• surgery
  • For a given surgery, the set of modalities used depends in part on which neural structures are at risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • EEG electroencephalography is used for monitoring of cerebral function in neurovascular cases (cerebral aneurysms, carotid endarectomy) and for defining tumor margins in epilepsy surgery and some cerebral tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monitoring the state of the nervous system in "real-time" during surgery allows for corrective actions to be implemented to prevent permanent deficits, thus improving patient safety and surgical outcomes. (bloomu.edu)
  • The potential for reduced visual information during minimally invasive thyroid and parathyroid surgery procedure has led to the great application of neural monitoring in those cases. (springer.com)
  • Terris DJ, Anderson SK, Watts TL, Chin E (2007) Laryngeal nerve monitoring and minimally invasive thyroid surgery: complementary technologies. (springer.com)
  • Delaying surgery may be indicated if: CT scan demonstrates a cross-sectional tracheal area less than 50% normal or if vascular structures are compressed. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Echocardiographic monitoring during fetal surgery is an important adjunct in the management of these patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have systematically performed serial fetal echocardiography in our patients undergoing fetal surgery, with a focus on direct intraoperative echocardiography and early follow-up. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, Tewari has shown that the operating field has become more visible to the surgeon, unobscured by the copious amounts of blood encountered in traditional surgery and is thus able to view the urological structures under three-dimensional, enlarged magnification. (wikipedia.org)
  • a neurosurgeon performs the rest of the surgery involving drilling into any cavities containing a neural organ such as the pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • tracts
  • Magnetic Resonance (MR) Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a rapidly evolving technology that enables the visualization of neural fiber bundles, or white matter (WM) tracts. (jefferson.edu)
  • methods
  • Thus, global network efficiency in the brain can be deconstructed into the elements of topologic structure and connection strength (discussed further in the Materials and Methods section). (asahq.org)
  • Investigators have a wide range of options for deactivating neural tissue, and one of the more recently developed methods being used is deactivation through cooling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of current cooling methods, their advantages and limitations, and some studies that have used cooling to elucidate neural functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The lack of a standard cerebral function monitor likely reflects our incomplete understanding of anesthetic effects on the brain and how best to measure them. (asahq.org)
  • Brain networks have a conserved organization across species and spatial scales that enable optimal information processing among distributed neural network elements. (asahq.org)
  • stimulation
  • The use of a flexible tip of a monopolar stimulation probe allows good access to neural structures in areas outside the surgeon's field of view. (springer.com)
  • The stacked ABR is the sum of the synchronous neural activity generated from five frequency regions across the cochlea in response to click stimulation and high-pass pink noise masking. (wikipedia.org)
  • skull
  • Looking at the structure of the skull without operating became possible with the advent of X-ray machines in 1896. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • All patients should have CXR and CT scan to evaluate the position of the mass relative to other mediastinal structures including the heart, great vessels and large airways. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • experience
  • In this review, we will first discuss the underlying neurobiology of intraoperative awareness, with a focus on mechanisms of arousal, experience, and memory. (asahq.org)
  • To improve our intraoperative monitoring capabilities, we must better understand the underlying neurobiology of intraoperative awareness: arousal and experience (which together constitute consciousness), as well as explicit recall. (asahq.org)
  • activity
  • Intraoperative measurements of neural and hair cell activity were correlated with 6 month speech perception outcomes (CNC word scores). (unc.edu)
  • an attempt to record the sum of the neural activity across the entire frequency region of the cochlea in response to a click stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • measure
  • Using depth electrodes, the local field potential gives a measure of a neural population in a sphere with a radius of 0.5-3 mm around the tip of the electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • The ABR is used for newborn hearing screening, auditory threshold estimation, intraoperative monitoring, determining hearing loss type and degree, and auditory nerve and brainstem lesion detection, and in development of cochlear implants. (wikipedia.org)
  • degree
  • The degree of neural survival is expected to be an important factor contributing to variability in speech performance with cochlear implants. (unc.edu)
  • elements
  • 8,9 Recently, in utero repair of myelomeningocele (MMC) has been performed with the goal of protecting developing neural elements from potential trauma of exposure to the intrauterine environment. (ahajournals.org)
  • less
  • CT and CT myelography are other options and were used prior to the advent of MRI, but they characterize syringomyelia and other neural abnormalities less well. (wikipedia.org)