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  • axon
  • Myelin acts as an insulator, which allows electrical signals to jump, rather than coursing through the axon, increasing the speed of transmission of all nerve signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART) measures sweating response at local body sites to evaluate the small nerve fibers that innervate sweat glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • Saphenous, sural, common peroneal, tibial, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial gastrocnemius nerves had been dissected from both hip and legs and postfixed in 4% paraformaldehyde/2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 JW-642 M PBS for 3 times (only saphenous and tibial nerves had been extracted from mice). (researchhunt.com)
  • Desk 1 Overview of Saphenous, Sural, and Common Peroneal Nerve Fibers Data for every Species1 Desk 2 Overview of Tibial, Medial Gastrocnemius, and Lateral Gastrocnemius Nerve Fibers Data for every Species1 A minimal C:A-fiber ratio may be the result of the paucity of C-fibers or an overabundance of A-fibers. (researchhunt.com)
  • auditory nerve
  • citation needed] The inner hair cells transform the sound vibrations in the fluids of the cochlea into electrical signals that are then relayed via the auditory nerve to the auditory brainstem and to the auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in nonhistaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant ( Mucuna pruriens ). (jneurosci.org)
  • cranial
  • Aggregates of gray matter such as the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, nucleus accumbens) and brainstem nuclei (red nucleus, cranial nerve nuclei) are spread within the cerebral white matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant cells can migrate along spinal or cranial nerve epineurium-perineurium, invade the subpial space, and travel along blood vessels into the endoneurial space, or invade the nerve parenchyma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diplopia is the most common symptom of cranial nerve dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • NM diffused infiltration of tumor cells into the subarachnoid space may be associated with increased intracranial pressure, signs of meningeal irritation, and damage to the cranial and spinal nerve roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • CIPA is caused by a genetic mutation which prevents the formation of nerve cells which are responsible for transmitting signals of pain, heat, and cold to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral
  • The total number of long range fibers within a cerebral hemisphere is 2% of the total number of cortico-cortical fibers (across cortical areas) and is roughly the same number as those that communicate between the two hemispheres in the brain's largest white tissue structure, the Corpus callosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • These fibers, categorized as C fibers and small Aδ fibers, are present in skin, peripheral nerves, and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with Fabry disease have isolated small fiber engagement, and can have a more widespread small fiber disruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many possible causes of small fiber neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study revealed dysfunction of a particular sodium channel (Nav1.7) in a significant portion of the patient population with an idiopathic small fiber neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy often requires ancillary testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specimens are sent to a specialized laboratory for processing and analysis where the small nerve fibers are quantified by a neuropathologist to obtain a diagnostic result. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Nevertheless, the nude mole-rat didn't have got a higher amount of A-fibers weighed against its BSA especially, whereas the C-fiber count number was extremely low regarding BSA (Fig. 1G), recommending a C-fiber deficit instead of even more A-fibers underlies the reduced C:A-fiber ratio noticed. (researchhunt.com)
  • sensations
  • These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that nonhistaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. (jneurosci.org)
  • fatty
  • In sufficiently large nerves multiple fascicles, each with its blood supply and fatty tissue, may be bundled within yet another sheath, the epineurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Fourteen subjects (7 female, 7 male) were each given two to four control tests with cowhage on the dorsum of the hand within the anticipated autonomous zone of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (in the region of the interosseus muscle and extending to the base of the thumb and adjacent two fingers). (jneurosci.org)
  • density
  • His most recent work on the specific and non-specific binding of tetrodotoxin has provided new information about the density of sodium channels in various types of nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • This skin punch biopsy measurement technique is called intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • The basic concept of the Marr-Albus theory is that the climbing fiber serves as a "teaching signal", which induces a long-lasting change in the strength of parallel fiber inputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • Polyneuropathy" is a pattern of nerve damage that is quite different from mononeuropathy, often more serious and affecting more areas of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • With data out of this and prior research, we plotted BSA against saphenous nerve A-/C-fiber matters for different types and observed a confident relationship between A-/C-fiber amount and BSA. (researchhunt.com)
  • known
  • The most common cause of mononeuropathy is physical compression of the nerve, known as compression neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • However, rigorous psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a functional role of A-fibers in the mediation of nonhistaminergic itch in primates is lacking. (jneurosci.org)
  • important
  • Diagnostically, it is important to distinguish it from polyneuropathy because when a single nerve is affected, it is more likely to be due to localized trauma or infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • Observations of long-term depression in parallel fiber inputs have provided support for theories of this type, but their validity remains controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic mouse
  • Both increased microtubule density and reduced microtubule stability were still observed in transgenic mouse nerves, indicating that signals beyond synaptogenesis and the mere presence of compact myelin are required for normal regulation of the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • My research interests include nerve and muscle pathology, mitochondrial diseases, pediatric neurooncology, and transgenic mouse pathology. (stanford.edu)
  • free nerve e
  • Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, and stretching. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slowly adapting: Slowly adapting mechanoreceptors include Merkel and Ruffini corpuscle end-organs, and some free nerve endings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intermediate adapting: Some free nerve endings are intermediate adapting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapidly adapting: Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors include Meissner corpuscle end-organs, Pacinian corpuscle end-organs, hair follicle receptors and some free nerve endings. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle spindle
  • This is achieved by inputs to the VN from: the vestibulocochlear (8th cranial) nerve about head movements, gait adjustments from the flocculus of the cerebellum, head and neck proprioceptors and foot and ankle muscle spindle, via the fastigial nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmit
  • The fundamental basis of axonal ensheathment in any species is to faithfully transmit neuronal signals along the nerve fibers and optimize desired cellular responses. (physicsforums.com)
  • neuron
  • An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates is a motor unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • After this, the 3rd order neuron fibers traverse the internal capsule and the corona radiata, ultimately synapsing in the post central gyrus (somatosensory cortex). (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Direct injury to a nerve, interruption of its blood supply resulting in (ischemia), or inflammation also may cause mononeuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cranial
  • It connects the cranial nerve nuclei III (Oculomotor nerve), IV (Trochlear nerve) and VI (Abducens nerve) together, and integrates movements directed by the gaze centers (frontal eye field) and information about head movement (from cranial nerve VIII, Vestibulocochlear nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • arise
  • Descending fibers can also arise from the superior colliculus in the rostral midbrain for visual reflexes, the accessory occulomotor nuclei in the rostral midbrain for visual tracking, and the pontine reticular formation, which facilitates extensor muscle tone. (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior
  • Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is an optic nerve (ON) infarct, and the most common cause of sudden ON-related vision loss in the United States. (arvojournals.org)
  • The optic nerve head, or optic disc is the anterior end of the nerve that is in the eye and hence is visible with an ophthalmoscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • distal
  • Within 4 days of the injury, the distal end of the portion of the nerve fiber proximal to the lesion sends out sprouts towards those tubes and these sprouts are attracted by growth factors produced by Schwann cells in the tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regeneration is efficient in the PNS, with near complete recovery in case of lesions that occur close to the distal nerve terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then observed the distal nerves from the site of injury, which were separated from their cell bodies in the brain stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • descend
  • The non-myelinated fibers ascend or descend for short distances not exceeding one or two segments, but most of them enter the substantia gelatinosa at or near the level of their origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • Rarely, choroidal neovascularization may develop as the juxtapapillary nerve fibers are disrupted, with subsequent subretinal hemorrhage and retinal scarring. (wikipedia.org)
  • bundles
  • collagen f's ( collagenous f's ) the soft, flexible, white fibers that are the most characteristic constituent of all types of connective tissue, consisting of the protein collagen, and composed of bundles of fibrils that are in turn made up of smaller units ( microfibrils ) that show a characteristic crossbanding with a major periodicity of 65 nm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neuropathic
  • Neuropathic symptoms may persist long-term, leaving permanent nerve damage in patients with an otherwise good prognosis 3 . (jove.com)
  • Dr. Khan then moved to USA to attend his postdoctoral training at the Hershey Medical Center at Penn State University where he investigated the role of myelinated afferent fibers and capsaicin-sensitive C-fibers in neuropathic- and diabetic neuropathic pain. (acp.edu)
  • optic
  • The retinae and optic nerve laminae of vehicle- and GM-CSF-treated animals were examined immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (arvojournals.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is not neuroprotective when administered directly to the optic nerve following ON ischemia, and does not improve axonal regeneration. (arvojournals.org)
  • Optic disc drusen (ODD) or optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are globules of mucoproteins and mucopolysaccharides that progressively calcify in the optic disc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic nerve is a cable connection that transmits images from the retina to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central retinal artery and vein can be seen in the middle of the disc as it exits the scleral canal with the optic nerve to supply the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optic nerve damage is progressive and insidious. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic disc margins are characteristically irregular in ODD but not blurred as there is no swelling of the retinal nerve fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no widely accepted treatment for ODD, although some clinicians will prescribe eye drops designed to decrease the intra-ocular pressure and theoretically relieve mechanical stress on fibers of the optic disc. (wikipedia.org)
  • posterior
  • The posterolateral tract (fasciculus of Lissauer, Lissauer's tract, tract of Lissauer, dorsolateral fasciculus, dorsolateral tract, zone of Lissauer) is a small strand situated in relation to the tip of the posterior column close to the entrance of the posterior nerve roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • The location of this synapse is dependent upon the somatotopic organisation of the somatosensory cortex, it can be estimated according to the position on the 'somatosensory homunculus' The posterolateral tract consists of fine fibers which do not receive their myelin sheaths until toward the close of fetal life. (wikipedia.org)
  • gland
  • Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • For example, the muscles of a single finger have more α-MNs per fiber, and more α-MNs in total, than the muscles of the quadriceps, which allows for finer control of the force a finger applies. (wikipedia.org)
  • tract
  • The primary effects of dietary fiber are to increase the bulk of the stool and make it softer by taking up water as it passes through the colon, and to absorb organic wastes and toxins and carry them out of the intestinal tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • presynaptic
  • Before joining ACP, Dr. Khan was working as a research associate at Drexel University College of Medicine where he studied beta-amyloid activation of presynaptic α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors reconstituted into a model nerve cell system. (acp.edu)
  • cell
  • this propagation is accomplished by alternating the ion gradient across the nerve cell wall, or axolemma. (dieutridau.com)
  • Initially, sodium ions gradually enter the cell through the nerve cell membrane. (dieutridau.com)
  • Alterations in the nerve cell membrane potential are termed the action potential. (dieutridau.com)
  • Internal to this peripheral region is the grey matter, which contains the nerve cell bodies arranged in the three grey columns that give the region its butterfly-shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Mononeuropathy is a type of neuropathy that only affects a single nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnostically, it is important to distinguish it from polyneuropathy because when a single nerve is affected, it is more likely to be due to localized trauma or infection. (wikipedia.org)