• rats
  • Peptide immunocytochemistry in afferent neurons from lower gut in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recordings were made from CCK-sensitive RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons in halothane-anesthetized, paralyzed male Sprague-Dawley rats. (physiology.org)
  • In all cases ( n = 6 neurons in 6 individual rats), dizocilpine inhibited the effects of CCK, PBG, and PE on RVLM presympathetic neuronal discharge. (physiology.org)
  • Enhanced excitability of sensory neurons in rats with cutaneous hyperalgesia produced by chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in rats (where these neurons have been most extensively studied) in general have a single long varicose axon, which projects to the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, HSD2 neurons have been identified and studied only in rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone is not necessary for HSD2 neuron activation because this can be evoked by sodium deprivation even in rats without adrenal glands, which are the exclusive source of circulating aldosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • Activation of vagal afferent fibers results in inhibition of food intake, gastric emptying, and stimulation of pancreatic secretion. (eurekaselect.com)
  • the gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is a powerful stimulant of gastrointestinal vagal afferent nerve fibers ( 1 , 12 , 24 , 25 ) and has selective effects on sympathetic vasomotor outflow that are dependent on intact vagal afferents ( 17 ). (physiology.org)
  • The cell bodies of visceral afferent fibers of the vagus nerve are located bilaterally in the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve (nodose ganglia). (wikipedia.org)
  • C-fiber nociceptors that respond only to mechanical stimuli are called C-mechanonociceptors (C-M). Other groups of C fibers include C-fiber low threshold mechanoreceptors (C-LT), which are involved in nondiscriminative touch, and mechanically insensitive afferents (MIA), which lack mechanosensitivity and are also known as "silent" or "sleeping" nociceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • To investigate whether activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in damaged and/or undamaged primary afferents participates in neuropathic pain after partial nerve injury, we examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our results demonstrate that the L5 SNL induces differential activation of MAPK in injured and uninjured DRG neurons and, furthermore, that MAPK activation in the primary afferents may participate in generating pain hypersensitivity after partial nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • All of these neuropathic pain models are made by partial nerve injury, in which some primary afferents are axotomized and the others are spared. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, there has been no study examining MAPK activation in adjacent uninjured DRG neurons after partial nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • The vagal nerve conveys primary afferent information from the intestinal mucosa to the brain stem. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We have recently shown that sensory vagal and somato-sensory (sciatic nerve) inputs converge in neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata, which was implicated in adjusting visceral activities to changing somatic performances. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Axons of ganglion neurons converge at the optic disk to form the optic nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nerve fiber that transmits information from the neuron is known as the A. dendrit e. (coursehero.com)
  • Two examples where the nerve ending of the distal process is encapsulated as such are, Meissner's corpuscles, which render the distal processes of mechanosensory neurons sensitive to stroking only, and Pacinian corpuscles, which make neurons more sensitive to vibration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments with conventional tracers and immunofluorescence staining have demonstrated peripheral viscerosensory input from the vagus nerve, input from nearby neurons in the NTS and area postrema, and descending input from the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, electrical recordings from single afferent nerve fibres have shown that the responses of Merkel nerve endings are characterized by a vigorous response to the onset of a mechanical ramp stimulus (dynamic), and then continued firing during the plateau phase (static). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • We conclude that information about tactile stimuli in timing of spikes in primary afferents, even if limited to the first spikes, surpasses that contained in firing rates and that these measures of afferents' responses might capture different aspects of the stimulus. (diva-portal.org)
  • Double-labeling studies revealed that nodose neurons responded to 5-HT-dependent luminal stimuli contain mainly glutamate and substance P. Over the past year or so it has become clear that there are multiple possible excitatory inputs to a common vagal afferent route with synergistic interactions being common. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The two primary types of chemoreceptors are: Distance chemoreceptors are integral to receiving stimuli in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the vomeronasal organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the threshold of HT channels was lowered in the presence of PGE2 (a compound that sensitizes neurons to mechanical stimuli and mechanical hyperalgesia) which further supports a role for HT channels in the transduction of mechanical stimuli into nociceptive neuronal signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers believe that the ability of various somatosensory receptor neurons to respond to specific stimuli is a result of "combinational expression" of various ion channels in each specific neuronal class. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • Bathing solutions containing low Ca2+ eliminated synaptic transmission in the slices but failed to block the excitatory effects of L-glutamate for the majority of the neurons tested. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurons insensitive to L-glutamate were more broadly distributed, with a number being located in laminae III-V. Kynurenic acid, 2-amino-4- phosphonobutyric acid, and 2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid selectively antagonized rapid, short-lasting synaptic components of the dorsal cord potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • Unlike the majority of neurons found in the central nervous system, an action potential in posterior root ganglion neuron may initiate in the distal process in the periphery, bypass the cell body, and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal in the posterior horn of spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that HSD2 neurons probably release the excitatory transmitter glutamate onto their synaptic target neurons, as all Phox2b-expressing neurons in the NTS express the vescicular glutamate transporter VGlut2. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagal afferents
  • This review addresses the role for both cholecytokinin (CCK) and serotonin (5-HT) released from enteroendocrine cells and acting as paracrine agents on the terminals of vagal afferents in responses to a number of luminal signals. (eurekaselect.com)
  • rostral ventrol
  • Systemic administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic vasomotor neurons. (physiology.org)
  • In accord with its effects on sympathetic vasomotor outflow, CCK selectively inhibits the discharge of a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons ( 17 , 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • axons
  • The cell sizes indicate that small diameter CGRP-immunoreactive cells and most LA4-immunoreactive cells are likely to have unmyelinated axons, and together the two populations can account for the great majority of unmyelinated trigeminal primary afferent neurons. (wright.edu)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, afferents refer to the axons that relay sensory information into the central nervous system (i.e. the brain and the spinal cord). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Interaction between CCK-A receptor and OB-Rs in these neurons likely facilitates leptin mediation of short-term satiety. (eurekaselect.com)
  • To determine the specific VTA neuronal targets of VP afferents and their sensitivity to mu opioid receptor agonists, we virally expressed channel rhodopsin (ChR2) in rat VP neurons and optogenetically activated their terminals in the VTA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Light activation of VP neuron terminals elicited GABAergic IPSCs in both dopamine (DA) and non-DA VTA neurons, and these IPSCs were inhibited by the mu opioid receptor agonist DAMGO. (jneurosci.org)
  • The neurocircuitry that mediates arterial baroreflex-mediated inhibition of RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons and sympathetic vasomotor outflow is described by a trisynaptic model, which includes N -methyl- d -aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated activation of propriomedullary GABAergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla ( 6 , 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • FGF-2 potentiates Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of NMDA receptor currents in hippocampal neurons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "HSD2 neurons" is used in the scientific literature to refer to a subpopulation of neurons in the NTS which express both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Such a scheme may also be applicable in the case of CCK-induced inhibition of RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons ( 21 ). (physiology.org)
  • Sciatico-vagal inhibition is likely to affect the activity of those RVLM neurons that modulate higher neuronal activities via ascending projections. (gla.ac.uk)
  • axon
  • A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and its processes, an axon and one or more dendrites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A neuron whose axon crosses to the opposite side of the brain or spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A neuron whose axon carries motor impulses away from the brain or spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A neuron with one axon and many dendrites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in an autonomic ganglion and whose axon terminates in a visceral effector (smooth or cardiac muscle or glands). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in the central nervous system and whose axon terminates in a peripheral ganglion, synapsing with postganglionic neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These neurons are of the pseudo-unipolar type, meaning they have an axon with two branches that act as a single axon, often referred to as a distal process and a proximal process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soma-the cell body of the neuron Axon: which relays information from the soma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a neuron, the dendrite receives information from another neuron's axon at the synapse, and the axon sends information to the next neuron's dendrites, even though the dendrite may be covered with myelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • A neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system either to muscle tissue to stimulate contraction or to glandular tissue to stimulate secretion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • RVLM
  • RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons are considered to play a major role in the generation of sympathetic vasomotor outflow, control of sympathetic cardiovascular reflexes, and arterial blood pressure ( 3 , 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • Second, the selectivity of CCK for a subpopulation of RVLM presympathetic neurons may suggest that CCK-sensitive neurons preferentially receive vagal afferent input from the gastrointestinal tract ( 21 ). (physiology.org)
  • peripheral
  • Furthermore, the contribution of JNK activation in sensory neurons to pain is unknown, although peripheral axotomy has been shown to induce JNK/SAPK activation in DRG neurons ( Kenney and Kocsis, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • activation
  • In the injured L5 DRG, the L5 SNL induced the activation of ERK, p38, and JNK in different populations of DRG neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, in the uninjured L4 DRG, the L5 SNL induced only p38 activation in tyrosine kinase A-expressing small- to medium-diameter neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • As afferents do not project directly into the lumen, their activation depends on an intermediary step, i.e. neuronal activation by a secondary substance released from within the mucosal epithelium. (eurekaselect.com)
  • There is little detailed data on central activation for contagious itching, but it is hypothesized that a human mirror neuron system exists in which we imitate certain motor actions when we view others performing the same action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike aldosterone-sensitive cells in epithelial tissues (e.g. in the kidney), the physiologic effects of aldosterone-MR activation in HSD2 neurons are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immediate-early gene, c-fos, has been used to study the activation and inactivation of HSD2 neurons extensively in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • extensively
  • Although information in tactile afferent neurons represented by firing rates has been studied extensively over nearly a century, recent studies suggest that precise spike timing might be more important than firing rates. (diva-portal.org)
  • GABAergic
  • Both of these actions decrease GABAergic input onto VTA neurons, revealing two mechanisms by which endogenous or exogenous opioids can activate VTA neurons, including DA neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, VTA DA neurons also receive dense GABAergic inputs from extrinsic sources and opioid control of these extrinsically derived inputs also robustly controls VTA DA neuron firing (see below). (jneurosci.org)
  • innervation
  • Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • projections
  • After the cobalt ions were precipitated and intensified, we studied the central projections of the filled neurons within the ganglionic structures. (uncg.edu)
  • Our description of the central projections of the hair afferents is the first in the literature. (uncg.edu)
  • activate
  • Several other experimental conditions that reduce extracellular fluid volume-including PEG-hypovolemia, diuresis, and adrenalectomy-also activate HSD2 neurons, although none do so to as great an extent as simply removing sodium from the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • It is believed, however, that sensory neurons employ fast, mechanically gated cation channels, and that the depolarization that results across the membrane is followed by the generation of a sodium-dependent action potential at the transduction site. (wikipedia.org)