, one-dimensional nucleic acids exhibits dramatically different properties than its lower-dimensional constituents (Fig. 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • The inorganic nanoparticle core (in addition to gold, silver, iron oxide, silica, and semiconductor materials have also been used) serves two purposes: 1) it imparts upon the conjugate novel physical and chemical properties (e.g. plasmonic, catalytic, magnetic, luminescent), and 2) it acts as a scaffold for the assembly and orientation of nucleic acids into the dense arrangement that gives rise to many of their functional properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the SNA structure can be synthesized independent of nucleic acid sequence and hybridization, instead relying upon robust chemical bond formation between nanoparticles and nucleic acid adsorbates. (wikipedia.org)
  • highly
  • Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) - defined as structures that are an arrangement of densely packed, highly oriented nucleic acids in a spherical geometry - were first introduced in 1996 by the Mirkin group at Northwestern University. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • This mycobacterium species was first described as a pathogen of field voles in England Gram-positive, nonmotile, acid-fast rods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Properties
  • Hybridization Biosensors Relying on Electrical Properties. (au.dk)
  • Two decades of research on SNAs have revealed that they exhibit a synergistic combination of properties resulting from the inorganic core and the nucleic acid shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work underscores one of the fundamental features of SNAs: the properties of these nanomaterials are core-independent, derived from the orientation and packing of the nucleic acid shell. (wikipedia.org)