• neuronal
  • Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have discovered that a neuronal pathway -- part of the autonomic nervous system -- reaches the bones and participates in the control of bone development. (redorbit.com)
  • They further found that the newly discovered neuronal pathway, which includes interleukin-1 in the brain and the parasympathetic subsystem, also controls the heart rate. (redorbit.com)
  • Coincidence detectors influence neuronal information processing by reducing temporal jitter, reducing spontaneous activity, and forming associations between separate neural events. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • Over time, the more active pathway becomes our default processing route while other neuron routes become dormant. (managementexchange.com)
  • Coincidence detection in the context of neurobiology is a process by which a neuron or a neural circuit can encode information by detecting the occurrence of temporally close but spatially distributed input signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • A common neural circuit comprising the temporal and cingulate cortices, putamen, hippocampus, medial preoptic area, and cerebellum shared both the positive BOLD response to periovulatory odors and the negative BOLD response to odors of ovariectomized females. (umassmed.edu)
  • behavior
  • Though seemingly instantaneous, our responses to life's many sights and sounds are the result of neural pathways that select the information that ultimately determines our behavior. (princeton.edu)
  • Princeton University researchers tracked the neural activity of female fruit flies being courted by males to capture the process through which an outside stimulus causes a change in behavior. (princeton.edu)
  • These results provide a clear and relatively simpler diagram of the stimulus-to-behavior neural process frequently carried out by more complicated brains such as that in humans, explained Mala Murthy , a professor of molecular biology and the Princeton Neuroscience Institute . (princeton.edu)
  • We conclude that the STN coordinates motor behavior through differential neural pathways depending on the state of DA transmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • The pathways present a challenge when you are ready to change a habit or behavior. (wordpress.com)
  • Indirect
  • The indirect pathway, traveling through the putamen, globus pallidus external, and subthalamic nucleus, activates the globus pallidus internal threshold and inhibits the thalamus from communicating with the motor cortex, producing hypokinetic symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • crest
  • The neural crest, as does cancer, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrates to colonize almost all the tissues of the embryo. (biochemj.org)
  • Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. (biochemj.org)
  • The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. (biochemj.org)
  • Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays a major role in neural crest migration. (biochemj.org)
  • PCP signalling controls contact inhibition of locomotion between neural crest cells by localizing different PCP proteins at the site of cell contact during collision and locally regulating the activity of Rho GTPases. (biochemj.org)
  • Upon collision RhoA (ras homologue family member A) is activated, whereas Rac1 is inhibited at the contact between two migrating neural crest cells, leading to the collapse of protrusions and the migration of cells away from one another. (biochemj.org)
  • The present review summarizes the mechanisms that control neural crest migration and focuses on the role of non-canonical Wnt or PCP signalling in this process. (biochemj.org)
  • Wei, D & Loeken, M. Increased DNA methyltransferase 3b (dnmt3b)-mediated CpG island methylation stimulated by oxidative stress inhibits expression of a gene required for neural tube and neural crest development in diabetic pregnancy. (healthcanal.com)
  • function
  • As in the bone and the heart, the new pathway might have an important function as well in other organs controlled by the autonomic nervous system. (redorbit.com)
  • motor
  • The locust visual system contains a well-defined motion-sensitive pathway that transfers visual input to motor centers involved in predator evasion and collision avoidance. (frontiersin.org)
  • GABA and glutamate The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and the excitatory glutamate are found in many parts of the central nervous system, including in the motor pathways that involve hypokinesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The latter so-called "psychogenic" response is anticipatory in nature and involves brain pathways responsible for innate defense programs or memory of aversive events (Herman et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • axons
  • citation needed] If the axons have myelin sheaths, then the pathway appears bright white because myelin is primarily lipid. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] If most or all of the axons lack myelin sheaths (i.e., are unmyelinated), then the pathway will appear a darker beige color, which is generally called grey. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glial cells also participate in the fasciculation and defasciculation of axons, which are essential in shaping the pathways that are eventually followed. (wikipedia.org)
  • brains
  • FoxO deficient mice show initial increased brain size and proliferation of neural progenitor cells during early postnatal life, followed by precocious significant decline in the NSC pool and accompanying neurogenesis in adult brains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • important
  • It also discusses areas of intersection between stress and reward pathways, as these are likely important in mediating the deleterious effects of stress on substance abuse and addiction. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • male
  • However, in 2013, researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania mapped notable differences in male and female neural wiring. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular
  • The connection between the brain and the bone in general and the involvement of the newly discovered pathway in particular is a new area of research about which we still know very little," said Prof. Bab. (redorbit.com)
  • Here, we report the impact of combined FoxO1, 3 and 4 deficiencies on mammalian brain physiology with a particular emphasis on the study of the neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) pool. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • made
  • Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have reported using a new imaging technique called High-Definition Fiber Tracking (HDFT) to identify the disrupted neural pathways (paths made up of brain cells that communicate with one another) in patients with traumatic brain injury. (highlighthealth.com)
  • role
  • The newly discovered pathway has a key role in controlling bone density during adolescence, which in turn determines the skeletal resistance to fracture throughout one's entire life, say the researchers. (redorbit.com)
  • various
  • They emphasize that understanding the mechanisms connecting the brain and the bones could have implications for possible future therapies to better deal with osteoporosis and various neural disorders. (redorbit.com)
  • Neural microcircuits across various species and brain regions are similar in terms of their repertoire of neurotransmitters, their synaptic kinetics, their short-term and long-term plasticity, and the target-specificity of their synaptic connections. (epfl.ch)
  • sexual
  • Experts note that neural sexual dimorphisms in humans exist only as averages, with overlapping variabilities, and that it is unknown to what extent each is influenced by genetics or environment, even in adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • tube
  • For 20 years, scientists have known of a gene involved in neural tube defects (such as spina bifida), but until now it was not known exactly what causes this gene to malfunctions during diabetic pregnancies. (healthcanal.com)
  • A neural tube is the body's first step in assembling the spinal cord and the brain, which takes place within the first two to four weeks of gestation. (healthcanal.com)
  • Since the early 1990's, scientists have known that the gene Pax3 is required for closure of the neural tube. (healthcanal.com)
  • The overactive enzyme keeps adding methyl groups to the cytosines near the Pax3 gene and prevents Pax3 from turning on so that it can close the neural tube. (healthcanal.com)
  • Although it would appear that the way to prevent neural tube defects would be to stop Dnmt3b, Dr. Loeken cautions against such radical treatment. (healthcanal.com)
  • Neural tube defects happen in non-diabetic pregnancies as well, affecting about 1,500 births in the US every year and around 300,000 worldwide. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dr. Loeken's research has already caught the attention of other scientists working on neural tube defects. (healthcanal.com)