• NASBA
  • A minimum amount of 10 pg of total RNA was shown to be sufficient for the detection of the reference parameter RPS18, which demonstrates that the detection limit of the microarray-based NASBA assays theoretically allows single-cell assays to be performed. (ebscohost.com)
  • Molecular methods are available in some clinical laboratories and rapid real-time assays (for example, QT-NASBA based on the polymerase chain reaction) are being developed with the hope of being able to deploy them in endemic areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostics
  • The subject devices find use in a variety of electrophoretic applications, including clinical assays, high throughput screening for genomics and pharmaceutical applications, point-or-care in vitro diagnostics, molecular genetic analysis and nucleic acid diagnostics, cell separations, and bioresearch generally. (google.com)
  • He did post-doctoral research on natural products with anti-viral properties in the USA and Hong Kong, and has published peer reviewed scientific articles on HIV-1 inhibition, novel nucleic acid based diagnostics for avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • There are multiple methods that fall in this group, including: Methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, nucleic acid design has the advantage of being a much computationally simpler problem, since the simplicity of Watson-Crick base pairing rules leads to simple heuristic methods which yield experimentally robust designs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heuristic methods use simple criteria which can be quickly evaluated to judge the suitability of different sequences for a given secondary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several assembly methods are used to make these structures, including tile-based structures that assemble from smaller structures, folding structures using the DNA origami method, and dynamically reconfigurable structures using strand displacement methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other methods of causation are described by the Bradford Hill criteria and Evidence-based medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • thymine
  • Because cytosine / guanine base-pairing is generally stronger than adenine / thymine base-pairing, the amount of cytosine and guanine in a genome (called the "GC content") can be estimated by measuring the temperature at which the genomic DNA melts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the canonical Watson-Crick base pairing, adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T) and guanine (G) forms one with cytosine (C) in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil (U). Alternate hydrogen bonding patterns, such as the wobble base pair and Hoogsteen base pair, also occur-particularly in RNA-giving rise to complex and functional tertiary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanotechnology
  • Nucleic acid design is central to the fields of DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural DNA nanotechnology, sometimes abbreviated as SDN, focuses on synthesizing and characterizing nucleic acid complexes and materials that assemble into a static, equilibrium end state. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, dynamic DNA nanotechnology focuses on complexes with useful non-equilibrium behavior such as the ability to reconfigure based on a chemical or physical stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexes constructed in structural DNA nanotechnology use topologically branched nucleic acid structures containing junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleoside
  • These nucleoside triphosphates possess a non-canonical sugar, dideoxyribose, which lacks the 3' hydroxyl group normally present in DNA and therefore cannot bond with the next base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its formation can be associated with a reaction with an allylamine and various reagents via heck coupling are able to remove the halogen group from the base and add the allylamine to become the aminoallyl nucleoside shown on the right. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • iv) The self-assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures (nanowires, strips, nanotubes) allows the programmed positioning of proteins on the DNA templates and the activation of enzyme cascades. (springer.com)
  • However, nucleic acid structures are less versatile than proteins in their functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymers
  • Combining synthetic polymers with protein-inspired chemistry and DNA sequences allows the formation of soft gels, held together by DNA base pairing and disulfide links, which in turn allow recognition of DNA or RNA sequences and an amplified response as the gel swells. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • nucleotide
  • Aminoallyl nucleotide is a nucleotide with a modified base containing an allylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary amine on the aminoallyl nucleotide reacts with amino-reactive dyes such as a cyanine and patented dyes which contain a reactive leaving group, such as a succinimidyl ester (NHS).The amine groups directly attached to the ring of the base are not affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although direct labeling of dNTP is the quickest and cheapest method of fluorescent labeling, it is disadvantageous as the sequence allows for only one modified nucleotide for use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleic acid double helix is a spiral polymer, usually right-handed, containing two nucleotide strands which base pair together. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • The method includes the step of discriminating base-specific labels of heavy elements using a magnified image of elongated single-chain DNA or RNA produced by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for determining the base sequence of a DNA or the like of biological or non-biological origin and, more particularly, to a so-called ultrahigh-speed DNA sequencer used to sequence the bases of DNA or the like at high speed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the calculation for an expected exon signal is based upon an assumption that, in the absence of differential expression of exons within the gene, an exon of the gene is expressed proportionately to the expression of the gene. (google.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1 , wherein the obtained gene signal is based upon all exons in the gene. (google.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 6 , wherein the exon signal is based upon all probe sets for the exon. (google.com)
  • 12. The method of claim 11 , wherein the constant value is based upon a percentile of a background signal. (google.com)
  • DNA sequencing is generally considered a more accurate method. (wikipedia.org)
  • detect
  • DNA denaturation can also be used to detect sequence differences between two different DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of a single isolated region of DNA, denaturing gradient gels and temperature gradient gels can be used to detect the presence of small mismatches between two sequences, a process known as temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • One of the greatest concerns in nucleic acid design is ensuring that the target structure has the lowest free energy (i.e. is the most thermodynamically favorable) whereas misformed structures have higher values of free energy and are thus unfavored. (wikipedia.org)
  • canonical
  • Examples include universal bases, which can pair with all four canonical bases, and phosphate-sugar backbone analogues such as PNA, which affect the properties of the chain (PNA can even form a triple helix). (wikipedia.org)
  • biological processes
  • The elucidation of the DNA sequence is essential for the understanding of virtually all biological processes e.g. human disease biology, inheritance, immunology, oncology, cellular biology. (eppendorf.com)
  • genetic
  • The realization that the structure of DNA is that of a double-helix elucidated the mechanism of base pairing by which genetic information is stored and copied in living organisms and is widely considered one of the most important scientific discoveries of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Two considerations in nucleic acid design are that desired hybridizations should have melting temperatures in a narrow range, and any spurious interactions should have very low melting temperatures (i.e. they should be very weak). (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary structures of biological DNA's and RNA's tend to be different: biological DNA mostly exists as fully base paired double helices, while biological RNA is single stranded and often forms complex and intricate base-pairing interactions due to its increased ability to form hydrogen bonds stemming from the extra hydroxyl group in the ribose sugar. (wikipedia.org)