• neurons
  • In sympathetic neurons, the expression of NAIP-BIR3 and hippocalcin did not provide any significant protection from cell death from the withdrawal of nerve growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • When overexpressed, XAIP is able to block caspases extremely well and prevents cell death of sympathetic neurons when nerve growth factors are deprived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead the protein, which is predominantly expressed at high levels in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis. (cancerindex.org)
  • gene
  • What does this gene/protein do? (cancerindex.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • This gene encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of proteins. (cancerindex.org)
  • Unlike other members of the family, the protein encoded by this gene does not directly control cell cycle regulation. (cancerindex.org)
  • In humans, an allelic variant of the gene that results in undetectable levels of the protein has been associated with lethal autosomal recessive lissencephaly-7. (cancerindex.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of RIM-binding proteins. (cancerindex.org)
  • Analysis of different human cancers has led to the identification of the PPFIA1 gene encoding the protein liprin-α1, a possible player in cancer. (cancerindex.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit and a member of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. (cancerindex.org)
  • The identity of NEB was confirmed on adjacent serial sections by the immunostaining for protein gene product 9.5, a pan-neuroendocrine marker. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 gene expression and protein abundance decreases with age, and it shows differential abundance between young and old mice in parabiosis procedures, causing youthful regeneration of cardiomyocytes, a reduction in the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and in the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). (wikipedia.org)
  • PROSER1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PROSER1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactomedin 1, also known as noelin 1 or pancortin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OLFM1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myotilin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junction beta-1 protein (GJB1), also known as connexin 32 (Cx32) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the GJB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene that encodes the human GJB1 protein is found on the x chromosome, on the long arm at position q13.1, in interval 8, from base pair 71,215,212 to base pair 71,225,215. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the mutations of the GJB1 gene switch or change a single amino acid in the gap junction (connexin-32) protein, although some may result in a protein of irregular size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently it is unknown how the mutations of the GJB1 gene lead to these specific features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, however it is theorised that the cause is due to the demyelination of nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • In 2014, peripheral supplementation of GDF11 protein (in mice) was shown to ameliorate the age-related dysfunction of skeletal muscle by rescuing the function of aged muscle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • myelin
  • An example would include, for example, the generation of myelin which insulates and protects nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prion protein triggers are an important factor in the signals that ensure myelin maintenance and are distinct from those that direct myelination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prion protein and antibodies POM1 and POM3, which recognize epitopes in the terminus (around amino acids (aa) 140-152) and charged clusters of prion protein (aa95-100)were used to their roll in myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells typically encapsulate nerves that are involved in the assembly and preservation of myelin, to ensure reliable and rapid transmission of nerve signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically the GJB1 protein forms channels through the myelin to the internal Schwann cell or oligodendrocyte, allowing effective transportation and communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoneurium (also called endoneurial channel, endoneurial sheath, endoneurial tube, or Henle's sheath) a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • scaffold
  • Liprin-α1 belongs to the liprin family of cytosolic scaffold proteins that includes four liprin-α, two liprin-β members, and liprin-γ/kazrinE. (cancerindex.org)
  • It is human nerve tissue, processed to remove cellular and noncellular factors such as cells, fat, blood, axonal debris and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans while preserving the three-dimensional scaffold and basal lamina tubular structure of the nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • Photoisomerization (light-dependent isomerization) of retinal from cis to trans or vice versa induces a conformational change in the receptor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • The majority of these mutations only change a single amino acid within the protein chain, which result in a different protein being produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations most commonly result in proteins that work incorrectly, less effectively, degrade faster, are not present in adequate numbers or may not function at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral nervou
  • Gap junction beta-1 protein is a member of the gap junction connexin family of proteins that regulates and controls the transfer of communication signals across cell membranes, primarily in the liver and peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications include the demyelination of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, causing delayed transmission rates of nerve communication in the peripheral nervous system, due to irregularities in the normal function of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result transmission rates of nerve communication in the peripheral nervous system are delayed, which in turn would cause irregularities in the normal function of Schwann cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system Epineurium Nerve fascicle Nerve fiber Perineurium Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Evidence from in vitro studies indicates that the widely expressed liprin-α1 protein regulates the migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • In the cell liprin-α1 forms a complex with liprin-β1, ERC1/ELKS and LL5 proteins, which localizes at the front of migrating cells and positively regulates lamellipodia stability, and integrin-mediated focal adhesions. (cancerindex.org)
  • cells
  • Myelination of axons by these Schwann cells are essential for normal nerve function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral nerves rely on communication between axons and Schwaan cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 activates the TGF-β pathway in cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and suppresses the phosphorylation of Forkhead (FOX proteins) transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 80s, as the head of molecular endocrinology lab of the All-Union cardiological research center, V. A. Tkachuk and his colleagues researched the role of various G-proteins in adenylate-cyclase activity regulation and Ca2+- dependent channels in myocardium, vessel, endothelial, smooth muscle cells and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was revealed that during hypoxia phosphoinositide signaling is activated in endothelial cells, which leads to the activation of protein kinase C triggering the endocytosis of b-adrenergic receptors, which in turn leads to the cells developing insensitivity to catecholamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexins are membrane-spanning proteins that assemble to form gap junction channels that facilitate the transfer of ions and small molecules between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal circumstances this protein is located in the cell membrane of Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, specialised cells of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar structures occur around some nervous components elsewhere in the body, for example around the Schwann cells on the peripheral side of the transitional zone on the auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transplantation
  • Nerve allotransplantation (allo- means "other" in Greek) is the transplantation of a nerve to a receiver from a donor of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allotransplantation is a commonly used type of transplantation of which nerve repair is one specific aspect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve regeneration, is described for the first time in 1795 and in 1885 the first nerve allograft transplantation was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • 1993 [PubMed through an interaction with a collapsin response mediator protein of relative molecular mass 62K (CRMP62) (Goshima et al. (cancerindex.org)
  • Surface modification involves the fundamentals of physicochemical interactions between the biomaterial and the physiological environment at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels (reduce bacterial adhesion, promote cell adhesion). (wikipedia.org)
  • As proteins are made up of different sequences of amino acids, proteins can have various functions as its structural shape driven by a number of molecular bonds can change. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCOP was created in 1994 in the Centre for Protein Engineering and the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was maintained by Alexey G. Murzin and his colleagues in the Centre for Protein Engineering until its closure in 2010 and subsequently at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research determined the molecular mechanisms of G-proteins' influence on the development of both cell hypersensitivity and cell tolerance to catecholamine and medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mainly
  • Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) (147) Mainly parallel beta sheets (beta-alpha-beta units) d. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha and beta proteins (a+b) (376) Mainly antiparallel beta sheets (segregated alpha and beta regions) e. (wikipedia.org)
  • not in citation given] Animal feeds have been broadly classified as follows: concentrates: High in energy, contains mainly cereal grains and their byproducts, or is prepared from high-protein oil meals or cakes, and byproducts resulting from sugar beets and sugarcane processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a largely manual classification of protein structural domains based on similarities of their structures and amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • ischemia
  • With a certain amount of tension on the nerve due to the injury, the blood flow to the nerve decreases, which can eventually lead to ischemia and nerve damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • What the SCOP authors mean by "domain" is suggested by their statement that small proteins and most medium-sized ones have just one domain, and by the observation that human hemoglobin, which has an α2β2 structure, is assigned two SCOP domains, one for the α and one for the β subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Human Protein Atlas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve allografts are prepared from donated human nerve tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue from another human being is used to restore the defect, which can induce an immunogenic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • discontinuities
  • A nerve allograft is used for the reconstruction of peripheral nerve discontinuities in order to support the axonal regeneration across a nerve gap caused by any injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoneurium runs longitudinally along the nerve fiber, but with discontinuities where septa pass inward from the innermost layer of the perineurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Due to the similarities between myostatin and GDF11, the actions of GDF11 are likely regulated by WFIKKN2, a large extracellular multidomain protein consisting of follistatin, immunoglobulin, protease inhibitor, and NTR domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means the nerve allograft only consists of extracellular matrix (ECM), which is sterile and decullularized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • Opsins belong to the class of G protein-coupled receptors and bind an 11-cis isomer of retinal at the ground state that photoisomerizes to an all-trans retinal upon light activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Thus, attachment of molecules with different protein for example, those containing Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate (RGD) sequences are expected to modify the surface of tissue scaffolds and result in improvement of cell adhesion when placed into its physiological environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The BMP group of proteins is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site, which is cleaved to produce a protein containing seven conserved cysteine residues. (wikipedia.org)