• receptor tyrosi
  • The formation of neuromuscular synapses requires the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also present is the receptor tyrosine kinase protein MuSK, a signaling protein involved in the development of the neuromuscular junction, which is also held in place by rapsyn. (wikipedia.org)
  • MuSK (for Muscle-Specific Kinase) is a receptor tyrosine kinase required for the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Three homologous genes have evolved in vertebrates encoding three muscle type- specific isoforms of TnT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the TnT isoform genes is linked in chromosomal DNA to a troponin I (TnI) isoform gene encoding the inhibitory subunit of the troponin complex to form three gene pairs: The fast skeletal muscle TnI (fsTnI)-fsTnT, slow skeletal muscle TnI (ssTnI)-cTnT, and cTnI-ssTnT pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence and epitope conservation studies suggested that genes encoding the muscle type-specific TnT and TnI isoforms have originated from a TnI-like ancestor gene and duplicated and diversified from a fsTnI-like-fsTnT-like gene pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apparently scrambled linkage between ssTnI-cTnT and cTnI-ssTnT genes actually reflects original functional linkages as that TNNT2 gene is expressed together with ssTnI gene in embryonic cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the following genes cause maple syrup urine disease: BCKDHA (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 608348) BCKDHB (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 248611) DBT (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 248610) DLD (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 238331) These four genes produce proteins that work together as the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are due to mutations in genes that are involved in making muscle proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • collagen
  • No differences were observed in muscle myofibrillar and collagen FSR with Whey (0.09 ± 0.01%/h) compared with CasPost (0.09 ± 0.003%/h), and it did not differ between CasPre (0.10 ± 0.01%/h) and CasPost. (wiley.com)
  • also acetylation, sumoylation, ubiquitination, and hydroxylation - producing the hydroxylysine in collagen and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the process, a matrix of collagen is seeded with muscle cells, which are then bathed in a nutritious solution and induced to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • The loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging has been attributed to an impaired muscle protein synthetic response to food intake. (nih.gov)
  • Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) occurs as a response to resistance exercise or nutrition intake. (verywell.com)
  • Learning how to effectively stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) through resistance training and adequate protein intake will help promote lean mass gains, improve muscle recovery, and energy. (verywell.com)
  • In order to keep muscle protein on the positive side, proper training and protein intake are shown to be essential. (verywell.com)
  • Conclusions: Manipulation of aminoacidemia before resistance exercise via different patterns of intake of protein altered plasma AA profiles and postexercise intracellular signaling. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The objective was to compare muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. (wiley.com)
  • However, it is unclear how the elderly respond to the combined intake of protein and carbohydrates. (isrctn.com)
  • The aim of the first study is to determine if the response to combined protein and carbohydrate intake is different between young and elderly men. (isrctn.com)
  • Protein and energy intake in advanced chronic kidney disease: how much is too much. (wikipedia.org)
  • MuSK
  • Indeed, Dok-7 binds phosphorylated MuSK and activates MuSK in purified protein preparations and in muscle in-vivo by transgenic overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the nerve-derived organizing factor agrin fails to stimulate MuSK activation in muscle cells genetically null for Dok-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon activation by its ligand agrin, MuSK signals via the proteins called Dok-7 and rapsyn, to induce "clustering" of acetylcholine receptors (AChR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dok-7 interacts with MuSK by way of protein "domain" called a "PTB domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the AChR, MuSK, and Dok-7 other proteins are then gathered, to form the endplate to the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies directed against this protein (Anti-MuSK autoantibodies) are found in those patients with myasthenia gravis not demonstrating antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (sero-negative). (wikipedia.org)
  • casein protein
  • Sixteen healthy elderly men were randomly assigned to an experiment during which they were administered a single bolus of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled casein protein (PRO) or a placebo (PLA) during sleep. (nih.gov)
  • known as the sarcolemma
  • In vertebrates, motor neurons release acetylcholine (ACh), a small molecule neurotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on the cell membrane of the muscle fiber, also known as the sarcolemma. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuromuscular junction
  • A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuromuscular junction is where a neuron activates a muscle to contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrate animals, the acetylcholine receptor subtype that is found at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles is the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which is a ligand-gated ion channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the proteins mentioned, other proteins are then gathered, to form the endplate to the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Although this disease is caused by a mutation in a skeletal muscle-specific actin gene, the similarity in appearance suggests that mutations in Lmod could cause the same type of disease in cardiac muscle cells. (pennmedicine.org)
  • F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Troponin C, skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNC2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the Tn-C subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle troponin T (cTnT), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TNNT2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TNNT2 gene is located at 1q32 in the human chromosomal genome, encoding the cardiac muscle isoform of troponin T (cTnT). (wikipedia.org)
  • TNNT2 gene is expressed in vertebrate cardiac muscles and embryonic skeletal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein sequence alignment demonstrated that TNNT2 gene is conserved in vertebrate species (Fig. 2) in the middle and C-terminal regions, while the three muscle type isoforms are significantly diverged. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNNT2 gene is transiently expressed in embryonic and neonatal skeletal muscles in both avian and mammalian organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coiled-coil domain-containing 78 (CCDC78) is a protein in humans encoded by the CCDC78 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CCDC78 gene is 10,892 base pairs long, and the protein contains 438 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telethonin, also known as Tcap, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCAP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telethonin specifically interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Siva, suggesting that Telethonin may be involved in the mechanism underlying Coxsackievirus B3 infection in acute and chronic myocarditis Telethonin was also identified to be targeted and regulated by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1, thus demonstrating that TCAP is a circadian regulated gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, idiopathic cardiomyopathy, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • While theoretical models have in fact described exactly how these muscle proteins interact, this interaction has never previously been observed in detail. (redorbit.com)
  • Recent studies on the interaction of proteins with missense mutations and its neighbors showed high degree of rigidity associated with central hub proteins involved in protein binding and flexible subnetworks having molecular functions involved with calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • People start losing muscle mass at the age of 40-about some 10 percent of the total muscle mass for each 10-year period, which may lead to fall-related injuries, slowing metabolism and reduced quality of life. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We aimed to determine the effects of systemic inflammation on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in MHD patients. (jci.org)
  • and that parenteral nutrition during dialysis, as well as exercise during dialysis, can mitigate the defects in protein metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of glucose homeostasis on protein metabolism in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Calcium ions bind to sensor proteins (synaptotagmin) on synaptic vesicles, triggering vesicle fusion with the cell membrane and subsequent neurotransmitter release from the motor neuron into the synaptic cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • whey
  • Here, we investigated whether differential feeding patterns of a whey protein mixture commencing before exercise affect postexercise intracellular signaling and MPS. (stir.ac.uk)
  • In accordance with the law, and to make customers happy, Beverly added just enough whey protein isolate (5%, depending on the flavor) to produce a more desirable consistency. (vitaglo.com)
  • Consistent with Beverly's code of supplement manufacturing ethics, they used the best quality whey protein isolate available (high %, low in lactose). (vitaglo.com)
  • humans
  • In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • myofibrillar
  • Clinical studies have demonstrated increases in total body mass, fat-free (includes muscle) mass, strength and myofibrillar protein when subjects consumed 20 g of protein before and again after training (i.e. 40 g total). (vitaglo.com)
  • amino acid
  • Purpose: We have previously shown that the aminoacidemia caused by the consumption of a rapidly digested protein after resistance exercise enhances muscle protein synthesis (MPS) more than the amino acid (AA) profile associated with a slowly digested protein. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K), encoded by the codons AAA and AAG, is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an essential amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of the microfibrils showed that they have an amino acid composition similar to that of the microfibrillar protein of the intact elastic fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • When TNNT2 is expressed in neonatal skeletal muscle, the alternative splicing of exon 5 exhibits a synchronized regulation to that in the heart in a species-specific manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • powder
  • Supplement and protein powder manufacturers will market an increase in MPS using their products. (verywell.com)
  • Beverly is not aware of any other company that manufactures a protein powder with such a high content of MPI. (vitaglo.com)
  • UMP can certainly cushion the disappointment and sense of anti-climax experienced with every other protein powder you've tried. (vitaglo.com)
  • A favorite protein powder recipe for fall…or any time of year! (julielohre.com)