• Lungs
  • Our respiratory system starts from nostril and end at Lungs. (indiastudychannel.com)
  • 3. Respiratory gas transport Oxygen and carbon dioxide must be transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream. (scribd.com)
  • citation needed] Acting as the first interface between the external environment and an animal's delicate internal lungs, a nose conditions incoming air, both as a function of thermal regulation and filtration during respiration, as well as enabling the sensory perception of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dorsal respiratory group - in the medulla, involved in inhalation Ventral respiratory group - in the medulla, involved in exhalation Pneumotaxic center - various nuclei of the pons Apneustic center - nucleus of the pons From the respiratory center, the muscles of respiration, in particular the diaphragm, are activated to cause air to move in and out of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a sneeze, the soft palate and palatine uvula depress while the back of the tongue elevates to partially close the passage to the mouth so that air ejected from the lungs may be expelled through the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of preventive techniques are: the deep exhalation of the air in the lungs that would otherwise be used in the act of sneezing, holding the breath in while counting to ten or gently pinching the bridge of the nose for several seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • The symptoms of respiratory reactions in this syndrome are hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs rather than the typically described true allergic reactions that trigger other common allergen-induced asthma, rhinitis, or hives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The respiratory reactions to aspirin vary in severity, ranging from mild nasal congestion and eye watering to lower respiratory symptoms including wheezing, coughing, an asthma attack, and in rare cases, anaphylaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the typical respiratory reactions, about 10% of patients with AERD manifest skin symptoms like urticaria and/or gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain or vomiting during their reactions to aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cough
  • Fever of 102.5- 105.0 F, frequent dry cough for several weeks, 'drippy' nose with discharge and secondary bacterial infection are some of the clinical signs of Equine influenza virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • Sites of systemic absorption include broken skin tissue, inflamed gastric sites, eczematous skin and respiratory mucosa with the risk of a reaction increasing with number and duration of sprays administered. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • tachypnea
  • Signs of respiratory disease include tachycardia and tachypnea with pyrexia, dyspnea, mucoid nasal discharge, hypersalivation and abnormal lung sounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other clinical findings may include a serous or light mucoid nasal discharge, epiphora, tender but rarely swollen submandibular lymph nodes, hyperemia of nasal and conjunctival mucosa, tachypnea, tachycardia, limb edema, muscle soreness and stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • In 2015, 17.2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2014, upper respiratory infections caused about 3,000 deaths down from 4,000 in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain and pressure of the ear caused by a middle ear infection (otitis media) and the reddening of the eye caused by viral conjunctivitis are often associated with upper respiratory infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper
  • The parotid gland, a large gland that produces saliva for the mouth as an aid in digestion, flows into an area of the buccal mucosa near the second upper molar, known as the buccal cavity or the inner surface of the buccal mucosa. (wisegeek.com)
  • The nasal cavity of mammals has been enlarged, in part, by the development of a palate cutting off the entire upper surface of the original oral cavity, which consequently becomes part of the nose, leaving the palate as the new roof of the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouth and nose
  • Ulcers commonly occur in the mouth and nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • To reduce the possibility of thus spreading disease (such as the flu), one holds the forearm or the inside of the elbow in front of one's mouth and nose when sneezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • venous
  • The turbinates have a very vascularized lamina propria (erectile tissue) allowing the venous plexuses of their mucosa to engorge with blood, restricting airflow and causing air to be directed to the other side of the nose, which acts in concert by shunting blood out of its turbinates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleeding farther back in the nose is known as a posterior bleed and is usually due to bleeding from Woodruff's plexus, a venous plexus situated in the posterior part of inferior meatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shallowness of the venous blood supply of the mucosa contributes to the ease with which nosebleed can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa, in particular the venous plexus of the conchae is regulated by the pterygopalatine ganglion and heats or cools the air in the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ventilatory
  • Ventilatory rate (respiratory minute volume) is tightly controlled and determined primarily by blood levels of carbon dioxide as determined by metabolic rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Jongsil will speak now about the interactions of the respiratory system with the rest of the body. (writework.com)
  • Basic Structure of the Respiratory System" WriteWork.com. (writework.com)
  • Respiratory physiology The major function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with oxygen and to dispose of carbon dioxide. (scribd.com)
  • Several important determinants shape the clinical presentation of toxic inhalation injury, including where the toxin is deposited in the respiratory system. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The respiratory epithelium also serves as a means of access for the lymphatic system, which protects the body from being infected by viruses or bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most fish, and a number of other aquatic animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either partially or completely external organs, bathed in the watery environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The respiratory system in plants includes anatomical features such as stomata, that are found in various parts of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other leeches that also settle in mucosae have been found in noses but as well near the eyes and in the genitourinary system of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, a permanent loss of smell may be caused by death of olfactory receptor neurons in the nose or by brain injury in which there is damage to the olfactory nerve or damage to brain areas that process smell (see olfactory system). (wikipedia.org)
  • Laryngeal
  • This region appears to control the epipharyngeal, intrinsic laryngeal and respiratory muscles, and the combined activity of these muscles serve as the basis for the generation of a sneeze. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon dioxide
  • the carbon dioxide passes from the body through the nose and mouth. (scribd.com)
  • Under most conditions, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) or concentration of carbon dioxide, controls the respiratory rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central chemoreceptors are primarily sensitive to changes in the pH in the blood, (resulting from changes in the levels of carbon dioxide) and they are located on the medulla oblongata near to the medullar respiratory groups of the respiratory center. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Final pathology of the right-sided lesion revealed mostly dilated vascular channels with unremarkable overlying respiratory mucosa , consistent with a hemangioma (figure 3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patient death followed the anaphylactic shock developed due to numerous bee bites, in the lack of immediate specialized medical assistance, and immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of mast cells in skin and respiratory mucosa , associated to vascular congestion, edema, and hemorrhages, confirming the tissular allergic phenomena as an initiator factor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Turbinates are composed of pseudostratified columnar, ciliated respiratory epithelium with a thick, vascular, and erectile glandular tissue layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The epithelial tissue of the buccal mucosa is non-keratinised, which means that these cells have a nucleus, or central generating core, as well as cytoplasm, which consists of all living structures in a cell apart from the nucleus. (wisegeek.com)
  • Connective tissue and skin cover the bony and cartilaginous components of the dorsum of the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • for instance mucosa in the stomach protects it from stomach acid, and mucosa lining the bladder protects the underlying tissue from urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of both the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 and the leukotriene C4 synthase enzyme has been shown in respiratory tissue from patients with aspirin-induced asthma, which likely relates to the increased response to leukotrienes and increased production of leukotrienes seen in the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • roof
  • While the soft palate is part of the buccal mucosa, however, it does not continue on to extend up to the roof of the mouth, which is an area known as the hard palate. (wisegeek.com)
  • This segment is located in and beneath the mucosa of the roof of each nasal cavity and the medial side of each middle turbinate. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Aspirin-induced asthma, also termed Samter's triad, Samter's syndrome, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and recently by an appointed task force of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology/World Allergy Organization (EAACI/WAO) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD). (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • Other commonly implicated viruses include human coronavirus (≈ 15%),influenza viruses (10-15%), adenoviruses (5%), human respiratory syncytial virus, enteroviruses other than rhinoviruses, human parainfluenza viruses, and metapneumovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses and related animals such as donkeys, mules and zebras (collectively known as equines). (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • Most of these ostia communicate with the nose through the lateral nasal wall, via a semi-lunar depression in it known as the infundibulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face and serves as an alternative respiratory passage especially during suckling for infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In anatomy, a nasal concha (/ˈkɒnkə/), plural conchae (/ˈkɒnki/), also called a turbinate or turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose in humans and various animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inferior turbinates are the largest turbinates, and can be as long as the index finger in humans, and are responsible for the majority of airflow direction, humidification, heating, and filtering of air inhaled through the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • constrict
  • The elderly are also more prone to prolonged nose bleeds as their blood vessels are less able to constrict and control the bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • The finding of Tyrannobdella rex and genetic comparisons of its genome to other leeches that infest the mucosae of mammals has brought new insight to their taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • oropharynx
  • Materials with high water solubility, such as hydrochloric acid, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide, are readily deposited in the moist mucosal surfaces of the conjunctivae, nose, and oropharynx. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)