• Genomes
  • For instance, sequencing the genomes of 2,636 Icelandic citizens and the genotyping of 101,584 additional subjects found 8,041 individuals who had 1 gene completely knocked out (i.e. these people were homozygous for a non-functional gene). (wikipedia.org)
  • The transport of viral genomes to ND10 does not require viral gene expression. (rupress.org)
  • coli
  • Our phylogenetic analyses support that kgtP is a widely conserved locus in commensal and pathogenic E. coli , while UPEC-associated c5038 was acquired through horizontal gene transfer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two mobilizable gene expression shuttle vectors (pWD2-oriT and pWD2Ery-oriT) were constructed, and conjugation efficiency of pWD2-oriT from E. coli to the nine Pseudoalteromonas strains ranged from 10 −6 to 10 −3 transconjugants per recipient cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A deletion study of spf in E. coli cells resulted in viable spf null mutants, which indicates that Spot42 is non-essential, at least under controlled lab conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli the spf gene is flanked by polA (upstream) and yihA (downstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion analysis confirmed the function of IstR, E. coli strain K-12 could not grow in the absence of IstR when tisAB was present. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Three mutants, two disrupted for membrane-bound proteins (ABC pheromone exporter transport, Hst6p, and amino acid sensor, Ssy1p) and ORF19.4612 (uncharacterized) were analyzed using phenotypic microarrays (PMs). (nrf.ac.za)
  • Truncation mutants of HrpV and HrpG showed that C-terminal helices in both proteins play a functional and/or structural role. (bl.uk)
  • Both intact and cryptic prophages can confer benefits to their hosts, such as by providing proteins that aid in stress responses ( 3 ), by selectively killing lysogen-free competitors ( 4 ), or by promoting horizontal gene transfer ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • These essential genes encode proteins to maintain a central metabolism, replicate DNA, translate genes into proteins, maintain a basic cellular structure, and mediate transport processes into and out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of this gene interferes with cardioblast junction proteins, resulting in a broken hearted phenotype similar to other heterotrimeric cardiac G protein mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This CYC-CLK protein complex binds to E-box elements in promoter regions of the genes period and timeless, functioning as a transcription factor in the translation of the proteins PER and TIM. (wikipedia.org)
  • These four proteins of the feedback loop are later degraded by a casein kinase-mediated phosphorylation cycle, allowing fluctuations in gene expression according to environmental cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • The results of this study showed that genes with similar function tend to interact with one another and genes with similar patterns of genetic interactions often encode products that tend to work in the same pathway or complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • An Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation is introduced to model the modes of action of lung toxic drugs based on gene expression data and prior knowledge of protein connectivity. (rsc.org)
  • In Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) 4,836 heterozygous deletions covering 98.4% of the 4,914 protein coding open reading frames have been constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hypomorph is a reduction in gene function through reduced (protein, RNA) expression or reduced functional performance, but not a complete loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hypermorph can result from an increase in gene dose (a gene duplication), from increased mRNA or protein expression, or constitutive protein activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, in C.elegans DAG regulates UNC-13, a plasma-membrane associated protein critical for vesicle-mediated neurotransmitter release and mutational studies have shown that two UNC-13 reduction of function mutants show resistance to emodepside, observations supporting this hypothesized mechanism of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AdK gene/protein is mainly found in eukaryotic organisms and its primary sequence shows a high degree of conservation (>55% aa similarity). (wikipedia.org)
  • The AdK gene in mammalian organisms is also linked in a head to head manner to the gene for the long isoform of AdK to the gene for μ3A adaptor protein, and both these genes are transcribed from a single bi-directional promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large size of the AdK gene and its linkage to the gene for μ3A adaptor protein are apparently unique characteristic of the amniotes (e.g. various mammals, birds, and reptiles). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is also known as Mthl5 (methuselah-like G protein coupled receptor) and is part of a gene family found in insects but not vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epub ahead of print] de Mendoza A, Jones JW, and Friedrich M. Methuselah/Methuselah-like G protein-coupled receptors constitute an ancient metazoan gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two small RNAs encoded by the IstR locus: IstR-1 and IstR-2, of which IstR-1 works as antitoxins against the toxic protein TisB (toxicity-induced by SOS B) which is encoded by the neighbouring tisAB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeobox protein Nkx-3.1, also known as NKX3-1, NKX3, BAPX2, NKX3A and NKX3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NKX3-1 gene located on chromosome 8p. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NKX3-1 homeobox protein is encoded by the NKX3-1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned a novel prostate-specific gene that encoded a homeobox-containing protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycle (cyc) is a gene in Drosophila melanogaster that encodes the CYCLE protein (CYC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Elongation protein 4 homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as ELP4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ELP4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that children with Rolandic epilepsy have a mutation of gene coding for the Elongator Protein Complex 4, which is involved in transcription and tRNA modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Developing a chemotaxis assay to identify novel chemotaxis genes in F. johnsoniae . (uncw.edu)
  • g) The original result of 271 essential genes has been corrected to 261, with 31 genes that were thought to be essential being in fact non-essential whereas 20 novel essential genes have been described since then. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, Aliivibrio fischeri and Aliivibrio salmonicida the spf gene is flanked by polA (upstream) and a sRNA gene encoding the novel VSsRNA24 (downstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • It is possible that CRAϕ-like phages restrict horizontal gene transfer in nature by inhibiting the growth of naturally transformable strains. (asm.org)
  • f) Deduced by comparison of the two gene essentiality datasets obtained independently in the P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and PAO1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on our current knowledge, to date, gene deletion systems have only been described for two Pseudoalteromonas strains, P. haloplanktis TAC125 and P. sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • His research using gene and genome sequence has led to new insights into mutation, and the nature of genome variability among laboratory strains of Neurospora. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • In addition to exerting an effect on the nematode via binding to Latrophilin receptors, there is also recent evidence that indicates that emodepside also interacts with the BK potassium channel coded by the gene Slo-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • To complement gene-expression analysis, quantitative Western blot experiments were performed to determine the members of COMPASS that are required for methylation of histone H3. (genetics.org)
  • regulation
  • This result was also verified via RT-PCR, which demonstrated up-regulation of five crucial cellulose synthesis genes ( bcsA, B, C, E, Q ) in Δ bcsR . (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the microarray data failed to reveal genes directly involved in PGE2 production, the analysis of the white-gray-opaque-like (WGOL) switching, suggest that up-regulation of ORF19.4612 was necessary for rough pink (RP) cell formation and conversion of AA into PGE2. (nrf.ac.za)
  • SOX1 has shown clinical significance in its direct regulation of gamma-crystallin genes, which is vital for lens development in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in controlling both the sleep-wake cycle and circadian regulation of gene expression by promoting transcription in a negative feedback mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, only primates share regulation of CAMP gene expression by vitamin D which occurred after the loss of GULO gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, dual-strain competition assays in a murine model showed that c5038 mutant but not kgtP mutant was outcompeted by the wild-type strain during the colonization of murine bladders and kidneys, highlighting the importance of C5038 under in vivo conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, targeted deletion of PTEN gene in CARNs resulted in rapid carcinoma formation after androgen-mediated regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • The AdK gene in humans is located on chromosome 10 in the 10q11-10q24 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the NKX3-1 gene is located on chromosome 8p21.2 with 4 exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyc gene is located on the left arm of chromosome 3 and codes for a transcription factor containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and a PAS domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, Michael W. Young's team reported similar effects of per, and that the gene covers 7.1-kilobase (kb) interval on the X chromosome and encodes a 4.5-kb poly(A)+ RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The expression of fliC and ompA in the Δ bcsR mutant was found to be remarkably reduced compared with that in the wild-type and the others were also affected excepted ompX . (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene c5038 can be specifically induced by KG, whereas the expression of kgtP does not respond to KG, yet can be stimulated during growth on glycerol. (frontiersin.org)
  • m/Df = m/+ = m/Dp After Muller's classification of gene mutation nature, it was described a isomorph, as a nonsense point mutant with identical gene expression as the original allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction of this neuroectoderm occurs upon expression of the SOX1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKX3-1 is an androgen-regulated, prostate-specific homeobox gene whose expression is predominantly localized to prostate epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the exact mechanism of this correlation is not known, it is suspected that it is due primarily to cyc playing a role in regulating expression of heat-shock genes, which in turn play a role in regulating duration and quality of sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • meaning 'phenotype is more severe than' Amorphic describes a mutation that causes complete loss of gene function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypomorphic describes a mutation that causes a partial loss of gene function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hypermorphic mutation causes an increase in normal gene function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neomorphic mutation causes a dominant gain of gene function that is different from the normal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • operon
  • 2011. Flavobacterium johnsoniae sprB is part of an operon spanning the additional gliding motility genes sprC , sprD and sprF . (uncw.edu)
  • humans
  • Note that many genes in humans are not absolutely essential for survival but can cause severe disease when mutated. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it may be difficult to prove that a gene is essential in humans, it can be demonstrated that a gene is not essential or not even causing disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to its coding sequence (about 1 Kb), the AdK gene in mammalian species is unusually large (~546 Kb in humans) and it consists of 11 exons (36 to 173 bp in length) and 10 introns whose lengths vary from 4.2 Kb to 128.6 Kb (average ~50Kb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The disruption of AdK gene (-/-) in mice causes neonatal hepatic steatosis, a fatal condition characterized by rapid microvesicular fat infiltration, leading to early postnatal death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown direct deletion of the SOX1 gene in mice causes cataracts and microphthalmia. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • There are a few systems specifically designed for SGA analysis, which greatly decrease the time to analyse a query gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • partially
  • 2010. Flavobacterium johnsoniae gldN and gldO are partially redundant genes required for gliding motility and surface localization of SprB. (uncw.edu)
  • interactions
  • The double mutants are screened for SSL interactions visually or using imaging software by assessing the size of the resulting colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Finally, we show Paf1 is required for silencing and K4-methylated H3 at the rDNA, suggesting a possible direct role for K4-methylated H3 in gene silencing. (genetics.org)
  • The researchers suggested that the NKX3-1 gene plays a role in androgen-driven differentiation of prostatic tissue as well as in loss of differentiation during the progression of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Many of these integrated viral sequences are believed to be cryptic, but prophage genes are sometimes coopted by the host, and some prophages may be reactivated to form infectious particles when cells are stressed or mutate. (asm.org)
  • mRNA
  • Upon translation of the tisB gene, a +1 inactive primary transcript mRNA is produced, which must be endonucleolytically processed 42 nucleotides from the 5' end to yield a +42 translationally competent mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene ( bcsR ) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion into epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • A recent study of 900 mouse genes concluded that 42% of them were essential although the selected genes were not representative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first time one of these albino mutants was brought into a laboratory for a study was in 1828, in an experiment on fasting. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study published in February 2009, researcher linked this gene to the most common form of human epilepsy, namely Rolandic epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • identify
  • 2011. Development and use of a gene deletion strategy for Flavobacterium johnsoniae to identify the redundant gliding motility genes remF , remG , remH and remI . (uncw.edu)
  • found
  • As expected, we found genes affecting cytokinesis and/or the actin cytoskeleton within this set ( ain1 , acp2 , imp2 ). (g3journal.org)
  • found strong, purifying selection and comparatively reduced levels of sequence variation, indicating that these human genes are essential too. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bækkedal and Haugen made a Spot42 consensus secondary structure based on all known "spf" sequences at the time (2015) and found that the spot42 gene is highly conserved across the 5 orders it is identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • We have previously shown that to fulfill their physiological roles renal proximal tubule cells accumulate high concentrations of α-ketoglutarate (KG) and that gene cluster c5032 - c5039 contribute to anaerobic utilization of KG by UPEC str. (frontiersin.org)
  • LAT-1 (1014 amino acids, 113 KDa coded by the B0457.1 gene) and LAT-2 (1338 amino acids, 147 KDa coded by the B0286.2 gene) are located presynaptically at the neuromuscular junction in Caenorhabditis elegans and share 21% amino acid identity with each other (the amino acid sequence homology LAT-1 shares with rat, bovine and human latrophilins has been shown to be 22, 23 and 21% respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • The 2.17 kb cyc gene is divided into 5 coding exons totaling 1,625 base pairs which code for 413 aminos acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Colonies of SprB-deficient mutants do not spread on agar surfaces, but individual cells do exhibit some motility when observed in wet mount. (uncw.edu)
  • group
  • SOX1, SOX2, and SOX3, members of the SOX gene family in particular the SOXB1 group, contain transcription factors related to Sry, the testis-determining factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • SOX1 is a member of the SOX gene family, in particular the SOXB1 group, which includes SOX1, SOX2, and SOX3. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group of SOX genes regulate neural progenitor identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • d) Includes predicted gene essentiality and data compilation from published single-gene essentiality studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • library
  • i) Involved a fully saturated mutant library of 14 replicates, with 84.3% of possible insertion sites with at least one transposon insertion. (wikipedia.org)