• synaptic
  • Perhaps the cells form new synapses to inhibitory nerve cells, which would reduce the transmission of synaptic information even more', Nadine Becker speculates on her results. (mail-archive.com)
  • Previously, scientists made observations on the silent synapse, which has the synaptic structure but cannot spread the signals. (bioguider.com)
  • However, Prof. Duan and colleagues have found another scenario in which the silent synapse was found to have AMPA receptors and the reason responsible for its silence lies in the pre-synaptic neuron that cannot release the transmission agent: glutamate acid. (bioguider.com)
  • Also, the team discovers that the enhancement of the pre-synaptic activity can rapidly transform a "silent synapse" into a functional one. (bioguider.com)
  • In his comments, Ege T. Kavalali, a renowned neuroscientist from the Center for Basic Neuroscience, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, points out the work "provides a fresh look at these silent synapses and their switching to active ones," and "brings a clear mechanistic insight to this type of off/on switching, which occurs during early synaptic development contributing to the plasticity of synaptic networks. (bioguider.com)
  • The synapse consists of three elements: 1) the presynaptic membrane which is formed by the terminal button of an axon, 2) the postsynaptic membrane which is composed of a segment of dendrite or cell body, and 3) the space between these two structures which is called the synaptic cleft. (athabascau.ca)
  • Image of the synaptic cleft between two neurons. (medillsb.com)
  • In contrast to citron, p135 SynGAP, an abundant synaptic Ras GTPase-activating protein that can bind to all three PDZ domains of PSD-95, and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) are concentrated postsynaptically at glutamatergic synapses on glutamatergic neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • we next show that the membrane behaves like an electrical (resistance-capacitance) RC circuit and highlight the notion of "membrane time constant" and, consequently, the ability of neurons to summate (in time) successive (synaptic) inputs ("electrical memory") - a fundamental mechanism utilized by the brain. (coursera.org)
  • We will also show that when the synapse is activated, it generates an analog electrical signal ("the post-synaptic potential", PSP) in the receiving ("post-synaptic") cell. (coursera.org)
  • At the neuron's synapse, it reduces synaptic vesicle release. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • The cover depicts the conversion of the silent synapse (lower left, blue) into the functional one (upper right, red), induced by high-level neuronal activity (red background and the white spike train). (bioguider.com)
  • In particular, we have yet to fully understand: 1) how physiologically and molecularly heterogeneous are astrocytes, 2) how uniform or variable the astrocyte effects are on neurons at various synapses and circuits throughout the CNS, and 3) under what conditions and by what mechanisms do astrocytes modulate neuronal activity? (frontiersin.org)
  • You will then become intimately acquainted with the operational principles of neuronal "life-ware" (synapses, neurons and the networks that they form) and consequently, on how neurons behave as computational microchips and how they plastically and constantly change - a process that underlies learning and memory. (coursera.org)
  • With neuronal heterogeneity (by Edelman called degeneracy), it is possible to test the many circuits (on the order of 30 billion neurons with an estimated one quadrillion connections between them in the human brain) with a diverse set of inputs, to see which neuronal groups respond "appropriately" statistically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axotomy may cause neuronal cell death, especially in embryonic or neonatal animals, as this is the period in which neurons are dependent on their targets for the supply of survival factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mature animals, where survival factors are derived locally or via autocrine loops, axotomy of peripheral neurons and motoneurons can lead to a robust regenerative response without any neuronal death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatolysis is characterized as the dissolution of protein-producing structures in the cell body of a neuron and is a term used to characterize apoptosis of neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel Prize
  • With this work, which won him the Nobel Prize in 1906, he discovered that neurons are separated from one another by narrow gaps. (athabascau.ca)
  • Sir John Carew Eccles AC FRS FRACP FRSNZ FAA (27 January 1903 - 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAergic
  • In GABAergic neurons from the hippocampus, citron forms a complex with PSD-95 and is concentrated at the postsynaptic side of glutamatergic synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • CaM kinase II is not expressed and p135 SynGAP is expressed in less than half of hippocampal GABAergic neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In several other brain regions, citron is present in a subset of neurons that can be either GABAergic or glutamatergic and can sometimes express CaM kinase II. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, in the hippocampus, signal transduction complexes associated with postsynaptic NMDA receptors are different in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and are specialized in a way that is specific to the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • They are described as parvalbumin-containing and fast-spiking to distinguish them from other subtypes of GABAergic neurons, although more recent work has suggested that only a subset of chandelier cells test positive for parvalbumin by immunostaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • astrocytes
  • We are launching this Research Topic to explore recent advances in understanding how astrocytes listen and speak to neurons to shape cell-cell communication and physiological circuit activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • caudal
  • There are 13 Hox transcription factors and- along with the signals- these determine whether a motor neuron will be more rostral or caudal in character. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below L3, relevant neurons pass into the fasciculus gracilis (usually associated with the dorsal column-medial lemniscal system) until L3 where they synapse with Clarke's nucleus (leading to considerable caudal enlargement). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Two mechanisms that aid in the reinnervation process are acute inflammation and the activation of molecules in the extracellular matrix surrounding the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1906
  • Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, an experimental physiologist, produced in 1906 a brilliant speculation based solely on behavioral data, that a specialized type of communication occurs at these synapses: 'It is as if the Milky Way entered upon some cosmic dance. (athabascau.ca)
  • dorsal
  • The axons of motor neurons begin to appear in the fourth week of development from the ventral region of the ventral-dorsal axis (the basal plate). (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these neurons are "first order" or "primary" and are sensory (and thus have their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion). (wikipedia.org)
  • They pass through Rexed laminae layers I-VI of the dorsal horn to form synapses with "second order" or "secondary" neurons in the layer just beneath the dorsal horn (layer VII). (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • A group of CAS scientists recently made a research breakthrough in the development of synapse, the key structure of the nervous system that transmits signals from one nerve cell to another. (bioguider.com)
  • In the nervous system, the neuron, or nerve cell, is the fundamental unit that works by conducting electrical and chemical signals throughout the brain. (bioguider.com)
  • These signals are transmitted across synapses. (bioguider.com)
  • The neurobiologists were able to measure these signals at various contact points of the neuron. (innovations-report.com)
  • The exciting thing is that the signals that a cell receives from, say, ten simultaneously active synapses can be greater than the sum of the signals from the ten individual synapses," says Volker Scheuss, summarizing the basis of his recently published study. (innovations-report.com)
  • This is the first anatomical explanation for the disproportionate strength of clustered synapse signals in comparison to the individual signals - a finding known from activity measurements. (innovations-report.com)
  • Both types of TC neurons synapse on the pyramidal cortical cells which are thought to integrate the signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Depending on where, how many and how often synapses are activated, the cell relays the signal onward - or not. (innovations-report.com)
  • Edelman theorized that cell proliferation, cell migration, cell death, neuron arbor distribution, and neurite branching are also governed by similar selective processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the peripheral response, the axotomy response in central neurons (neurons in the Central Nervous System) almost always leads to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The OLIG2 gene being the most important due to its role in promoting Ngn2 expression, a gene that causes cell cycle exiting as well as promoting further transcription factors associated with motor neuron development. (wikipedia.org)
  • NIF Search - Chandelier Cell[permanent dead link] via the Neuroscience Information Framework Cortical Development - images of chandelier neurons and information on their developmental changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • How chandelier cells light up human thought - A type of brain cell called a chandelier neuron might be what gives us the edge over other mammals in thought and language, New Scientist, 3 September 2008 Woodruff A, Yuste R (September 2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuron doctrine, as it became known, served to position neurons as special cases under the broader cell theory evolved some decades earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is true of other examples such as connections between horizontal cells of the retina, or the Mauthner cell synapse in goldfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior
  • The anterior corticospinal tract neurons, the remaining 10%, stay on the same side of the body, and control the trunk muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • Muscle spindles fibers are complicated systems of length monitoring within muscles which result in information being carried via Ia neurons (larger and faster than Ib) (from both nuclear bag fibers and nuclear chain fibers) and II neurons (solely from nuclear chain fibers). (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctrine
  • As a result the neuron doctrine has multiple elements, each of which were the subject of low level theories, debate, and primary data collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Waldeyer himself was neutral on this point, and strictly speaking the neuron doctrine does not depend upon this element. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • They believed that the conversion would be the basis for maturation of synapses and the human neurological functions such as learning and memory. (bioguider.com)
  • nerve cells
  • The brain can deal with its complicated tasks only when the nerve cells manage to exchange information at the right time and place via their synapses. (mail-archive.com)
  • types
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried have now shown for the first time that contact points between specific neuron types are clustered in groups on the target neuron. (innovations-report.com)
  • The axon cartridges formed by chandelier cells are one of the synapse types which show the most dramatic changes during normal adolescence, which could potentially be relevant to the adult onset of psychiatric disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • gamma
  • TC neurons exhibit gamma oscillation when depolarized to greater than -45 mV, and the frequency of oscillation is related to the degree of depolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • The existence of these clusters suggests that the synapses interact with each other to control the strength of the combined signal," explains Onur Gökçe, author of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • circuits
  • We are keen to receive submissions on astrocyte functions pertaining to circuits in specific physiological systems towards the overall goal of highlighting shared principles and heterogeneity of astrocyte-neuron interactions across different brain regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • regulation
  • These trophic factors are responsible for the regulation of neuron vitality and are a critical aspect of neuroprotection. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Thanks to simultaneous "calcium imaging", they were then able to observe and record the activity of individual synapses under a two-photon microscope. (innovations-report.com)
  • This rhythmic activity, which probably influences the processing of visual information, could synchronously activate synapse clusters, thus boosting the overall signal received," says Scheuss. (innovations-report.com)
  • These neurons are capable of inhibiting thalamocortical activity via their direct connections to TCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/ 081202115201.htm Why We Remember Important Things And Forget Trivia: Neuron's Synapses Remodel Themselves enlarge Only when the transmission terminals (on the red cells) and the receiver stations (on the green cells) are in the right proportion to each other can communication actually take place in the brain. (mail-archive.com)
  • Up to now, only the receiving side of a synapse was believed to play an active role in this reorganization of the brain, which is thought to underlie our ability to learn but also to forget. (mail-archive.com)
  • You will become intimately acquainted with the beauty and variety of neurons - the elementary building block/microchips of the brain. (coursera.org)
  • cells
  • They asked whether the neuron is a separate "independent" unit (like other cells in other tissues) or whether it is part of a continuum? (coursera.org)
  • The term neuron (spelled neurone in British English) was itself coined by Waldeyer as a way of identifying the cells in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons are cells These individual units are cells as understood from other tissues in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • directly
  • Furthermore, since this novel experimental approach enabled them to watch the contacts between boutons and spines breaking down directly under the microscope, the scientists were able to verify that the reduction in the number of spines does, in fact, result in the loss of synapses. (mail-archive.com)