• cardiomyocyte
  • Hypertrophic changes in the RV were more pronounced in the placebo group, as evidenced by greater wall thickness by echocardiography ( P = 0.008), increased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area ( P = 0.001), and increased expression of hypertrophy-related genes, including brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. (physiology.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: We examined the distribution of metallothionein (MT), a stress-inducible protein, and the cardiomyocyte diameter in human hearts after left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: The immunoreactivity for MT and the cardiomyocyte diameter was analyzed in left-ventricular tissue specimens of 17 patients with end-stage heart failure before and after LVAD support. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The transcription factor GATA4 is a critical regulator of cardiac gene expression where it controls embryonic development, cardiomyocyte differentiation, and stress responsiveness of the adult heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 A direct transcriptional regulatory role for GATA4 is further supported by the observation that antisense GATA4 mRNA expression inhibited the basal expression of certain cardiac-expressed genes in cardiomyocyte cultures. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 Moreover, expression of a dominant negative GATA4 or antisense GATA4 mRNA blocked features of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by phenylephrine and endothelin-1 in culture. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy occurs through sarcomerogenesis, the creation of new sarcomere units in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This 3D scaffold, along with collagen - a major component of the cardiac extracellular matrix - provides the appropriate conditions to promote cardiomyocyte organization, growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • sudden cardi
  • For example, in athlete's with significantly increased left ventricular weight there is also a corresponding increased risk for conduction abnormalities and sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phrase sudden cardiac death is a public health concept incorporating the features of natural, rapid, and unexpected. (4rumer.net)
  • Myerburg, Robert J. 'Cardiac Arrest and Sudden Cardiac Death' in Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th edition. (4rumer.net)
  • Presentation can range from asymptomatic to sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Ventricular fibrillation is a cause of cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Brugada syndrome, changes may be found in the resting ECG with evidence of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and ST elevation in the chest leads V1-V3, with an underlying propensity to sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigators are exploring new techniques of detecting and understanding the underlying mechanisms of sudden cardiac death in these patients without pathological evidence of underlying heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In populations where hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is screened out prior to involvement in competitive athletics, it is a common cause of sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myocytes
  • More recently, the requirement of GATA4 in regulating cardiac development and differentiation of myocytes has been investigated in genetically modified mice, although these studies did not examine the importance of GATA4 in regulating hypertrophy and/or heart failure in the adult. (ahajournals.org)
  • Indeed, fibroblasts isolated from Pn −/− hearts were less effective in adherence to cardiac myocytes and were characterized by a dramatic alteration in global gene expression (7% of all genes). (ahajournals.org)
  • The greater stiffness of pressure-overloaded compared with volume-overloaded myocardium was due to the higher stiffness of both the extracellular matrix and myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The surviving cardiac myocytes either arrange in parallel or in series to each other, contributing to ventricular dilatation or ventricular hypertrophy, depending on the loading stress on the ventricular wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides, reduced expression of V1 mysoin and L-type calcium channels on cardiac myocytes are also thought to cause cardiac remodelling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post MI, as fatty acid oxidation decreases, it leads to reduced energy supply for the cardiac myocytes, accumulation of fatty acids to toxic levels, and dysfunction of mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertension
  • There are suggestions that this progression is partially determined by underlying metabolic derangement (diabetes) and hypertension which may result in a more maladaptive cardiac response to pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac hypertrophy is usually a compensatory response of the heart to hemodynamic overload, including hypertension, valve diseases, and myocardial infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-established model of genetic hypertension that leads to an increase in cardiac mass, which often initially maintains cardiac performance despite the elevation of systemic arterial pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 This type of hypertension amplifies with age and is associated with increased cardiac output (CO) (attributable to increase in stroke volume). (ahajournals.org)
  • Physiologic relevance Diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension and heart failure, are often associated with changes in CO. Cardiomyopathy and heart failure cause a reduction in cardiac output, whereas infection and sepsis are known to increase cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary hypertension - which is separate from "hypertension" described above - can result in right ventricular hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy should always be considered in infants and children presenting with hypertension, cardiac failure, or sudden death. (wikipedia.org)
  • congestive heart f
  • VPB in hypertensive patients decreased after ACEI, 5 whereas the same treatment may have a beneficial effect on the the prevalence of ventricular tachycardia and couplets in patients with congestive heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • pathological
  • 1 Dissection of the genetic diversities that favor pathological ventricular remodeling might help to prevent cardiac decompensation. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the other hand, desensitization of the channel to its opener or the metabolic ligand ATP in pathological conditions, like cardiac hypertrophy, would decrease the adaption of myocardium to metabolic stress and is a disadvantage for drug therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • The cardiac extracellular matrix is a dynamic structural support network that is both influenced by, and a regulator of, pathological remodeling and hypertrophic growth. (ahajournals.org)
  • The term "reverse remodeling" in cardiology implies an improvement in ventricular mechanics and function following a remote injury or pathological process. (wikipedia.org)
  • contraction
  • Cardiac function was significantly improved after kallikrein gene transfer as evidenced by increased cardiac output and ±Δ P /Δ t (maximum speed of contraction/relaxation), along with elevated cardiac sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ )-ATPase (SERCA)-2a, phosphorylated phospholamban, NOx and cAMP levels, and GLUT4 translocation into plasma membranes of cardiac and skeletal muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Preload is described as the stretching of a single cardiac myocyte immediately prior to contraction and is, therefore, related to the sarcomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiac muscle cells, PKCε regulates muscle contraction through its actions at sarcomeric proteins, and PKCε modulates cardiac cell metabolism through its actions at mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice with ablation of the S100A1 gene (S100A1-/-), cardiac reserve upon beta adrenergic stimulation was impaired, showing reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate, as well as reduced calcium sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • We investigated the role of the kallikrein-kinin system in cardiac function and glucose utilization in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model using a gene transfer approach. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Kallikrein gene delivery significantly reduced blood glucose levels and cardiac glycogen accumulation in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our recent studies using gene transfer approaches have demonstrated that the KKS improves cardiac function in animal models of myocardial ischemia, chronic heart failure, and cardiac hypertrophy ( 9 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This is in keeping with the recent discovery that deletion polymorphism of human B2R gene is associated with an exaggerated cardiac growth response to physical training in healthy volunteers. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mice lacking the gene encoding Pn ( Postn ) were more prone to ventricular rupture in the first 10 days after a myocardial infarction, but surviving mice showed less fibrosis and better ventricular performance. (ahajournals.org)
  • S100A1 has shown great promise as an effective candidate for gene therapy to treat post-myocardially infarcted cardiac tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a rat model of myocardial infarction, intracoronary S100A1 adenoviral gene transfer restored sarcoplasmic reticular calcium transients and load, normalized intracellular sodium concentrations, reversed the pathologic expression of the fetal gene program, restored energy supply, normalized contractile function, preserved inotropic reserve, and reduced cardiac hypertrophy 1 week post-myocardial infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • These results indicate that kallikrein through kinin formation protects against diabetic cardiomyopathy by improving cardiac function and promoting glucose utilization and lipid metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2. the term is sometimes limited to cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the hypertrophy is localized to the interventricular septum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 4,5 For example, dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by a thinning of the ventricular walls that likely results, in part, from a "loosening" of the ECM within the heart, whereas a restrictive cardiomyopathy is often associated with an increase in ventricular stiffness, an overabundance of fibrosis, and inappropriate ECM expansion. (ahajournals.org)
  • phenotype
  • Conclusions After trandolapril treatment, the regression of VPB incidence not only is linked to hypertrophy and fibrosis, but additional causal factors also are involved including the myocardial phenotype and new calcium metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • We reasoned that genetic background and aging may significantly influence the impact of B2R mutation on cardiac phenotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • The knockout mice also had increased triglyceride levels in the myocardium, which is a detrimental disease phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult myocardium
  • Traditional deletion of Gata4 caused embryonic lethality associated with endoderm defects and cardiac malformations, precluding an analysis of the role of GATA4 in the adult myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Even with current technologies, hECT structure and function is more at the level of newborn heart muscle than adult myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • These influences collectively lead to a decrease in distensibility and elasticity (ability to stretch) of the myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sharp decrease in ventricular pressure that occurs during ventricular diastole allows the atrioventricular valves (or mitral and tricuspid valves) to open and causes the contents of the atria to empty into the ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • amyloidosis
  • The prevalence of autosomal dominant cardiac TTR amyloidosis in elderly white people is unknown but early diagnosis and supportive treatment may prevent complications among affected family members. (bmj.com)
  • Cardiac amyloidosis--a case report. (biomedsearch.com)
  • heart
  • but can also occur as a consequence of ventricular remodeling following a heart attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, pathologic and physiologic remodeling engage different cellular pathways in the heart and result in different gross cardiac phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is maladaptive largely because there is not a corresponding proliferation of the vasculature suppling the myocardium, resulting in ischemic areas of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged hypertrophy, however, may eventually lead to heart failure (HF). (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac hypertrophy was confirmed with increased heart weight/body weight ratio as well as assessment of hypertrophic markers in heart. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mitochondrial perturbations that were observed in hypertrophy heart was normalized after administration of TLR4 inhibitor but not with the agonist. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ability of the myocardium to successfully adapt cellular stress ultimately determines whether the heart will maintain its preserved function or decompensate and fail. (frontiersin.org)
  • GATA4 is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor that plays an essential role in promoting cardiac development and differentiation of the myocardium, as well as in regulating survival and hypertrophic growth of the adult heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • A number of stimuli that induce cardiac hypertrophy and/or heart failure were shown to enhance GATA4 transcriptional activity through phosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, inducible overexpression of Pn in the heart protected mice from rupture following myocardial infarction and induced spontaneous hypertrophy with aging. (ahajournals.org)
  • These are the first genetic data detailing the function of Pn in the adult heart as a regulator of cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1-3 One common characteristic that underlies nearly all forms of heart failure is a remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an associated change in ventricular geometry. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4,5 These heart failure-associated alterations in the cardiac ECM are likely regulated, in part, by the cardiac fibroblast through both stretch-sensitive signaling pathways and by neuroendocrine effectors such as angiotensin II and transforming growth factor (TGF)β. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 In response to disease stimuli that are associated with ventricular remodeling and heart failure, the activity of myocardial fibroblasts and the molecular composition of the ECM becomes altered. (ahajournals.org)
  • They show that prevention of Ang II-induced calpain activation is associated with impaired nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in heart tissue, which eventually leads to decreased Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • The calpain/calpastatin system in the heart, and particularly its potential role in the complex regulation of cardiac hypertrophy, is only poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the heart, 2 transcription factors play central roles in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and NF-κB. (ahajournals.org)
  • We measured in vitro passive stiffness of volume- or pressure-overloaded myocardium mainly from congenital heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Myocardial stiffness is usually a major determinant of ventricular chamber stiffness, although forces exerted by tissues and cavities surrounding the heart (eg, pericardium, pleura, intrathoracic pressure) can affect and even, in some clinical syndromes, dominate chamber stiffness. (ahajournals.org)
  • Since sarcomere length cannot be determined in the intact heart, other indices of preload such as ventricular end-diastolic volume or pressure are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiology can be described as all of the following: An academic discipline Branch of science Branch of applied science Branch of medicine Branch of internal medicine Adult cardiology - Cardiac electrophysiology - study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical cardiac electrophysiology - Cardiogeriatrics (geriatric cardiology) - Echocardiography - use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac pacemaker cells carry the impulses that are responsible for the beating of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiology, ventricular remodeling (or cardiac remodeling) refers to changes in the size, shape, structure, and function of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ventricular muscle twitches randomly rather than contracting in a co-ordinated fashion (from the apex of the heart to the outflow of the ventricles), and so the ventricles fail to pump blood around the body - because of this, it is classified as a cardiac arrest rhythm, and patients in V-fib should be treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and prompt defibrillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • hECTs also express key cardiac genes (α-MHC, SERCA2a and ACTC1) nearing the levels seen in the adult heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systole /ˈsɪstəliː/ is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiac skeleton is made of dense connective tissue which gives structure to the heart by forming the atrioventricular septum-which separates the atria from the ventricles-and the fibrous rings which serve as bases for the four heart valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dor procedure is a medical technique used as part of heart surgery and originally introduced by the French cardiac surgeon Vincent Dor (b.1932). (wikipedia.org)
  • The myocardium consists of a single, continuous tissue that wraps around itself, spiraling up from the apex of the heart, to form a helix with elliptically shaped ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apex of the heart becomes circular, hypertrophy ensues in the viable myocardial tissue, and the valve opening widens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ratio between the two in heart failure on a time curve is a determinate of compensatory geometric remodeling of the myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • To restore the heart to its elliptical shape, an endoventricular suture is put in place and a longitudinal tuck is made to return the cardiac apex from the posterior to the front. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is an inherited heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARVD is caused by genetic defects of the parts of heart muscle (also called myocardium or cardiac muscle) known as desmosomes, areas on the surface of heart muscle cells which link the cells together. (wikipedia.org)
  • tachycardia
  • Up to 80% of individuals with ARVD present have symptoms like syncope and dyspnea.The remainder frequently present with palpitations or other symptoms due to right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) tachycardia (a type of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia). (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • M-protein is expressed in adult cardiac muscle and fast skeletal muscle, and functions to stabilize the three-dimensional arrangement of proteins comprising M-band structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-protein is expressed only in striated muscle, including fast skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-protein exhibits a different pattern of expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle, as well as fast- versus slow-skeletal muscle during development, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms for expression quantity and temporal appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1 is highly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and localizes to Z-discs and sarcoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1 is a member of the S100 family of proteins expressed in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and brain, with highest density at Z-lines and sarcoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Interest in these bioengineered cardiac tissues has risen due to their potential use in cardiovascular research and clinical therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tissues provide a unique in vitro model to study cardiac physiology with a species-specific advantage over cultured animal cells in experimental studies. (wikipedia.org)