• genes
  • NPY also upregulated several genes required for mitosis in MSC, including aurora B kinase, FGF-2, cycline A2, eukaryotic initiation factor 4 E, and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. (physiology.org)
  • For nuclear-encoded genes, splicing takes place within the nucleus either during or immediately after transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same genes are upregulated in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK293) (except for hlx1, hbp1, junb and pdgfrb). (wikipedia.org)
  • TRIM14 transfected HEK293 cell show increased transcription of eighteen genes involved in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of full-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells decreases the level of free-cytosolic β-catenin, which consequently reduces the level of nuclear β-catenin and reduces the expression of the β-catenin-regulated genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, apoptotic cell death, cachexia, inflammation and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication and respond to sepsis via IL1 & IL6 producing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for paracrine factors to successfully induce a response in the receiving cell, that cell must have the appropriate receptors available on the cell membrane to receive the signals, also known as being competent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once Ang has been translocated to the nucleus, it enhances rRNA transcription by binding to the CT-rich (CTCTCTCTCTCTCTCTCCCTC) angiogenin binding element (ABE) within the upstream intergenic region of rDNA, which subsequently activates other angiogenic factors that induce angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • Ang binds to actin of both smooth muscle and endothelial cells to form complexes that activate proteolytic cascades which upregulate the production of proteases and plasmin that degrade the laminin and fibronectin layers of the basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix allows the endothelial cells to penetrate and migrate into the perivascular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal transduction pathways activated by Ang interactions at the cellular membrane of endothelial cells produce extracellular signal-related kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B/Akt. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cell
  • In fact, extensive computer modeling suggests that if a mtDNA mutation occurs in a tumor progenitor cell, mtDNA homoplasmy (i.e., a pure population of mutant mtDNA molecules) can be achieved entirely by chance through unbiased mtDNA replication and sorting during cell division without selection for physiologic advantage (9) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • This neurodegenerative event is initiated the second postnatal week and occurs in the adult animal without a compensatory increase of progenitor cell proliferation. (jneurosci.org)
  • regulation
  • Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop an in vitro model of renal cells maintaining active mitochondrial functions in which PKC isozymes could be selectively activated or inhibited to determine their role in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and cell survival. (jove.com)
  • This kinase activates certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting an involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the functional significance of SGK1 in cell volume regulation, along with its stimulation of cation channels, is still not clearly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, TRIM14 (Pub) is likely associated with the regulation of development of the immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPkappa likely regulates T-cell development by positively regulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation via the regulation of MEK1/2 and c-Raf phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Recent reports have shown that adult cardiac myocytes can be induced to reenter into cell cycle with periostin ( 17 ), p38 MAP kinase inhibitor ( 8 ), cyclin D1/CDK4 ( 27 ), cyclin A2 ( 3 ), and transforming growth factor-β ( 4 ). (physiology.org)
  • Stress-activated, pro-apoptotic kinase which, following caspase-cleavage, enters the nucleus and induces chromatin condensation followed by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. (rcsb.org)
  • The Kit proto-oncogene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor whose ligand is a paracrine protein called stem cell factor (SCF), which is important in hematopoiesis (formation of cells in blood). (wikipedia.org)
  • Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R) are cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors for members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Because the presence of PTPkappa at the cell membrane was shown to sequester β-catenin to the plasma membrane, these data suggest that one mechanism whereby PTPkappa functions as a tumor suppressor is by regulating the intracellular localization of free-β-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fraction of Ki-67-positive tumor cells (the Ki-67 labeling index) is often correlated with the clinical course of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Although most cancer cells harbor somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the question of whether such mutations contribute to the promotion of carcinomas remains unsolved. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To complement the mtDNA mutations, we transfected a wild-type nuclear version of MTATP , whose codons were converted to the universal genetic codes containing a mitochondrial target sequence, into the nucleus of cybrids carrying mutant MTATP6 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The high frequency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and the rapid proliferation of cancer cells with no physiologic advantage may account for the accumulation of somatic neutral mutations in mtDNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, cancer cells seem to harbor pathogenic mutations in mtDNA as well as neutral ones. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cybrids were generated by repopulating HeLa cells devoid of mtDNA with mtDNA derived from enucleated cells of patients harboring heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 6 ( MTATP6 ) associated with neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (16) or maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (17) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • extracellular
  • In multicellular organisms, cell behavior is dictated by interactions with the extracellular matrix. (jove.com)
  • The signals underlying each of these complex processes arise from the molecular interactions of extracellular matrix receptors on the surface of the cell. (jove.com)
  • Cells that produce paracrine factors secrete them into the immediate extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Although integrin engagement is essential for cell adhesion, certain fibronectin-dependent signals are regulated by syndecan-4. (jove.com)
  • As described below, the mechanisms of nuclear Ca 2+ signalling are extensive, and it is likely that there is considerable flexibility in how Ca 2+ signals are triggered in the nucleus and in the downstream targets that are affected. (biologists.org)
  • It has been well established that Ca 2+ signals occurring inside cells affect activities within the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that nuclear Ca 2+ signals are important for regulating cell proliferation in some contexts. (biologists.org)
  • It is suggested that proliferative signals transport SGK1 into the nucleus, and the effect of SGK1 on cell proliferation may be due to its ability to regulate Kv1.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • TRIM14 lacks the RING domain within the motif and therefore it loses the function of E3 ubiquitin ligase in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • BAFF is secreted by a variety of cells: monocytes and macrophages, bone marrow stromal cells, astrocytes, synoviocytes during rheumatoid arthritis, salivary epithelial cells during Sjögren's syndrome, astrocytes in certain glioblastomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Belimumab (trade name Benlysta, previously known as LymphoStat-B) is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits B-cell activating factor (BAFF), also known as B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation codons have also been described, and shown to have preferential localization in the cell (PMID:11238462). (cancerindex.org)
  • membrane
  • TNFR1 is expressed in most tissues, and can be fully activated by both the membrane-bound and soluble trimeric forms of TNF, whereas TNFR2 is found typically in cells of the immune system, and respond to the membrane-bound form of the TNF homotrimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway begins at the cell membrane surface, where a ligand binds to its specific receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow-derived
  • By expressing a dominant negative form of PTPkappa or by using short-hairpin RNA for PTPkappa in bone-marrow derived stem cells, Erdenbayer and colleagues demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells development was inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Do patterns of nuclear Ca 2+ signalling simply track cytosolic Ca 2+ signalling, or are there independent nuclear Ca 2+ signalling mechanisms that are necessary for proper cell function? (biologists.org)
  • PCNA - Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, expressed during the DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced reentry of differentiated rat neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle. (physiology.org)
  • NPY directly induced neonatal and adult cardiomyocyte cell-cycle reentry and enhanced the number of differentiated cardiomyocytes from MSC in the infarcted myocardium, which corresponded to improved cardiac function, reduced fibrosis, ventricular remodeling, and increased angiomyogenesis. (physiology.org)
  • Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes are considered terminally differentiated, incapable of proliferation and irreversibly withdrawn from the cell cycle soon after birth ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Although the adult heart has a limited capacity for myocyte proliferation, increasing the number of remaining cardiomyocytes by activating their proliferative potential via extrinsic factors could result in the repair of damaged myocardium. (physiology.org)
  • Here, we have investigated whether NPY can trigger cell-cycle reentry in neonatal or adult cardiomyocytes and increase the proliferation of transplanted MSC that have already differentiated into cardiomyocytes within the infarcted myocardium. (physiology.org)
  • Vivo-Morpholinos, in which the oligo is covalently linked to a delivery dendrimer, enter cells when administered systemically in adult animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Sugar is a complex molecule made up of fructose and glucose and is necessary for every cell in the body. (buzzle.com)
  • cycle
  • On these bases, we investigated the mechanistic connection of H(2)O(2) yield, mitochondrial activation of Akt1 and cell cycle progression in NIH/3T3 cell line with confocal microscopy, in vivo imaging, and directed mutagenesis. (jove.com)
  • Ki-67 protein is present during all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and mitosis), but is absent in resting (quiescent) cells (G0). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Brain tumors have been suggested to possess a small population of stem cells that are the root cause of tumorigenesis. (jove.com)
  • Neurosphere assays have been generally adopted to study the nature of neural stem cells, including those derived from normal and tumorous tissues. (jove.com)
  • Potential therapies could include stimulating the myocytes to divide and adding new cells via pharmacological and genetic manipulations or delivering stem cells to multiply and subsequently differentiate into cardiomyocytes ( 7 ). (physiology.org)
  • Ligands that bind to RTKs include fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, and stem cell factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • B lymphocytes (B cells) are one of the immune cells responsible for the damage in autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • Histologically, uveal melanomas with epithelioid morphology fare worse than those with spindle cells ( 7 ), as do those with higher mitotic activity, extrascleral invasion, or the presence of microvascular networks ( 3 , 8 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • whereas
  • During interphase, the Ki-67 antigen can be exclusively detected within the cell nucleus, whereas in mitosis most of the protein is relocated to the surface of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • In order to survive, B cells need survival factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers theorize that SLE is caused when autoimmune B cells proliferate, and survival factors protect them from cell suicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell activating factor (BAFF), also called B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), is required for the development and survival of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without the survival factor BAFF, B cells commit suicide, and no longer contribute to the autoimmune damage of SLE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ang has a prominent role in the pathology of cancer due to its functions in angiogenesis and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • These results indicate that Akt1 intramitochondrial-cycling is central for redox modulation of cell fate. (jove.com)
  • receptors
  • Cancerous cells have eight times more sugar receptors than oxygen receptors. (buzzle.com)
  • Although paracrine signaling elicits a diverse array of responses in the induced cells, most paracrine factors utilize a relatively streamlined set of receptors and pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • fetal and neonatal cardiac myocytes are capable of undergoing DNA synthesis and cell division. (physiology.org)
  • Therefore, pharmacological manipulations may be important in enhancing proliferation of differentiated myocytes for cardiac repair. (physiology.org)
  • downstream
  • In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent STAT3 activation has been established to be a key downstream mediator of PDGFR signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Mice generated from these ES cells were viable, suggesting that PTPkappa phosphatase activity is not necessary for embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ki-67 protein was originally defined by the prototype monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which was generated by immunizing mice with nuclei of the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L428. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune cells
  • The mRNA for TRIM14 has been found found in many organs with a prevalence in those organs with a high number of immune cells such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)