Loading...
  • gene
  • With its sequenced genome and simple, well-defined neuroanatomy, the nematode C. elegans is a useful model system in which to correlate gene expression with neuron identity. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • nearby neurons
  • Experiments with conventional tracers and immunofluorescence staining have demonstrated peripheral viscerosensory input from the vagus nerve, input from nearby neurons in the NTS and area postrema, and descending input from the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). (wikipedia.org)
  • The faster a biological neuron fires, the faster nearby neurons accumulate electrical potential (or lose electrical potential, depending on the "weighting" of the dendrite that connects to the neuron that fired). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortex
  • Pyramidal neuron located in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog. (washington.edu)
  • Neurons located in the cerebral cortex of the hamster. (washington.edu)
  • Binocular neurons appear in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), the ventral extrastriate area (V4), the dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), medial superior temporal area, caudal intraparietal area, and a collection of areas in the anterior inferior temporal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the prestriate cortex (V2) are more sensitive to different disparities than those in the striate cortex (V1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1) are only sensitive to absolute disparity, where in other visual cortical areas they are sensitive to relative disparity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the prestriate cortex (V2) and ventral extrastriate area (V4), binocular neurons respond most readily to a centre-surround stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] On one hand, the anticorrelated response of the binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), and medial superior temporal area, all show similar responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spindle neurons are found in two very restricted regions in the brains of hominids-the family of species comprising humans and other great apes-the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the fronto-insular cortex (FI). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999, Professor John Allman, a neuroscientist, and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology first published a report on spindle neurons found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of hominids, but not in any other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex and the inferior parietal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few years later, the same group published another empirical paper, discussing the role of the mirror-neuron system in action recognition, and proposing that the human Broca's region was the homologue region of the monkey ventral premotor cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further experiments confirmed that about 10% of neurons in the monkey inferior frontal and inferior parietal cortex have "mirror" properties and give similar responses to performed hand actions and observed actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneer neurons settle in the marginal zone of the cortex and project to sub-cortical levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • In lab tests on a patch of mouse skin, these neurons didn't respond to a single stimulus. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Leon Glass and Michael Mackey (1988) developed the theory behind limit cycle oscillators to observe the effects of perturbing oscillating neurons under the assumption the stimulus applied only affected the phase cycle and not the amplitude of response. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1 neurons are proven to be very efficient encoders of information via their high resilience to stimulus noise from external sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interneurons
  • The term command neuron first appeared in a 1964 paper "Interneurons Commanding Swimmeret Movements in the Crayfish" by CAG Wiersma and K Ikeda in volume 12 of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology vol 12 on pp 509-525. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dendritic arbor of the H1 neuron covers the anterior surface of the lobula plate, where it receives retinotopic input from interneurons of the medulla lobula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • Soon, researchers were finding command neurons in multiple invertebrate and vertebrate species , including: crickets, cockroaches, lobsters, and certain fish . (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers looked at this phenomenon in lab mice and found that stroking stimulates a very specific set of neurons that have to do with hair. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Some researchers speculate that mirror systems may simulate observed actions, and thus contribute to theory of mind skills, while others relate mirror neurons to language abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • During each experiment, the researchers allowed the monkey to reach for pieces of food, and recorded from single neurons in the monkey's brain, thus measuring the neuron's response to certain movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, evidence from functional neuroimaging strongly suggests that humans have similar mirror neurons systems: researchers have identified brain regions which respond during both action and observation of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • These hormones provide the GnRH neurons with information about the body's status to help determine whether reproduction should be prioritized or suppressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • Additionally, population responses of binocular neurons have been found in human ventral and dorsal pathways using fMRI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in both the caudal intraparietal area and the dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT) respond to surface slants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in both the medial superior temporal area and dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT) respond to surface depth sparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in the dorsal and ventral pathways combine to create depth perception, however, the two pathways perform differ in the type of stereo computation they perform. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • A subset of these neurons is thought to be involved in using the optic flow to estimate the parameters of self-motion, such as yaw, roll, and sideward translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, it was discovered that a subset of GnRH neurons can trace their origins not from the nasal placode, but from the neural crest earlier in embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This subset of cells migrates into the nasal placode, where they intermix with GnRH neurons born in this region, and migrate together into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Command decisions are increasingly seen as being governed by networks of interacting and redundant cells, not simply by single neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized cells called neurons allow you to think, feel, and move. (amnh.org)
  • In HSD2 neurons (and all other cells that express both HSD2 and MR), aldosterone binds to MR and translocates it from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, causing transcriptional changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike aldosterone-sensitive cells in epithelial tissues (e.g. in the kidney), the physiologic effects of aldosterone-MR activation in HSD2 neurons are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, neurons are generated by special types of stem cells during brain development and childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells that have also been observed to turn into neurons by virtue of the stem cell characteristic pluripotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spindle neurons are relatively large cells that may allow rapid communication across the relatively large brains of great apes, elephants, and cetaceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term neuron (spelled neurone in British English) was itself coined by Waldeyer as a way of identifying the cells in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons are cells These individual units are cells as understood from other tissues in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • mirror neurons are an exciting, intriguing discovery - but when you see them mentioned in the media, remember that most of the research on these cells has been conducted in monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike Cajal-Retzius cells, these neurons are reelin-negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurocytology: Fine Structure of Neurons, Nerve Processes, and Neuroglial Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH neurons, or Gonadotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons, are the cells in the brain that control the release of reproductive hormones from the pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most GnRH neurons are born from stem cells in the nasal placode (embryonic nasal tissue). (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • p. 254 Their presence in the brains of these species supports this theory, pointing towards the existence of these specialized neurons only in highly intelligent mammals, and may be an example of convergent evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such neurons have been directly observed in primate species. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitable
  • All neurons are electrically excitable, due to maintenance of voltage gradients across their membranes by means of metabolically driven ion pumps, which combine with ion channels embedded in the membrane to generate intracellular-versus-extracellular concentration differences of ions such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitters
  • GnRH neurons receive input from classical neurotransmitters like glutamate and GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to classical neurotransmitters, some guidance molecules can change the wiring of GnRH neurons to the portal capillary system, altering the strength of the signal to the pituitary gland GnRH neurons integrate information from the body to regulate reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • If I wanted to limber up my neurons, doing so online seemed a good idea -- it required no special game-playing equipment, for example -- so I set out to test a few brain-training sites. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Neurons aren't only found in the brain. (amnh.org)
  • A human brain may have as many as ________ connections between neurons. (amnh.org)
  • A human brain may contain as many as 100 billion neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Each neuron can connect to at least 1,000 other neurons, so a brain may have as many as 100 trillion connections! (amnh.org)
  • A human brain has 100 billion neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Which animal's brain has 1 billion neurons? (amnh.org)
  • A frog brain has about 16 million neurons. (amnh.org)
  • As the disease progresses, tau-a malformed protein that forms snarls and tangles inside neurons-shows up in more and more brain areas. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Nina is a neuroscientist who enlists the help of five Neurons (animated characters representing the senses) in her brain to answer a scientific question. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the adult brain generally do not undergo cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flies possess two H1 neurons, one in each hemisphere of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The observation that spindle neurons only occur in a highly significant group of animals (from a human point of view) has led to speculation that they are of great importance in human evolution and/or brain function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allman and his colleagues have delved beyond the level of brain infrastructure to investigate how spindle neurons function at the superstructural level, focusing on their role as 'air traffic controllers' for emotions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroscientists such as Marco Iacoboni (UCLA) have argued that mirror neuron systems in the human brain help us understand the actions and intentions of other people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reports on mirror neurons have been widely published and confirmed with mirror neurons found in both inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pioneer neuron is a cell that is a derivative of the preplate in the early stages of corticogenesis of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, two research groups independently discovered that GnRH neurons, which in adults are scattered throughout the hypothalamus, do not originate in this region of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • On their journey from nose to brain, GnRH neurons pass through nasal tissue, the early skull, and move through several regions of the forebrain before reaching their destinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH neurons that fail to enter the brain, or that migrate to the wrong region, are not functional and can even undergo programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This failure of GnRH neurons to migrate into the brain is the main cause of Kallmann Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • axons
  • It is thought that axons of pioneer neurons, pioneer axons, serve as a pathway for additional neurons that develop later in the embryo and project their axons to the appropriate target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some sources mention that such neurons have no axons and only dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • retina
  • The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three-neuron chain consisting of the photoreceptor (either a rod or cone), bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • connections
  • Yet, ironically, I can remember quite well the fact that as we age, some of the connections between our neurons begin to deteriorate. (washingtonpost.com)
  • But millions of new connections between neurons form with every new experience and everything you learn. (amnh.org)
  • Failure of GnRH neurons to form the proper connections, or failure to successfully stimulate the pituitary with GnRH, means that puberty is not initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • This activity pattern of neurons is a phenomenon seen in various neural circuits throughout the body and is seen in single neuron models and within clusters of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons that are involved significantly in diseases such as Alzheimers or Parkinsons diseases are shown to undergo phase resetting before launching into phase locking where clusters of neurons are able to begin firing rapidly to communicate information quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The study of neuron synchrony could provide information on the differences that occur in neural states such as normal and diseased states. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The term "HSD2 neurons" is used in the scientific literature to refer to a subpopulation of neurons in the NTS which express both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). (wikipedia.org)
  • ventral
  • On the other hand, binocular neurons in the ventral extrastriate area (V4) show weaker anticorrelated responses in comparison to the other areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • brains
  • All animal brains are made up of neurons. (amnh.org)
  • The appearance of spindle neurons in distantly related clades suggests that they represent convergent evolution, specifically an adaptation to larger brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the rat, pioneer neurons are only present in prenatal brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • receive
  • As in flies, these neurons receive input from both eyes and are sensitive to optic flow rotations corresponding to movement of the flying insect's body, suggesting motion sensitive neurons are an essential component of optomotor responses throughout the insect kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • Their lack of expression of the aforementioned markers suggests that HSD2 neurons form a unique subpopulation within the NTS. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Critics believe that the less restrictive category of "command-like" neurons would repair the flaws in the overly strict Kupfermann and Weiss definition while more accurately classifying the role of single neurons in command decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Artificial neurons are designed to mimic aspects of their biological counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrites - In a biological neuron, the dendrites act as the input vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soma - In a biological neuron, the soma acts as the summation function, seen in the above mathematical description. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most artificial neurons, however, biological neurons fire in discrete pulses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is this conversion that allows computer scientists and mathematicians to simulate biological neural networks using artificial neurons which can output distinct values (often from −1 to 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • sends
  • To respond to image motion, the H1 neuron sends action potentials of varying frequency to the contralateral lobula plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • A neuron is a specialized type of cell found in the bodies of all eumetozoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons sensitive to motion during flight are not specific to flies, and have been found in numerous nondipterous insect groups including Odonata, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that some neurons responded when the monkey observed a person picking up a piece of food, and also when the monkey itself picked up the food. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract
  • A binding neuron (BN) is an abstract mathematical model of the electrical activity of a neuron, closely related to well-known integrate-and-fire model. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • Children with the rare Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease , like others who lack the usual insulating sheaths on their neurons, have trouble controlling their muscles, and often develop serious neurological and motor problems early in life. (discovermagazine.com)
  • specific
  • The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried have now shown for the first time that contact points between specific neuron types are clustered in groups on the target neuron. (innovations-report.com)
  • Depending on the specific model used they may be called a semi-linear unit, Nv neuron, binary neuron, linear threshold function, or McCulloch-Pitts (MCP) neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • monkeys
  • A University of Tsukuba-led study of gaze fixation in monkeys and their refusal to redirect the gaze onto a target in return for a reward reveals that dopamine neurons are key to inhibiting preplanned actions. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists
  • However, there are scientists who express skepticism about the theories being advanced to explain the function of mirror neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have discovered how guidance molecules cause GnRH neurons to speed up or slow down. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Simple artificial neurons, such as the McCulloch-Pitts model, are sometimes described as "caricature models", since they are intended to reflect one or more neurophysiological observations, but without regard to realism. (wikipedia.org)