• genes
  • Three homologous genes have evolved in vertebrates encoding three muscle type- specific isoforms of TnT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the TnT isoform genes is linked in chromosomal DNA to a troponin I (TnI) isoform gene encoding the inhibitory subunit of the troponin complex to form three gene pairs: The fast skeletal muscle TnI (fsTnI)-fsTnT, slow skeletal muscle TnI (ssTnI)-cTnT, and cTnI-ssTnT pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence and epitope conservation studies suggested that genes encoding the muscle type-specific TnT and TnI isoforms have originated from a TnI-like ancestor gene and duplicated and diversified from a fsTnI-like-fsTnT-like gene pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apparently scrambled linkage between ssTnI-cTnT and cTnI-ssTnT genes actually reflects original functional linkages as that TNNT2 gene is expressed together with ssTnI gene in embryonic cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the following genes cause maple syrup urine disease: BCKDHA (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 608348) BCKDHB (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 248611) DBT (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 248610) DLD (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 238331) These four genes produce proteins that work together as the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are due to mutations in genes that are involved in making muscle proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Muscle (from Latin musculus , diminutive of mus "mouse") is the contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • MyoD's role as a protein is to aid the regulation of muscle differentiation, the process where basic cell types become more specialised, in this case for muscle tissue. (sciencephoto.com)
  • When we eat protein sources , amino acids from these foods are shuttled to our muscle tissue replacing any muscle protein losses occurring in a fasted state or as a result of oxidative stress. (verywell.com)
  • Contrarily, a negative protein balance can lead to deterioration of muscle tissue. (verywell.com)
  • The amount of MPS response in muscle tissue appears to be dependent upon both workload and intensity. (verywell.com)
  • From what I understand part of her muscle tissue was apart of the crime scene/DNA available/Dental records available/*Doe Network/Can You Identify Me. (wordpress.com)
  • Blood samples and muscle biopsies (tissue samples) are collected to measure muscle protein production. (isrctn.com)
  • While its specific function is still not completely understood, it has been shown that it is closely associated with myosin as it is present in all skeletal and cardiac muscle from the earliest stages of muscle tissue formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter synthesized from dietary choline and acetyl-CoA (ACoA), and is involved in the stimulation of muscle tissue in vertebrates as well as in some invertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 Jon F. Vein of the United States filed for, and ultimately secured, a patent (US 6,835,390 B1) for the production of tissue engineered meat for human consumption, wherein muscle and fat cells would be grown in an integrated fashion to create food products such as beef, poultry and fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • collagen
  • No differences were observed in muscle myofibrillar and collagen FSR with Whey (0.09 ± 0.01%/h) compared with CasPost (0.09 ± 0.003%/h), and it did not differ between CasPre (0.10 ± 0.01%/h) and CasPost. (wiley.com)
  • also acetylation, sumoylation, ubiquitination, and hydroxylation - producing the hydroxylysine in collagen and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the process, a matrix of collagen is seeded with muscle cells, which are then bathed in a nutritious solution and induced to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • MuSK
  • Indeed, Dok-7 binds phosphorylated MuSK and activates MuSK in purified protein preparations and in muscle in-vivo by transgenic overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon activation by its ligand agrin, MuSK signals via the proteins called Dok-7 and rapsyn, to induce "clustering" of acetylcholine receptors (AChR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dok-7 interacts with MuSK by way of protein "domain" called a "PTB domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the AChR, MuSK, and Dok-7 other proteins are then gathered, to form the endplate to the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies directed against this protein (Anti-MuSK autoantibodies) are found in those patients with myasthenia gravis not demonstrating antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (sero-negative). (wikipedia.org)
  • cereals
  • As for as nutritional attributes are concerned, the whey protein concentrates are rich in essential amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, cystine, and methionine enabling its use in infant food and aged people diet as well as in enrichment of cereals. (dairyforall.com)
  • secretion
  • Also, consuming carbohydrates at the same time increases secretion of the hormone insulin and increases muscle protein production in the young. (isrctn.com)
  • O-Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus is used to mark certain proteins for secretion from the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • known as the sarcolemma
  • In vertebrates, motor neurons release acetylcholine (ACh), a small molecule neurotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on the cell membrane of the muscle fiber, also known as the sarcolemma. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuromuscular junction
  • A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuromuscular junction is where a neuron activates a muscle to contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrate animals, the acetylcholine receptor subtype that is found at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles is the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which is a ligand-gated ion channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the proteins mentioned, other proteins are then gathered, to form the endplate to the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titin
  • The head structure formed by these 2 proteins on one end of the titin string extends into the center of the M band. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telethonin has a unique β-sheet structure, which enables antiparallel association with the Titin Z1-Z2 domains in cardiac and skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telethonin KO animals showed preserved Titin anchoring at baseline, and instead showed a profound deficit during nuclear biomechanical stress in modulating the turnover of the proapoptotic p53 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • While theoretical models have in fact described exactly how these muscle proteins interact, this interaction has never previously been observed in detail. (redorbit.com)
  • Recent studies on the interaction of proteins with missense mutations and its neighbors showed high degree of rigidity associated with central hub proteins involved in protein binding and flexible subnetworks having molecular functions involved with calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Calcium ions bind to sensor proteins (synaptotagmin) on synaptic vesicles, triggering vesicle fusion with the cell membrane and subsequent neurotransmitter release from the motor neuron into the synaptic cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • The N-terminal region of TnT is alternatively spliced, accounting for multiple isoforms observed in cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein sequence alignment demonstrated that TNNT2 gene is conserved in vertebrate species (Fig. 2) in the middle and C-terminal regions, while the three muscle type isoforms are significantly diverged. (wikipedia.org)
  • whey protein
  • Here, we investigated whether differential feeding patterns of a whey protein mixture commencing before exercise affect postexercise intracellular signaling and MPS. (stir.ac.uk)
  • In accordance with the law, and to make customers happy, Beverly added just enough whey protein isolate (5%, depending on the flavor) to produce a more desirable consistency. (vitaglo.com)
  • Consistent with Beverly's code of supplement manufacturing ethics, they used the best quality whey protein isolate available (high %, low in lactose). (vitaglo.com)
  • Whey Protein Concentrates (WPC), sometimes called as muscle protein in some parts of the world, are nothing but powders made by drying the retentates from ultrafiltration (UF) of whey . (dairyforall.com)
  • The important functional properties of the whey protein concentrates can be listed as follows. (dairyforall.com)
  • The solubility of whey protein is considered as the most important one because it affects the other functional properties like gelling, foaming and emulsifying properties. (dairyforall.com)
  • When the temperature increases, the solubility of whey protein is lost since they are heat sensitive. (dairyforall.com)
  • The proteose-peptone component is the most heat resistant among the entire whey protein component. (dairyforall.com)
  • The maximum water absorption by the whey protein concentrate occurs when the exposure is between 5-10 min. (dairyforall.com)
  • But sodium caseinate and soy protein isolates are capable of absorbing water better than the whey protein concentrates. (dairyforall.com)
  • The highest over run is obtained when the whey protein is at its highest solubility in which there will be mild but not zero denaturation. (dairyforall.com)
  • The whey protein concentrate is a better substitute for egg white, the use of which in food is objected to by strict vegetarians. (dairyforall.com)
  • The emulsifying ability or capacity directly depends on the solubility of the whey protein. (dairyforall.com)
  • consumption
  • The test drinks contain dietary protein which is safe for human consumption. (isrctn.com)
  • The functional properties are defined as those properties, which determine the overall behaviour of proteins in foods during production, processing, storage and consumption. (dairyforall.com)
  • gene
  • The TNNT2 gene is located at 1q32 in the human chromosomal genome, encoding the cardiac muscle isoform of troponin T (cTnT). (wikipedia.org)
  • The CCDC78 gene is 10,892 base pairs long, and the protein contains 438 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telethonin specifically interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Siva, suggesting that Telethonin may be involved in the mechanism underlying Coxsackievirus B3 infection in acute and chronic myocarditis Telethonin was also identified to be targeted and regulated by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1, thus demonstrating that TCAP is a circadian regulated gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, idiopathic cardiomyopathy, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • myofibrillar
  • Clinical studies have demonstrated increases in total body mass, fat-free (includes muscle) mass, strength and myofibrillar protein when subjects consumed 20 g of protein before and again after training (i.e. 40 g total). (vitaglo.com)
  • amino acid
  • Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K), encoded by the codons AAA and AAG, is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an essential amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of the microfibrils showed that they have an amino acid composition similar to that of the microfibrillar protein of the intact elastic fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • When TNNT2 is expressed in neonatal skeletal muscle, the alternative splicing of exon 5 exhibits a synchronized regulation to that in the heart in a species-specific manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • powder
  • Supplement and protein powder manufacturers will market an increase in MPS using their products. (verywell.com)
  • Beverly is not aware of any other company that manufactures a protein powder with such a high content of MPI. (vitaglo.com)
  • UMP can certainly cushion the disappointment and sense of anti-climax experienced with every other protein powder you've tried. (vitaglo.com)
  • A favorite protein powder recipe for fall…or any time of year! (julielohre.com)
  • intake of protein
  • Conclusions: Manipulation of aminoacidemia before resistance exercise via different patterns of intake of protein altered plasma AA profiles and postexercise intracellular signaling. (stir.ac.uk)
  • However, it is unclear how the elderly respond to the combined intake of protein and carbohydrates. (isrctn.com)
  • Stimulation
  • Anabolic effects include growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density and strength, and stimulation of linear growth and bone maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Presynaptic motor axons stop 30 nanometers from the sarcolemma, the cell membrane of a muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This influx of Ca2+ causes neurotransmitter-containing vesicles to dock and fuse to the presynaptic neuron's cell membrane through SNARE proteins. (wikipedia.org)