• stimuli
  • We conclude that information about tactile stimuli in timing of spikes in primary afferents, even if limited to the first spikes, surpasses that contained in firing rates and that these measures of afferents' responses might capture different aspects of the stimulus. (diva-portal.org)
  • Double-labeling studies revealed that nodose neurons responded to 5-HT-dependent luminal stimuli contain mainly glutamate and substance P. Over the past year or so it has become clear that there are multiple possible excitatory inputs to a common vagal afferent route with synergistic interactions being common. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The two primary types of chemoreceptors are: Distance chemoreceptors are integral to receiving stimuli in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the vomeronasal organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the threshold of HT channels was lowered in the presence of PGE2 (a compound that sensitizes neurons to mechanical stimuli and mechanical hyperalgesia) which further supports a role for HT channels in the transduction of mechanical stimuli into nociceptive neuronal signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers believe that the ability of various somatosensory receptor neurons to respond to specific stimuli is a result of "combinational expression" of various ion channels in each specific neuronal class. (wikipedia.org)
  • These interneurons act collectively, process and make sense of inbound stimuli, and stimulate effector neurons acting as an integration center. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Peptide immunocytochemistry in afferent neurons from lower gut in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recordings were made from CCK-sensitive RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons in halothane-anesthetized, paralyzed male Sprague-Dawley rats. (physiology.org)
  • In all cases ( n = 6 neurons in 6 individual rats), dizocilpine inhibited the effects of CCK, PBG, and PE on RVLM presympathetic neuronal discharge. (physiology.org)
  • Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in rats (where these neurons have been most extensively studied) in general have a single long varicose axon, which projects to the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, HSD2 neurons have been identified and studied only in rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone is not necessary for HSD2 neuron activation because this can be evoked by sodium deprivation even in rats without adrenal glands, which are the exclusive source of circulating aldosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • motor neurons
  • The slow and fast extensor motor neurons, the stretch receptor neurons, and the accessory cells branch mostly in the dorsal part of the ganglion. (uncg.edu)
  • Together with our previous descriptions of the flexor motor neurons, these results allow us to relate both rapid tail-flips and slower postural movements to the structure of the segmental ganglia. (uncg.edu)
  • dorsal root gan
  • To investigate whether activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in damaged and/or undamaged primary afferents participates in neuropathic pain after partial nerve injury, we examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. (jneurosci.org)
  • Among them, the L5 SNL model is unique because the L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are clearly separated from the axotomized L5 DRG neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Previous studies have show that in rat dorsal root ganglion cells CGRP coexists with most other known neuropeptides and can therefore be used as a general marker for peptide-containing primary afferents. (wright.edu)
  • The axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons are known as afferents. (wikipedia.org)
  • These channels are found predominantly in smaller sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion cells and are activated by higher pressures, two attributes that are characteristic of nociceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagus nerve
  • Sensory information (mechanical, chemical, osmotic) from the GI tract is transduced and transmitted centrally via the afferent vagus nerve, the cell bodies of which lie in the paired nodose ganglia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Once assimilated and integrated, NTS neurons relay this information to the adjacent dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) which contains the preganglionic parasympathetic motoneurons which provide the output response back to the upper GI tract via the efferent vagus nerve. (frontiersin.org)
  • Experiments with conventional tracers and immunofluorescence staining have demonstrated peripheral viscerosensory input from the vagus nerve, input from nearby neurons in the NTS and area postrema, and descending input from the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • Together, our results demonstrate that the L5 SNL induces differential activation of MAPK in injured and uninjured DRG neurons and, furthermore, that MAPK activation in the primary afferents may participate in generating pain hypersensitivity after partial nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • All of these neuropathic pain models are made by partial nerve injury, in which some primary afferents are axotomized and the others are spared. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, there has been no study examining MAPK activation in adjacent uninjured DRG neurons after partial nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • The vagal nerve conveys primary afferent information from the intestinal mucosa to the brain stem. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We have recently shown that sensory vagal and somato-sensory (sciatic nerve) inputs converge in neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata, which was implicated in adjusting visceral activities to changing somatic performances. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Axons of ganglion neurons converge at the optic disk to form the optic nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two examples where the nerve ending of the distal process is encapsulated as such are, Meissner's corpuscles, which render the distal processes of mechanosensory neurons sensitive to stroking only, and Pacinian corpuscles, which make neurons more sensitive to vibration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, electrical recordings from single afferent nerve fibres have shown that the responses of Merkel nerve endings are characterized by a vigorous response to the onset of a mechanical ramp stimulus (dynamic), and then continued firing during the plateau phase (static). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • A neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system either to muscle tissue to stimulate contraction or to glandular tissue to stimulate secretion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • nodose
  • Neurons of the nodose ganglia respond to intraduodenal perfusions of maltose, glucose, and hypertonic saline. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Several peptides were detected in primary sensory neurons located in nodose and dorsal root ganglia and projecting from rat cecum and rectosigmoid, through a combination of retrograde staining by the fluorescent tracer DY-2HCl and of the immunofluorescent procedure of Coons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • rostral ventrol
  • Systemic administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic vasomotor neurons. (physiology.org)
  • In accord with its effects on sympathetic vasomotor outflow, CCK selectively inhibits the discharge of a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons ( 17 , 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • axons
  • The cell sizes indicate that small diameter CGRP-immunoreactive cells and most LA4-immunoreactive cells are likely to have unmyelinated axons, and together the two populations can account for the great majority of unmyelinated trigeminal primary afferent neurons. (wright.edu)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, afferents refer to the axons that relay sensory information into the central nervous system (i.e. the brain and the spinal cord). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons are the excitable cells that process and transmit these reflex signals through their axons, dendrites, and cell bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axons directly facilitate intercellular communication projecting from the neuronal cell body to other neurons, local muscle tissue, glands and arterioles. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Interaction between CCK-A receptor and OB-Rs in these neurons likely facilitates leptin mediation of short-term satiety. (eurekaselect.com)
  • To determine the specific VTA neuronal targets of VP afferents and their sensitivity to mu opioid receptor agonists, we virally expressed channel rhodopsin (ChR2) in rat VP neurons and optogenetically activated their terminals in the VTA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Light activation of VP neuron terminals elicited GABAergic IPSCs in both dopamine (DA) and non-DA VTA neurons, and these IPSCs were inhibited by the mu opioid receptor agonist DAMGO. (jneurosci.org)
  • The neurocircuitry that mediates arterial baroreflex-mediated inhibition of RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons and sympathetic vasomotor outflow is described by a trisynaptic model, which includes N -methyl- d -aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated activation of propriomedullary GABAergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla ( 6 , 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "HSD2 neurons" is used in the scientific literature to refer to a subpopulation of neurons in the NTS which express both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Such a scheme may also be applicable in the case of CCK-induced inhibition of RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons ( 21 ). (physiology.org)
  • Sciatico-vagal inhibition is likely to affect the activity of those RVLM neurons that modulate higher neuronal activities via ascending projections. (gla.ac.uk)
  • axon
  • A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and its processes, an axon and one or more dendrites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A neuron with one axon and many dendrites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These neurons are of the pseudo-unipolar type, meaning they have an axon with two branches that act as a single axon, often referred to as a distal process and a proximal process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soma-the cell body of the neuron Axon: which relays information from the soma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a neuron, the dendrite receives information from another neuron's axon at the synapse, and the axon sends information to the next neuron's dendrites, even though the dendrite may be covered with myelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon reflex results in a localized response to only the locally innervated cells of the single neuron where the signal originated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon reflex pathway does not include an integration center or synapse that relays communication between neurons in the spinal cord reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagal sensory
  • Glucose regulates GI functions via actions at multiple sites of action, from modulating the activity of enteric neurons, endocrine cells, and glucose transporters within the intestine, to regulating the activity and responsiveness of the peripheral terminals, cell bodies and central terminals of vagal sensory neurons, to modifying both the activity and synaptic responsiveness of central brainstem neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • innervation
  • Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • insensitive
  • This finding, together with previous evidence that type II afferents respond weakly to synaptic transmission from cochlear hair cells, and normally are insensitive to sound, supports the identification of type II afferents as cochlear nociceptors, mediating the sensation of painfully loud sound. (pnas.org)
  • Despite this extensive arbor, type II afferents are weakly activated by outer hair cell transmitter release and are insensitive to sound. (pnas.org)
  • Neurons insensitive to L-glutamate were more broadly distributed, with a number being located in laminae III-V. Kynurenic acid, 2-amino-4- phosphonobutyric acid, and 2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid selectively antagonized rapid, short-lasting synaptic components of the dorsal cord potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • activation
  • In the injured L5 DRG, the L5 SNL induced the activation of ERK, p38, and JNK in different populations of DRG neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, in the uninjured L4 DRG, the L5 SNL induced only p38 activation in tyrosine kinase A-expressing small- to medium-diameter neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, the contribution of JNK activation in sensory neurons to pain is unknown, although peripheral axotomy has been shown to induce JNK/SAPK activation in DRG neurons ( Kenney and Kocsis, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • As afferents do not project directly into the lumen, their activation depends on an intermediary step, i.e. neuronal activation by a secondary substance released from within the mucosal epithelium. (eurekaselect.com)
  • There is little detailed data on central activation for contagious itching, but it is hypothesized that a human mirror neuron system exists in which we imitate certain motor actions when we view others performing the same action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike aldosterone-sensitive cells in epithelial tissues (e.g. in the kidney), the physiologic effects of aldosterone-MR activation in HSD2 neurons are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immediate-early gene, c-fos, has been used to study the activation and inactivation of HSD2 neurons extensively in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • ganglion
  • Unlike the majority of neurons found in the central nervous system, an action potential in posterior root ganglion neuron may initiate in the distal process in the periphery, bypass the cell body, and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal in the posterior horn of spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinct types of mechanosensitive ion channels have been found in the posterior root ganglion neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of these channels in the posterior root ganglion gives reason to believe that other sensory neurons may contain them as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • RVLM
  • RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons are considered to play a major role in the generation of sympathetic vasomotor outflow, control of sympathetic cardiovascular reflexes, and arterial blood pressure ( 3 , 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • Second, the selectivity of CCK for a subpopulation of RVLM presympathetic neurons may suggest that CCK-sensitive neurons preferentially receive vagal afferent input from the gastrointestinal tract ( 21 ). (physiology.org)
  • receives
  • Note: the neuron can consist of three parts: Dendrite that receives the information and relays it to the Soma, or cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • brainstem
  • which contribute to their integration of this vast volume of sensory afferent information with metabolic and hormonal signals as well as neural inputs from brainstem and other CNS nuclei involved the regulation of autonomic functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. (wikipedia.org)
  • extensively
  • Although information in tactile afferent neurons represented by firing rates has been studied extensively over nearly a century, recent studies suggest that precise spike timing might be more important than firing rates. (diva-portal.org)
  • transmit
  • The effector neurons leaving the integration center transmit a response to the original tissue the reflex arose resulting in a response. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAergic
  • Both of these actions decrease GABAergic input onto VTA neurons, revealing two mechanisms by which endogenous or exogenous opioids can activate VTA neurons, including DA neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, VTA DA neurons also receive dense GABAergic inputs from extrinsic sources and opioid control of these extrinsically derived inputs also robustly controls VTA DA neuron firing (see below). (jneurosci.org)
  • projections
  • After the cobalt ions were precipitated and intensified, we studied the central projections of the filled neurons within the ganglionic structures. (uncg.edu)
  • Our description of the central projections of the hair afferents is the first in the literature. (uncg.edu)
  • The efferent projections (axonal output) of HSD2 neurons have been investigated to a significant degree using conventional neuroanatomical tracers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional information about the efferent projections of HSD2 neurons can be found in ref. (wikipedia.org)