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  • evidence
  • With a spiking neuron model and linear prediction, evidence is adduced that the neuron learns two components: (1) the level of average background activity and (2) specific spike times of a pattern. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • dendrites
  • Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAergic
  • In GABAergic neurons from the hippocampus, citron forms a complex with PSD-95 and is concentrated at the postsynaptic side of glutamatergic synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • CaM kinase II is not expressed and p135 SynGAP is expressed in less than half of hippocampal GABAergic neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In several other brain regions, citron is present in a subset of neurons that can be either GABAergic or glutamatergic and can sometimes express CaM kinase II. (jneurosci.org)
  • They are described as parvalbumin-containing and fast-spiking to distinguish them from other subtypes of GABAergic neurons, although more recent work has suggested that only a subset of chandelier cells test positive for parvalbumin by immunostaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • 8 Neuron Structure and Function Synapse: where neuron interacts with another cell to transmit a nerve impulse Most neurons are nourished or insulated by cells called glia Schwann cells of glia produce mielin sheath, which increases speed of transmission. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Here, we describe an additional signaling molecule that interacts with PSD-95 at synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • originate
  • Most of the neurons originate in the primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus, Brodmann area 4) or the premotor frontal areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 30% of corticospinal neurons originate in the primary motor cortex, 30% more in premotor cortex and supplementary motor areas, with the remaining 40% distributed between the somatosensory cortex, the parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oculomotor PNS fibers originate in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the central nervous system and travel through the superior orbital fissure to synapse in the ciliary ganglion located just behind the orbit (eye). (wikipedia.org)
  • Upper motor neurons originate in the motor cortex located in the precentral gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to their targets, motor neurons are classified into three broad categories: Somatic motor neurons Special visceral motor neurons General visceral motor neurons Somatic motor neurons originate in the central nervous system, project their axons to skeletal muscles (such as the muscles of the limbs, abdominal, and intercostal muscles), which are involved in locomotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel Prize
  • With this work, which won him the Nobel Prize in 1906, he discovered that neurons are separated from one another by narrow gaps. (athabascau.ca)
  • Sir John Carew Eccles AC FRS FRACP FRSNZ FAA (27 January 1903 - 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve cells
  • The brain can deal with its complicated tasks only when the nerve cells manage to exchange information at the right time and place via their synapses. (mail-archive.com)
  • The matter was finally resolved in 1950s with the development of electron microscopy by which it was unambiguously demonstrated that nerve cells were individual cells interconnected through synapses to form a nervous system, thereby validating the neuron theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • hyperpolarization
  • Increased magnitude of hyperpolarization, possibly a result of dysfunctional calcium regulation, leads to decreased firing rate of neurons and decreased plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hyperpolarization of a neuron can be divided into three stages: the fast, medium and slow hyperpolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In aged neurons, the medium and slow hyperpolarization phases involve the prolonged opening of calcium-dependent potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • innervate
  • The nerves that synapse in the prevertebral ganglia innervate the pelvic viscera. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single motor neuron may innervate many muscle fibres and a muscle fibre can undergo many action potentials in the time taken for a single muscle twitch. (wikipedia.org)
  • astrocytes
  • In particular, we have yet to fully understand: 1) how physiologically and molecularly heterogeneous are astrocytes, 2) how uniform or variable the astrocyte effects are on neurons at various synapses and circuits throughout the CNS, and 3) under what conditions and by what mechanisms do astrocytes modulate neuronal activity? (frontiersin.org)
  • We are launching this Research Topic to explore recent advances in understanding how astrocytes listen and speak to neurons to shape cell-cell communication and physiological circuit activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • caudal
  • Below L3, relevant neurons pass into the fasciculus gracilis (usually associated with the dorsal column-medial lemniscal system) until L3 where they synapse with Clarke's nucleus (leading to considerable caudal enlargement). (wikipedia.org)
  • terminals
  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/ 081202115201.htm Why We Remember Important Things And Forget Trivia: Neuron's Synapses Remodel Themselves enlarge Only when the transmission terminals (on the red cells) and the receiver stations (on the green cells) are in the right proportion to each other can communication actually take place in the brain. (mail-archive.com)
  • While the number of synapses is reduced when the flow of information weakens, new transmitter terminals emerge elsewhere in a seemingly balanced fashion. (mail-archive.com)
  • molecules
  • Also shown is the diffusion of neurotransmitter molecules across the synapse to receptor sites on the postsynaptic dendrite. (medillsb.com)
  • Two mechanisms that aid in the reinnervation process are acute inflammation and the activation of molecules in the extracellular matrix surrounding the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • The axons of motor neurons begin to appear in the fourth week of development from the ventral region of the ventral-dorsal axis (the basal plate). (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these neurons are "first order" or "primary" and are sensory (and thus have their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion). (wikipedia.org)
  • They pass through Rexed laminae layers I-VI of the dorsal horn to form synapses with "second order" or "secondary" neurons in the layer just beneath the dorsal horn (layer VII). (wikipedia.org)
  • ganglia
  • Parasympathetic nerve supply arises through three primary areas: Some of the cranial nerves in the cranium, namely the preganglionic parasympathetic nerves (CN III, CN VII, and CN IX) usually arise from specific nuclei in the central nervous system (CNS) and synapse at one of four parasympathetic ganglia: ciliary, pterygopalatine, otic, or submandibular. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the thoracic and cutaneous nerves, the ANS nerves destined for the pelvic viscera continue through the paravertebral ganglia without synapsing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead of synapsing, they continue through splanchnic nerves until they reach a prevertebral ganglia (located proximally to their target organ). (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • The cover depicts the conversion of the silent synapse (lower left, blue) into the functional one (upper right, red), induced by high-level neuronal activity (red background and the white spike train). (bioguider.com)
  • With neuronal heterogeneity (by Edelman called degeneracy), it is possible to test the many circuits (on the order of 30 billion neurons with an estimated one quadrillion connections between them in the human brain) with a diverse set of inputs, to see which neuronal groups respond "appropriately" statistically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axotomy may cause neuronal cell death, especially in embryonic or neonatal animals, as this is the period in which neurons are dependent on their targets for the supply of survival factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mature animals, where survival factors are derived locally or via autocrine loops, axotomy of peripheral neurons and motoneurons can lead to a robust regenerative response without any neuronal death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatolysis is characterized as the dissolution of protein-producing structures in the cell body of a neuron and is a term used to characterize apoptosis of neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Depending on where, how many and how often synapses are activated, the cell relays the signal onward - or not. (innovations-report.com)
  • Edelman theorized that cell proliferation, cell migration, cell death, neuron arbor distribution, and neurite branching are also governed by similar selective processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the peripheral response, the axotomy response in central neurons (neurons in the Central Nervous System) almost always leads to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The OLIG2 gene being the most important due to its role in promoting Ngn2 expression, a gene that causes cell cycle exiting as well as promoting further transcription factors associated with motor neuron development. (wikipedia.org)
  • NIF Search - Chandelier Cell[permanent dead link] via the Neuroscience Information Framework Cortical Development - images of chandelier neurons and information on their developmental changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • How chandelier cells light up human thought - A type of brain cell called a chandelier neuron might be what gives us the edge over other mammals in thought and language, New Scientist, 3 September 2008 Woodruff A, Yuste R (September 2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuron doctrine, as it became known, served to position neurons as special cases under the broader cell theory evolved some decades earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is true of other examples such as connections between horizontal cells of the retina, or the Mauthner cell synapse in goldfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior
  • The anterior corticospinal tract neurons, the remaining 10%, stay on the same side of the body, and control the trunk muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • The existence of these clusters suggests that the synapses interact with each other to control the strength of the combined signal," explains Onur Gökçe, author of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • This rhythmic activity, which probably influences the processing of visual information, could synchronously activate synapse clusters, thus boosting the overall signal received," says Scheuss. (innovations-report.com)
  • fibers
  • Muscle spindles fibers are complicated systems of length monitoring within muscles which result in information being carried via Ia neurons (larger and faster than Ib) (from both nuclear bag fibers and nuclear chain fibers) and II neurons (solely from nuclear chain fibers). (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, an experimental physiologist, produced in 1906 a brilliant speculation based solely on behavioral data, that a specialized type of communication occurs at these synapses: 'It is as if the Milky Way entered upon some cosmic dance. (athabascau.ca)
  • In his comments, Ege T. Kavalali, a renowned neuroscientist from the Center for Basic Neuroscience, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, points out the work "provides a fresh look at these silent synapses and their switching to active ones," and "brings a clear mechanistic insight to this type of off/on switching, which occurs during early synaptic development contributing to the plasticity of synaptic networks. (bioguider.com)
  • This occurs through the strengthening of neuron-to-neuron synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • In 2001, Sutton and colleagues proposed that intermediate-term memory possesses the following three characteristics: Its induction requires translation, but not transcription Its expression requires the persistent activation of protein kinase A and protein kinase C It declines completely before the onset of long-term memory Because intermediate-term memory does not involve transcription, it likely involves the translation of mRNA transcripts already present in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • They believed that the conversion would be the basis for maturation of synapses and the human neurological functions such as learning and memory. (bioguider.com)
  • gamma
  • TC neurons exhibit gamma oscillation when depolarized to greater than -45 mV, and the frequency of oscillation is related to the degree of depolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • In 1871, Ramon y Cajal (a Spanish neuroscientist and artist) described the structure of the neuron which he illuminated using a silver staining process. (athabascau.ca)
  • Neuron theory is an example of consilience where low level theories are absorbed into higher level theories that explain the base data as part of higher order structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • circuits
  • We are keen to receive submissions on astrocyte functions pertaining to circuits in specific physiological systems towards the overall goal of highlighting shared principles and heterogeneity of astrocyte-neuron interactions across different brain regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • types
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried have now shown for the first time that contact points between specific neuron types are clustered in groups on the target neuron. (innovations-report.com)
  • The axon cartridges formed by chandelier cells are one of the synapse types which show the most dramatic changes during normal adolescence, which could potentially be relevant to the adult onset of psychiatric disease. (wikipedia.org)