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  • AMPARs
  • In AMPARs, the integrity of the alignment of a specific face of M4 with the adjacent pore domain is essential for receptor oligomerization. (rupress.org)
  • These findings reveal that the functional roles of the M4 segments in AMPARs and NMDARs have diverged in the course of their evolution and that the M4 segments in NMDARs may act as a transduction pathway for receptor modulation at synapses. (rupress.org)
  • When small numbers of parallel fibers are activated, EPSCs are mediated solely by AMPA receptors (AMPARs), despite our finding that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are present in the dendrites of these cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The relative contribution of AMPARs and NMDARs to the EPSC reflects not only their different biophysical properties (including the voltage-dependent block of NMDARs by Mg 2+ ) but also differences in receptor density and affinity. (jneurosci.org)
  • At synapses, two major processes occur concomitantly after the release of glutamate: activation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) to conduct synaptic transmission and activation of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) for transmitter removal. (jneurosci.org)
  • The levels of cell-surface AMPARs are regulated by the rate of receptor insertion and internalization, whereas the total amount of AMPARs is determined by a balance between synthesis and degradation. (jneurosci.org)
  • AMPARs are found in many parts of the brain and are the most commonly found receptor in the nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation requires concurrent membrane depolarization, and glutamatergic synapses lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are often considered "silent" in the absence of another source of membrane depolarization. (jneurosci.org)
  • subunit
  • Subunit proteins that comprise functional AMPA receptors were localized by immunocytochemical methods in the adult macaque primary visual cortex (V1). (jneurosci.org)
  • The density of AMPA subunit immunoreactive elements also varied across layers and compartments of macaque V1. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that AMPA subunit immunoreactivity is densely concentrated in layers and compartments receiving direct geniculocortical innervation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although developmental studies have focused on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, recent knowledge regarding central nicotinic receptors, particularly the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (α7nAChR), indicates that these too are important for synaptic plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • [ 17 ] Another family has been noted to have abnormalities in the acetylcholine alpha-4 receptor subunit, which also has been associated with autosomal dominant, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • neurons
  • A landmark study of induced pluripotent stem cell neurons cultured from patients with 22q13 deletion syndrome shows that restoration of the SHANK3 protein produces a significant, but incomplete rescue of membrane receptors, supporting both a substantial role for SHANK3 and an additional role for other genes in the distal 1 Mb of chromosome 22. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients should be given 5% glucose (dextrose) IV drip during excitotoxic shock to avoid a dangerous build up of glutamate around NMDA and AMPA neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989
  • Between 1989 and 1990, Dambinova was invited by Dr. E. Freeze, Director of the Neuroscience Program at NINDS, NIH to engage in a glutamate receptors gene project. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Inverse agonists bind to receptors and elicit the opposite effect that an agonist would. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excitotoxins like NMDA and kainic acid which bind to these receptors, as well as pathologically high levels of glutamate, can cause excitotoxicity by allowing high levels of calcium ions (Ca2+) to enter the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • Eliprodil (codenamed SL-82.0715) is a NMDA antagonist drug candidate that failed a Phase III clinical trial for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in 1996, sponsored by Synthélabo Recherche. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • citation needed] Increased extracellular glutamate levels leads to the activation of Ca2+ permeable NMDA receptors on myelin sheaths and oligodendrocytes, leaving oligodendrocytes susceptible to Ca2+ influxes and subsequent excitotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • anion
  • By varying the shape and size of the cavity the protonated polyamine can be engineered to be a specific anion receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Hyperforin also induces cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 by binding to and activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR). (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • The receptor was first named the "quisqualate receptor" by Watkins and colleagues after a naturally occurring agonist quisqualate and was only later given the label "AMPA receptor" after the selective agonist developed by Tage Honore and colleagues at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy in Copenhagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently developed ampakine compounds are much more potent and selective for the AMPA receptor target, and while none of the newer selective ampakine compounds have yet come onto the market, various ampakines are in clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • The research data obtained under Dambinova's leadership from 1992 to 2000 were devoted to the molecular organization of opiate receptors and its significance in drug addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Dambinova contributed to the Parkinson's Disease cerebral ischemia and pain treatment by small endogenous peptides and developed new approaches to early diagnosis of chronic pain and addiction by detecting autoantibodies to a peptide fragment of opiate receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroprotective
  • It has nootropic and neuroprotective effects in animal studies, and induces both production of BDNF and AMPA-mediated release of noradrenaline and acetylcholine in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latrepirdine appears to operate through multiple mechanisms of action, both blocking the action of neurotoxic beta-amyloid proteins and inhibiting L-type calcium channels, modulating the action of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors, and may exert a neuroprotective effect by blocking a novel target that involves mitochondrial pores, which are believed to play a role in the cell death that is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and the aging process. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamatergic
  • Because high-frequency stimulation of glutamatergic afferents can activate group I mGluRs in cerebellar nuclear cells ( Zhang and Linden, 2006 ), we tested whether these receptors can influence prolonged rebound firing in the cerebellar nuclei. (jneurosci.org)
  • membrane
  • Like other metabotropic receptors, mGluRs have seven transmembrane domains that span the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulating the receptors causes the associated enzyme phospholipase C to hydrolyze phosphoinositide phospholipids in the cell's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipophilic diacylglycerol remains in the membrane, acting as a cofactor for the activation of protein kinase C. These receptors are also associated with Na+ and K+ channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Each type of rhythm is generated by the same neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex, but through different mechanisms, receptors, and ion currents that are controlled by changes in the behavior or environment of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • Another synthetic drug specific to the adenosine A2A receptor subtype is CGS-21680 that has been shown to cause apneas in 14- to 21-day-old rat pups in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • This thesis presents the very first bionics chemical synapse which has the capability to sense the neurotransmitter (glutamate) and imitates the physiological behaviour of certain chemical synapse receptors (i.e. (bl.uk)
  • Receptor types are grouped based on receptor structure and physiological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Due to its hydrophilic character, IP3 can travel to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it induces, via fixation on its receptor, the opening of calcium channels increasing in this way the cytosolic calcium concentrations. (wikipedia.org)