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  • genome
  • Because many viruses (not all of them) integrate their own genome into the genome of their host cells in order to replicate, mutagenesis caused by viral infections is a fairly common occurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2013, the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, based on a prokaryotic viral defense system, has also allowed for the editing of the genome, and mutagenesis may be performed in vivo with relative ease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2013, development of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, based on a prokaryotic viral defense system, has also allowed for the editing or mutagenesis of the genome in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Site-directed mutagenesis was achieved in 1974 in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann using a nucleotide analogue N4-hydroxycytidine, which induces transition of GC to AT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutagenesis in the laboratory is an important technique whereby DNA mutations are deliberately engineered to produce mutant genes, proteins, strains of bacteria, or other genetically modified organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, the kind of mutations artificially induced in laboratory were entirely random, later methods for more specific site-directed mutagenesis were introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1969 the EMS established the Environmental Mutagen Information Center (EMIC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which developed the first bibliographic database on environmental mutagenesis, facilitating research throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, particularly the development of tests for genetic toxicology, through the establishment of a register of substances tested for toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • The use of a master mix, a unique multi-enzyme KLD enzyme mix, and a fast polymerase ensures that, for most plasmids, the mutagenesis reaction is complete in less than two hours. (neb.com)
  • Early transposon mutagenesis experiments relied on bacteriophages and conjugative bacterial plasmids for the insertion of sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1978
  • Hutchison later produced with his collaborator Michael Smith in 1978 a more flexible approach to site-directed mutagenesis by using oligonucleotides in a primer extension method with DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • Mutagenesis may occur endogenously, for example, through spontaneous hydrolysis, or through normal cellular processes that can generate reactive oxygen species and DNA adducts, or through error in replication and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery
  • This research prompted the first discovery of a transposable element, and from there transposon mutagenesis have been exploited as a biological tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second Edition
  • In its second edition as of 2009, DNA Repair and Mutagenesis contains over 1,000 pages, 10,000 references and 700 illustrations and has been described as "the most comprehensive book available in [the] field. (wikipedia.org)
  • cutting-edge
  • Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Chomosomal Mutagenesis covers state-of-the-art techniques that are staged to expand, if not revolutionize, genetic analysis in the long neglected and relevant cell types. (springer.com)
  • repair
  • Later support for this hypothesis came from Susan Rosenberg, then at the University of Alberta, who found that an enzyme involved in DNA recombinational repair, recBCD, was necessary for the directed mutagenesis observed by Cairns and colleagues in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Repair and Mutagenesis is a college-level textbook about DNA repair and mutagenesis written by Errol Friedberg, Graham Walker, Wolfram Siede, Richard D. Wood, and Roger Schultz. (wikipedia.org)