• genes
  • NPY also upregulated several genes required for mitosis in MSC, including aurora B kinase, FGF-2, cycline A2, eukaryotic initiation factor 4 E, and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. (physiology.org)
  • For nuclear-encoded genes, splicing takes place within the nucleus either during or immediately after transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same genes are upregulated in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK293) (except for hlx1, hbp1, junb and pdgfrb). (wikipedia.org)
  • TRIM14 transfected HEK293 cell show increased transcription of eighteen genes involved in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of full-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells decreases the level of free-cytosolic β-catenin, which consequently reduces the level of nuclear β-catenin and reduces the expression of the β-catenin-regulated genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cell
  • In fact, extensive computer modeling suggests that if a mtDNA mutation occurs in a tumor progenitor cell, mtDNA homoplasmy (i.e., a pure population of mutant mtDNA molecules) can be achieved entirely by chance through unbiased mtDNA replication and sorting during cell division without selection for physiologic advantage (9) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • This neurodegenerative event is initiated the second postnatal week and occurs in the adult animal without a compensatory increase of progenitor cell proliferation. (jneurosci.org)
  • membrane
  • Because the presence of PTPkappa at the cell membrane was shown to sequester β-catenin to the plasma membrane, these data suggest that one mechanism whereby PTPkappa functions as a tumor suppressor is by regulating the intracellular localization of free-β-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors suggest that the presence of PTPkappa at the plasma membrane in association with the cadherin/catenin complex is important for the maintenance of adherens junction in pancreatic acinar cells, much as it was suggested above in melanoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It shows an unusual subcellular localization pattern, being found at both the plasma membrane and in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNFR1 is expressed in most tissues, and can be fully activated by both the membrane-bound and soluble trimeric forms of TNF, whereas TNFR2 is found typically in cells of the immune system, and respond to the membrane-bound form of the TNF homotrimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway begins at the cell membrane surface, where a ligand binds to its specific receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of these proteins leads to invasion of the basement membrane and cell proliferation associated with further angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Although most cancer cells harbor somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the question of whether such mutations contribute to the promotion of carcinomas remains unsolved. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To complement the mtDNA mutations, we transfected a wild-type nuclear version of MTATP , whose codons were converted to the universal genetic codes containing a mitochondrial target sequence, into the nucleus of cybrids carrying mutant MTATP6 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The high frequency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and the rapid proliferation of cancer cells with no physiologic advantage may account for the accumulation of somatic neutral mutations in mtDNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, cancer cells seem to harbor pathogenic mutations in mtDNA as well as neutral ones. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cybrids were generated by repopulating HeLa cells devoid of mtDNA with mtDNA derived from enucleated cells of patients harboring heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 6 ( MTATP6 ) associated with neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (16) or maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (17) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • protein
  • In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of syndecan-1 in tumor cell adhesion and migration, with special focus on the importance of its distinct protein domains, to better understand the structure-function relationship of syndecan-1 in tumor progression. (jove.com)
  • The Ki-67 protein (also known as MKI67) is a cellular marker for proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During interphase, the Ki-67 antigen can be exclusively detected within the cell nucleus, whereas in mitosis most of the protein is relocated to the surface of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki-67 protein is present during all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and mitosis), but is absent in resting (quiescent) cells (G0). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ki-67 protein was originally defined by the prototype monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which was generated by immunizing mice with nuclei of the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L428. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein Ki-67 in human MCF-7 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki-67 protein (red), tubulin (green) and DNA (blue) in HeLa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene knockdown is achieved by preventing cells from making a targeted protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • Here we used trans -mitochondrial hybrids (cybrids) containing a common HeLa nucleus and mtDNA of interest to compare the role of mtDNA against the common nuclear background. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HeLa cells translocate Ang to the nucleus independent of cell density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of Ang affects the ability of HeLa cells to proliferate, which proposes an effective target for possible therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • In multicellular organisms, cell behavior is dictated by interactions with the extracellular matrix. (jove.com)
  • The signals underlying each of these complex processes arise from the molecular interactions of extracellular matrix receptors on the surface of the cell. (jove.com)
  • Cells that produce paracrine factors secrete them into the immediate extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Although integrin engagement is essential for cell adhesion, certain fibronectin-dependent signals are regulated by syndecan-4. (jove.com)
  • It is suggested that proliferative signals transport SGK1 into the nucleus, and the effect of SGK1 on cell proliferation may be due to its ability to regulate Kv1.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Diva overexpressing cells also had a significantly elevated proliferation rate, with increased expression of cyclin D1, pRB and E2F-1 and concomitant decrease of p27 and p15 levels. (nus.edu.sg)
  • eukaryotic
  • TRIM14 lacks the RING domain within the motif and therefore it loses the function of E3 ubiquitin ligase in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • BAFF is secreted by a variety of cells: monocytes and macrophages, bone marrow stromal cells, astrocytes, synoviocytes during rheumatoid arthritis, salivary epithelial cells during Sjögren's syndrome, astrocytes in certain glioblastomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation codons have also been described, and shown to have preferential localization in the cell (PMID:11238462). (cancerindex.org)
  • bone marrow-derived
  • By expressing a dominant negative form of PTPkappa or by using short-hairpin RNA for PTPkappa in bone-marrow derived stem cells, Erdenbayer and colleagues demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells development was inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular smooth muscl
  • The vasculature is predominantly comprised of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and these cells are involved in the maintenance of vessel tone and blood pressure ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent STAT3 activation has been established to be a key downstream mediator of PDGFR signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Nuclear sphingomyelin is a key molecule for cell proliferation. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we have reported the ability of the sphingomyelin present in the nuclear microdomain to bind DNA and regulate its synthesis, and to highlight its role in cell proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy. (mdpi.com)
  • The nucleus is a structure that has sub-compartments which can be called nuclear organelles. (usp.br)
  • PCNA - Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, expressed during the DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced reentry of differentiated rat neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle. (physiology.org)
  • NPY directly induced neonatal and adult cardiomyocyte cell-cycle reentry and enhanced the number of differentiated cardiomyocytes from MSC in the infarcted myocardium, which corresponded to improved cardiac function, reduced fibrosis, ventricular remodeling, and increased angiomyogenesis. (physiology.org)
  • Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes are considered terminally differentiated, incapable of proliferation and irreversibly withdrawn from the cell cycle soon after birth ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Although the adult heart has a limited capacity for myocyte proliferation, increasing the number of remaining cardiomyocytes by activating their proliferative potential via extrinsic factors could result in the repair of damaged myocardium. (physiology.org)
  • Here, we have investigated whether NPY can trigger cell-cycle reentry in neonatal or adult cardiomyocytes and increase the proliferation of transplanted MSC that have already differentiated into cardiomyocytes within the infarcted myocardium. (physiology.org)
  • Vivo-Morpholinos, in which the oligo is covalently linked to a delivery dendrimer, enter cells when administered systemically in adult animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • During the S-phase of the cell cycle, the stimulation of sphingomyelinase and inhibition of sphingomyelin-synthase are accompanied by the DNA synthesis start. (mdpi.com)
  • fetal and neonatal cardiac myocytes are capable of undergoing DNA synthesis and cell division. (physiology.org)
  • Behavior of Cajal bodies and nucleoli after interference with inhibitors of RNA synthesis and its association with cell lines in culture. (usp.br)
  • stem
  • Brain tumors have been suggested to possess a small population of stem cells that are the root cause of tumorigenesis. (jove.com)
  • Neurosphere assays have been generally adopted to study the nature of neural stem cells, including those derived from normal and tumorous tissues. (jove.com)
  • Potential therapies could include stimulating the myocytes to divide and adding new cells via pharmacological and genetic manipulations or delivering stem cells to multiply and subsequently differentiate into cardiomyocytes ( 7 ). (physiology.org)
  • Ligands that bind to RTKs include fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, and stem cell factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • B lymphocytes (B cells) are one of the immune cells responsible for the damage in autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • Histologically, uveal melanomas with epithelioid morphology fare worse than those with spindle cells ( 7 ), as do those with higher mitotic activity, extrascleral invasion, or the presence of microvascular networks ( 3 , 8 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • fate
  • These results indicate that Akt1 intramitochondrial-cycling is central for redox modulation of cell fate. (jove.com)
  • Mice
  • Mice generated from these ES cells were viable, suggesting that PTPkappa phosphatase activity is not necessary for embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune cells
  • The mRNA for TRIM14 has been found found in many organs with a prevalence in those organs with a high number of immune cells such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • cycle
  • During G1/S transition of the cell cycle, sphingomyelin and DNA content is very high and it is strongly reduced after exogenous sphingomyelinase treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • On these bases, we investigated the mechanistic connection of H(2)O(2) yield, mitochondrial activation of Akt1 and cell cycle progression in NIH/3T3 cell line with confocal microscopy, in vivo imaging, and directed mutagenesis. (jove.com)
  • Therefore
  • If the transgene was incorporated into a gene with a signal sequence, β-gal activity would remain in the cytosol of the cell and therefore be active. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Although paracrine signaling elicits a diverse array of responses in the induced cells, most paracrine factors utilize a relatively streamlined set of receptors and pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurite
  • Diva-overexpressing cells had a decreased percentage of differentiated cells and average neurite length was shortened. (nus.edu.sg)
  • There was an increase in percentage of differentiated cells and average neurite length due to more NDPK B/ß-tubulin complexes being formed. (nus.edu.sg)