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  • carbon
  • Direct and indirect effects of single walled carbon nanotubes on RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of iron. (cdc.gov)
  • Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), nano-cylinders with an extremely small diameter (1-2 nm) and high aspect ratio, have unique physico-chemical, electronic and mechanical properties and may exhibit unusual interactions with cells and tissues, thus necessitating studies of their toxicity and health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • carbon nanotube transistors
  • With continued support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), and in collaboration with IBM and other industry leaders, the researchers are now making carbon nanotube transistors that rival conventional silicon. (nsf.gov)
  • Building a multilayered chip -- carbon nanotube transistors and memory devices stacked on top of each other like the floors of a high rise -- is the Holy Grail for the team. (nsf.gov)
  • September - NEC announced stable fabrication technology of carbon nanotube transistors. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • To make the altered nanotubes, Dirk M. Guldi of the University of Notre Dame and his colleagues attached molecules of ferrocene to their walls. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Keeping carbon nanotubes from clumping in aqueous solutions and combining them with molecules that add novel abilities have been flies in the ointment for scientists exploring the use of these highly versatile materials. (redorbit.com)
  • They've tried attaching organic molecules to the nanotubes' surfaces to add functionality as well as solubility. (redorbit.com)
  • The ligands strongly bind to nanotubes while the attached ruthenium molecules interact with water to maintain the tubes in solution and keep them apart from one another. (redorbit.com)
  • Nanotubes synthesized hollow carbon molecules and determined their crystal structure for the first time in the soot of arc discharge at NEC, by Japanese researcher Sumio Iijima. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process was developed by Dr. Richard Smalley and co-workers at Rice University, who at the time of the discovery of carbon nanotubes, were blasting metals with a laser to produce various metal molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrophobic walls of the carbon nanotubes accelerate the flow of water molecules through the tube as they "slip" whenever they come in contact with the walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nanoconfinement organizes the water molecules into H-bond connected "wires", lowering the chemical potential energy of the water inside the nanotube. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of synthetic nanotubes, based on stacking of cyclic peptides and other cyclic molecules have been investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluids and gas molecules may pass through the membrane en masse but only through the nanotubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular dynamic simulations better characterize the flow of water molecules through the carbon nanotubes with a varied form of the Hagen-Poiseuille equation that takes into account slip length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, nanotubes are expected to be less reactive than most fullerene molecules due to their smaller curvature, but more reactive than a graphene sheet due to pyramidalization and misalignment of pi-orbitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • graphitic
  • Using this three-dimensional fabrication technique, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology developed graphitic nanojoints on both ends of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes, which yielded a 10-fold decrease in resistivity in its connection to metal junctions. (ecnmag.com)
  • This phenomenon is due to the extremely high aspect ratios, molecularly smooth hydrophobic graphitic walls, and nanoscale inner diameters of carbon nanotubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional Li-ion batteries use graphitic carbon as the anode, but replacing this with silicon nanotubes experimentally increases the specific (by mass) anode capacity by a factor of 10 (though the overall capacity improvement is lower due to the far lower specific cathode capacities). (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • Titania nanotubes, created by the conversion of the mineral anatase by hydrothermal synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a strong demand for such characterization from the industrial point of view: numerous parameters of the nanotube synthesis can be changed, intentionally or unintentionally, to alter the nanotube quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertically aligned arrays of ~BC2N nanotubes can be produced by solvothermal synthesis in a stainless steel autoclave from a mixture of sodium azide (NaN3), ammonium fluoroborate (NH4BF4) and methyl cyanide (CH3CN). (wikipedia.org)
  • cylindrical
  • Researchers at Brown University and in Korea have described the dynamics behind cutting single-walled carbon nanotubes, cylindrical structures just 1/50,000th the width of a human hair. (redorbit.com)
  • An inorganic nanotube is a cylindrical molecule often composed of metal oxides, or group III-Nitrides and morphologically similar to a carbon nanotube. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrays
  • When the channels are of the correct geometry, aqueous solutions containing nanotubes enter from both ends, and upon evaporation leave behind dense and highly oriented arrays of nanotubes. (medgadget.com)
  • In 2007, researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) developed a process to grow aligned carbon nanotube arrays of length 18 mm on a FirstNano ET3000 carbon nanotube growth system. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Baughman's team then layered several ribbons atop one another in a crosswise pattern and dissolved the aerogel substrate, leaving a membrane or thin sheet of nanotubes held together by atomic forces. (asme.org)
  • Tunneling nanotube, a tubular membrane connection between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tunnelling nanotube or membrane nanotube is a term that has been applied to protrusions that extend from the plasma membrane that enable different animal cells to touch over long distances, sometimes over 100 μm between T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane nanotubes were first described in a 1999 Cell article examining the development of Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal discs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vesicular transport in membrane nanotubes has been modeled utilizing a continuum approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can membrane nanotubes facilitate communication between immune cells? (wikipedia.org)
  • Impermeable' is essential here to distinguish nanotube membrane with traditional, well known porous membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • also reported a similar structure, namely "graphene-carbon nanotube hybrids", grown directly onto carbon fiber paper to form an integrated, binder free, high surface area conductive catalyst support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells electrode applications with enhanced performance and durability. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubular
  • Thanks to their tubular structure, carbon nanotubes have a measured strength about 50 times that of carbon steel. (asme.org)
  • As shown below, optical absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopies allow quick and reliable characterization of this "nanotube quality" in terms of non-tubular carbon content, structure (chirality) of the produced nanotubes, and structural defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • Chwał M, Muc A (2016) Transversely isotropic properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites. (springer.com)
  • Lisi X, Guohao W, Hao Z, Fan Z, Zhide G, Chuan L, Xianzhong Z, Lei Z (2016) Functional long circulating single walled carbon nanotubes for fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging-guided enhanced phototherapy. (springer.com)
  • researchers
  • In a paper published this month in the British journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A, researchers at Brown University and in Korea document for the first time how single-walled carbon nanotubes are cut, a finding that could lead to producing more precise, higher-quality nanotubes. (redorbit.com)
  • Still, researchers are just beginning to understand and exploit nanotubes, so exactly how useful they might be remains to be seen. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers believe the technique could also be used to connect multi-layered graphene to metal contacts, though their published research has so far focused on carbon nanotubes. (ecnmag.com)
  • Researchers have envisioned a future generation of hybrid devices based on traditional integrated circuits but using interconnects based on carbon nanotubes. (ecnmag.com)
  • Researchers from Rice University and State University of New York - Stony Brook have shown that the addition of low weight % of carbon nanotubes can lead to significant improvements in the mechanical properties of biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for applications in tissue engineering including bone, cartilage, muscle and nerve tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Rice University, Stony Brook University, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre and University of California, Riverside have shown that carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites are suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering and bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers from Stanford University said that they had successfully built a carbon nanotube computer and their research paper published on 25 September 2013 in the journal Nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Where the aerogel and the nanotubes meet, tubes catch on the aerogel and are pulled from the substrate. (asme.org)
  • To make it scalable for manufacturing, they also worked toward technologies for isolating and aligning individual carbon nanotubes between the metal terminals on a silicon substrate, and for examining the properties of the resulting structures. (ecnmag.com)
  • e open ends of carbon nanotubes on any desired substrate. (ecnmag.com)
  • Good adhesion is required between the nanochannel and the substrate to prevent the polymer nanochannels from coming unstuck upon the introduction of the aqueous nanotube solution. (medgadget.com)
  • The solar cells consist of a semitransparent thin film of nanotubes conformally coated on a n-type crystalline silicon substrate to create high-density p-n heterojunctions between nanotubes and n-Si to favor charge separation and extract electrons (through n-Si) and holes (through nanotubes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally aligned nanotube film has much smaller void space, and better contact with substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inorganic
  • The new technique allows inorganic metal complexes with different functionalities to remain in close contact with single-walled carbon nanotubes while keeping them separated in a solution. (redorbit.com)
  • Inorganic nanotubes have been observed to occur naturally in some mineral deposits. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the first synthetic inorganic nanotubes did not appear until Reshef Tenne et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intervening years, nanotubes have been synthesised of many inorganic materials, such as vanadium oxide and manganese oxide, and are being researched for such applications as redox catalysts and cathode materials for batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inorganic nanotubes are morphologically similar to carbon nanotubes and are observed in some mineral deposits of natural origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical inorganic nanotube materials are 2D layered solids such as tungsten(IV) sulfide (WS2), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tin(IV) sulfide (SnS2). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, traditional ceramics like titanium dioxide (TiO2), zirconia dioxide (ZrO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) also form inorganic nanotubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanoparticles
  • A nanotube is a kind of nanoparticle, and may be large enough to serve as a pipe through which other nanoparticles can be channeled, or, depending on the material, may be used as an electrical conductor or an electrical insulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubes
  • The group also learned that cutting single-walled carbon nanotubes using sound waves in water creates multiple kinks, or bent areas, along the tubes' length. (redorbit.com)
  • As individual tubes are drawn from a dense thicket of nanotubes (top and middle), they pull away adjoining tubes to create a long, horizontal array. (asme.org)
  • Thanks to the close packing of the tubes and to an attractive force operating at the molecular level, a nanotube breaking away from its base will pull away other tubes. (asme.org)
  • Carbon nanotubes for interconnects application in Integrated chips have been studied since 2001, however the extremely attractive performances of individual tubes are difficult to reach when they are assembled in large bundles necessary to make real via or lines in integrated chips. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Although the strength of individual CNT shells is extremely high, weak shear interactions between adjacent shells and tubes lead to significant reduction in the effective strength of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube bundles down to only a few GPa. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991
  • Nanotubes were observed in 1991 in the carbon soot of graphite electrodes during an arc discharge, by using a current of 100 amps, that was intended to produce fullerenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • silicon
  • The technique could facilitate the integration of carbon nanotubes as interconnects in next-generation integrated circuits that use both silicon and carbon components. (ecnmag.com)
  • A Stanford University engineering team has been busy bringing its grand achievement of 2013 -- the world's first carbon nanotube computer -- to a grand scale by making the performance competitive with silicon-based processors. (nsf.gov)
  • January - IBM creates 9 nm carbon nanotube transistor that outperforms silicon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, some nanotubes have conductivities higher than that of copper, while others behave more like silicon. (wikipedia.org)
  • One method to prepare silicon nanotubes is using a reactor employing an electric arc without the use of any catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these modified VLS and SLS techniques, multiwall silicon nanotubes with a sidewall thickness of few nanometers have been grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon nanotubes and nanowires have been considered for use in electronics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A silicon nanotube charged with hydrogen delivers energy and in the process leaves residual water, ethanol, silicon and sand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon nanotubes and Silicon Nanowires can be used in lithium-ion batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another emerging application of silicon nanotube is light emission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relying on this fact, photoemission capability of silicon nanotubes with very thin sidewalls has been demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrons
  • This covalent aryl bond forms with extremely high affinity for electrons with energies near the Fermi level, Ef of the nanotube. (wikipedia.org)
  • These separated absorption features allow for the monitoring of valence electrons in each distinct nanotube. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • For starters, the ability to functionalize the nanotubes at the same time may advance imaging sensors, catalysis and solar-activated hydrogen fuel cells. (redorbit.com)
  • composite
  • The project named CONNECT (CarbON Nanotube compositE InterconneCTs) involves the joint efforts of seven European research and industry partners on fabrication techniques and processes to enable reliable Carbon NanoTubes for on-chip interconnects in ULSI microchip production. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalysts
  • The method is similar to arc discharge in that both use ionized gas to reach the high temperature necessary to vaporize carbon-containing substances and the metal catalysts necessary for the ensuing nanotube growth. (wikipedia.org)