• afferents
  • To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in nonhistaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant ( Mucuna pruriens ). (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that nonhistaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. (jneurosci.org)
  • In electrophysiological recordings from primary afferents in the anesthetized monkey, we tested whether cowhage, histamine, or capsaicin activated high threshold A-fiber afferents. (jneurosci.org)
  • The increase in permeability caused by C-fiber stimulation or by PNI was not anatomically limited to the site of central termination of primary afferents from the sciatic nerve in the lumbar cord, but rather extended throughout the spinal cord and into the brain. (nih.gov)
  • however, electrical activation results in slow (within tens of seconds) modulation in the excitability of cochlear nerve afferents: either excitation or inhibition depending on the locus of stimulation in the brainstem ( Groff and Liberman, 2003 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • C tactile (CT) afferents are a class of nerve fibers that innervate the human skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT afferents belong to group C nerve fibers, and are unmyelinated, have a small diameter and slow conduction velocity. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT afferents project to the insular cortex in the brain, and the firing frequency of CT fibers correlate with perceived pleasantness of skin stroking. (wikipedia.org)
  • outnumber
  • in these cases, the involved branches may be termed: V1/V2 distribution - Referring to the ophthalmic and maxillary branches V2/V3 distribution - Referring to the maxillary and mandibular branches V1-V3 distribution - Referring to all three branches Nerves on the left side of the jaw slightly outnumber the nerves on the right side of the jaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • cutaneous
  • An identical pattern was seen in another cutaneous nerve analyzed, the sural nerve. (researchhunt.com)
  • Amount 2 The reduced C:A-fiber proportion in naked mole-rats is fixed to cutaneous nerves generally. (researchhunt.com)
  • A,B: Nude mole-rats possess a considerably lower C:A-fiber proportion in cutaneous saphenous and sural nerves weighed against all other types. (researchhunt.com)
  • Phosphorylated α -synuclein aggregates were identified on cutaneous nerves in two patients with PD (5.3%) but in none of the patients with MSA, and IENFD was significantly lower in patients with PD when compared to those with MSA. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings suggest that an assessment of IENFD in biopsied skin could be a useful means of differentiating between PD and MSA but that detection of α -synuclein aggregates on cutaneous nerves in the distal sites of the body is insufficiently sensitive. (hindawi.com)
  • The extent to which Lewy pathology can be detected in the cutaneous nerves of patients with MSA is not known, even though the disease is also caused by abnormal accumulation of α -synuclein in the central nervous system [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We examined whether intradermal injection of capsaicin produced morphological changes in cutaneous nerve fibers that would account for its analgesic properties by comparing cutaneous innervation in capsaicin-treated skin with psychophysical measures of sensation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory, whereas the mandibular nerve supplies motor as well as sensory (or "cutaneous") functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The areas of cutaneous distribution (dermatomes) of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve have sharp borders with relatively little overlap (unlike dermatomes in the rest of the body, which have considerable overlap). (wikipedia.org)
  • axon
  • Myelin is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • They send these signals by means of an axon, which is a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects, usually with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numbers of axonal telodendria (the branching structures at the end of the axon) can also differ from one nerve fiber to the next. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison, the cerebellar granule cell axon is characterized by a single T-shaped branch node from which two parallel fibers extend. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are histological evidence of the small amount of cytoplasm that remains in the inner layer of the myelin sheath created by Schwann cells wrapping tightly around an axon (nerve fiber). (wikipedia.org)
  • These layers are generally uniform and continuous, but due to imperfect nature of the process by which Schwann cells wrap the nerve axon, this wrapping process can sometimes leave behind small pockets of residual cytoplasm displaced to the periphery during the formation of the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • connective tissue
  • collagen f's ( collagenous f's ) the soft, flexible, white fibers that are the most characteristic constituent of all types of connective tissue, consisting of the protein collagen, and composed of bundles of fibrils that are in turn made up of smaller units ( microfibrils ) that show a characteristic crossbanding with a major periodicity of 65 nm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The localization of peptidergic, catecholaminergic, and nitroxidergic nerve fibers in the ventral leptomeningeal connective tissue compartment was studied in whole-mount preparations and serial semithin and ultrathin sections. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CGRP- and SP-IR nerve fibers are localized in all three leptomeningeal compartments where they terminate close to the subarachnoid space (type 1) or within the connective tissue (type 2). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The pulp contains the blood vessels the nerves and connective tissue inside a tooth and provides the tooth's blood and nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • sciatic nerve
  • Here we show that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) produced by either sciatic nerve constriction or transecting two of its main branches causes an increase in BSCB permeability, as assessed by using Evans Blue dye or horseradish peroxidase. (nih.gov)
  • BSCB permeability was also increased 24 hours after electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve at intensity sufficient to activate C-fibers, but not when A-fibers only were activated. (nih.gov)
  • A: 1% Capsaicin or vehicle was applied onto the sciatic nerve and Evans Blue extravasation was measured 24 hours later. (nih.gov)
  • 0.01 compared to naïve, n = 5-9 per group.B: 1% Capsaicin was applied to the sciatic nerve and Evans Blue was injected immediately after capsaicin. (nih.gov)
  • innervation
  • A subset of neuropathic POTS patients may harbor mild small fiber neuropathy with abnormalities of unmyelinated nerve fibers in the skin associated with reduced myocardial postganglionic sympathetic innervation. (wiley.com)
  • At the distal ganglion, it can synapse with postganglionic nerve fibres responsible for innervation of the pelvic viscera. (wikipedia.org)
  • this contrasts inner hair cells (IHC) that have only afferent innervation (30+ nerve fibers per one hair) but are heavily connected. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Nevertheless, the nude mole-rat didn't have got a higher amount of A-fibers weighed against its BSA especially, whereas the C-fiber count number was extremely low regarding BSA (Fig. 1G), recommending a C-fiber deficit instead of even more A-fibers underlies the reduced C:A-fiber ratio noticed. (researchhunt.com)
  • In normal skin the epidermis is heavily innervated by nerve fibers immunoreactive for protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, whereas fibers immunoreactive for substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are typically associated with blood vessels. (jneurosci.org)
  • sympathetic
  • adrenergic f's nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that liberate norepinephrine (and possibly small amounts of epinephrine ) at a synapse when a nerve impulse passes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A semiquantitative study found reduced dermal sympathetic nerve density in PD compared with controls, suggesting the presence of peripheral autonomic neuropathy in PD [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Each spinal nerve receives a branch called a gray ramus communicans (plural rami communicantes) from the adjacent paravertebral ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. (wikipedia.org)
  • From here, the postganglionic sympathetic neuron can travel back out the grey ramus communicans of that level to the mixed spinal nerve and on to the effector organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the response is the whole body response, as in sympathetic fight or flight, the signals are distributed to other spinal nerves by way of gray rami communicantes which serve as conduits between the spinal nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • The ophthalmic nerve (V1) carries sensory information from the scalp and forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, the nose (including the tip of the nose, except alae nasi), the nasal mucosa, the frontal sinuses and parts of the meninges (the dura and blood vessels). (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal
  • Lumbar ganglia have grey rami communicantes that rejoin the appropriate spinal nerves to supply the abdominal wall and lower limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cochlear
  • D1 and D2 immunolabeling was localized to cochlear nerve fibers, near the first nodes of Ranvier (D2) and in the inner spiral bundle region (D1 and D2) where presynaptic olivocochlear terminals are found. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cochlear nerve fibers (30,000+) each have a most sensitive frequency and respond over a wide range of levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensation
  • Magerl, 1991 ) suggest that activity in thinly myelinated Aδ-fibers may contribute to the sensation of itch. (jneurosci.org)
  • Quantitative sensory testing (QST) assesses small fiber function by measuring temperature and vibratory sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gradual destruction of nerve cells results in loss of sensation and muscle weakness in people with hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it does not carry taste sensation (the chorda tympani is responsible for taste), one of its branches-the lingual nerve-carries sensation from the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • signals along various nerves. (slideserve.com)
  • CIPA is caused by a genetic mutation which prevents the formation of nerve cells which are responsible for transmitting signals of pain, heat, and cold to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The inner hair cells transform the sound vibrations in the fluids of the cochlea into electrical signals that are then relayed via the auditory nerve to the auditory brainstem and to the auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simplified, nerve fibers' signals are transported by bushy cells to the binaural areas in the olivary complex, while signal peaks and valleys are noted by stellate cells, and signal timing is extracted by octopus cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • axonal
  • Examinations of the nerve structure and function showed signs of neuronal degeneration such as a marked reduction in the number of myelinated fibers and axonal loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • adrenergic
  • Our objective in this study was to evaluate the correlation between C-fiber involvement as shown by skin biopsy and adrenergic cardiac metaiodobenzylguanadine (MIBG) uptake in POTS patients. (wiley.com)
  • effector
  • The MOC fibers form the effector arm of a sound-evoked inhibitory reflex that performs rapid (within tens of milliseconds) automatic gain-control on the mechanical amplifier powered by OHC electromotility. (jneurosci.org)
  • itch
  • However, rigorous psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a functional role of A-fibers in the mediation of nonhistaminergic itch in primates is lacking. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, it has not been explored if C- and A-fibers mediate different qualities of the itch percept. (jneurosci.org)
  • In psychophysical experiments, we used a selective conduction block of myelinated fibers to test the hypothesis that activity in A-fibers contributes to cowhage-induced itch. (jneurosci.org)
  • fibres
  • Therefore, it is possible that pruritoceptive nerve fibres have different classes of fibres, which is unclear in current research. (wikipedia.org)
  • action potentials
  • The neurotransmitters diffuse across the narrow space between the hair cell and a nerve terminal, where they then bind to receptors and thus trigger action potentials in the nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • Saphenous, sural, common peroneal, tibial, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial gastrocnemius nerves had been dissected from both hip and legs and postfixed in 4% paraformaldehyde/2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 JW-642 M PBS for 3 times (only saphenous and tibial nerves had been extracted from mice). (researchhunt.com)
  • Desk 1 Overview of Saphenous, Sural, and Common Peroneal Nerve Fibers Data for every Species1 Desk 2 Overview of Tibial, Medial Gastrocnemius, and Lateral Gastrocnemius Nerve Fibers Data for every Species1 A minimal C:A-fiber ratio may be the result of the paucity of C-fibers or an overabundance of A-fibers. (researchhunt.com)
  • The motor component of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve controls the movement of eight muscles, including the four muscles of mastication: the masseter, the temporal and the medial and lateral pterygoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • dietary fiber that portion of ingested foodstuffs that cannot be broken down by intestinal enzymes and juices and, therefore, passes through the small intestine and colon undigested. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Daniel J. Clauw , What is the meaning of "small fiber neuropathy" in fibromyalgia? (wiley.com)
  • A small study examining dermal sheet preparations found that the presence of small nerve fibers in the dermis is significantly reduced in patients with PD compared with those diagnosed with MSA [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Small fiber peripheral neuropathy is a type of peripheral neuropathy that occurs from damage to the small unmyelinated peripheral nerve fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensory symptoms of small fiber neuropathy are highly variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with Fabry disease have isolated small fiber engagement, and can have a more widespread small fiber disruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many possible causes of small fiber neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study revealed dysfunction of a particular sodium channel (Nav1.7) in a significant portion of the patient population with an idiopathic small fiber neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently several studies have suggested an association between autonomic small fiber neuropathy and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy often requires ancillary testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specimens are sent to a specialized laboratory for processing and analysis where the small nerve fibers are quantified by a neuropathologist to obtain a diagnostic result. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any value measured below the 0.05 Quantile IENFD values per age span, is considered a reliable positive diagnosis for Small Fiber Peripheral Neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuropathy Polyneuropathy Wartenbergs migratory sensory neuropathy Burning feet syndrome Overview of Small Fiber Neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Direct injury to a nerve, interruption of its blood supply resulting in (ischemia), or inflammation also may cause mononeuropathy. (wikipedia.org)