• cortical
  • NIF Search - Chandelier Cell[permanent dead link] via the Neuroscience Information Framework Cortical Development - images of chandelier neurons and information on their developmental changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unless stimulated by cortical input the striatal neurons are usually inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory studies the mechanisms by which visual neurons at the earliest stages of cortical processing are influenced not only by "bottom up" visual inputs but also in "top down" manner by mental state, including attention and expectation. (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • In general terms, the highest density of parvalbumin stain is in the nuclei of the ventral nuclear group (i.e. in the ventral anterior, ventral lateral and ventral posterior nuclei) and in the medial and lateral geniculate nuclear groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, calbindin and calretinin also show low levels of staining in the ventral nuclear group and in the medial and lateral geniculate bodies which overlaps with the intense parvalbumin staining in these regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • axon
  • Basket cells make up 5-10% of total neurons in the cortex.There are three types of basket cells in the cortex, the small, large and nest type: The axon of a small basket cell arborizes in the vicinity of that same cell's dendritic range, this axon is short. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical neuron consists of a cell body (soma), dendrites, and an axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most neurons receive signals via the dendrites and send out signals down the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell body of a neuron frequently gives rise to multiple dendrites, but never to more than one axon, although the axon may branch hundreds of times before it terminates. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the majority of synapses, signals are sent from the axon of one neuron to a dendrite of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are, however, many exceptions to these rules: for example, neurons can lack dendrites, or have no axon, and synapses can connect an axon to another axon or a dendrite to another dendrite. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical neuron is divided into three parts: the soma or cell body, dendrites, and axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells that have also been observed to turn into neurons by virtue of the stem cell characteristic pluripotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body's neurons, plus the glial cells that give them structural and metabolic support, together constitute the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium binding protein that identifies a subpopulation of proprioceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In naive animals, the mean PV expression was 25 % of L4 or L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and this was unchanged 2 weeks after sciatic nerve axotomy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gabapentin also caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the V 1/2 of I h measured from HCN4-expressing PV + inhibitory neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. (frontiersin.org)
  • olfactory
  • The route that newly generated neurons take from the anterior subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb is called the rostral migratory stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The earliest genetically targeted method that used light to control rhodopsin-sensitized neurons was reported in January 2002, by Boris Zemelman (now at UT Austin) and Gero Miesenböck, who employed Drosophila rhodopsin cultured mammalian neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2005, Karl Deisseroth's laboratory in the Bioengineering Department at Stanford including graduate students Ed Boyden and Feng Zhang (both now at MIT) published the first demonstration of a single-component optogenetic system in cultured mammalian neurons, using the channelrhodopsin-2(H134R)-eYFP construct from Nagel and Hegemann. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Consistent with this, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the majority of CR + inhibitory neurons do not express somatic HCN4 channels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the peripheral nervous system, which comprises the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrically
  • Indeed, the transfected neurons became electrically active in response to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neuron, also known as a neurone and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • All neurons are electrically excitable, due to maintenance of voltage gradients across their membranes by means of metabolically driven ion pumps, which combine with ion channels embedded in the membrane to generate intracellular-versus-extracellular concentration differences of ions such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • dopaminergic
  • They showed that photostimulation of genetically circumscribed groups of neurons, such as those of the dopaminergic system, elicited characteristic behavioural changes in fruit flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations
  • Alterations in the function of parvalbumin-expressing neurons have been implicated in various areas of clinical interest such as Alzheimer's disease, age-related cognitive defects and some forms of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Gamma oscillations of the local field potential are organized by collective dynamics of numerous neurons and have many functional roles in cognition and/or attention. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • excitability
  • The features that define a neuron are electrical excitability and the presence of synapses, which are complex membrane junctions that transmit signals to other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thalamus
  • According to Jones (2001) there are two primary types of relay neurons in the thalamus of primates-core cells and matrix cells-each creating distinct pathways to various parts and layers throughout the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • colocalization
  • Colocalization studies with the injury marker activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) showed that approximately 24 % of PV neurons expressed ATF3 after sciatic nerve axotomy suggesting that PV may show a phenotypic switch from injured to uninjured neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Co-labelling of DRG neurons revealed that less than 2 % of PV neurons normally expressed CGRP and no colocalization was seen after injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • activity
  • Although many of the single-unit responses showed a marked suppression in activity, a large population of auditory neurons exhibited an excited response to self-generated vocalization. (jneurosci.org)
  • Control (or recording) of activity is restricted to genetically defined neurons and performed in a spatiotemporal-specific manner by light. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • One hypothesis linking delusions in schizophrenia to dopamine suggests that unstable representation of expectations in prefrontal neurons occurs in psychotic states due to insufficient D1 and NMDA receptor stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal cord
  • Sensory neurons respond to one particular type of stimuli such as touch, sound, or light and all other stimuli affecting the cells of the sensory organs, and converts it into an electrical signal via transduction, which is then sent to the spinal cord or brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord to cause everything from muscle contractions and affect glandular outputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Optogenetics (from Greek optikós, meaning 'seen, visible') is a biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • An earlier use of light to activate neurons was carried out by Richard Fork, who demonstrated laser activation of neurons within intact tissue, although not in a genetically-targeted manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral
  • His laboratory has discovered fundamental principles by which neurons of the cerebral cortex are wired during development and change dynamically in adulthood. (wikipedia.org)