• twitch
  • Large motor units are the ones having fastest and largest twitch contraction, thus producing greatest force. (biology-online.org)
  • The contraction produced can be described as a twitch, summation, or tetanus, depending on the frequency of action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscles present viscoelasticity, therefore a viscous damper may be included in the model, when the dynamics of the second-order critically damped twitch is regarded. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • When the researchers treated smooth muscle cells from mice with the drug carbachol, the amount of calcium available within the cells increased. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because there is much more calmodulin than MLCK in cells, they expected the increase in calcium to lead to more MLCK activation, and that therefore the contraction would be stronger. (innovations-report.com)
  • To track the progress of this intricate chemical dance, researchers genetically engineered a mouse containing a fluorescent molecule, or biosensor that directly monitors the calcium/calmodulin activation of MLCK in real time in smooth-muscle cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In cardiac muscle cells, as the action potential passes down the T-tubules it activates L-type calcium channels in the T-tubular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the electrical signals increase the influx of calcium ions into the cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the muscle cell is stimulated to contract by an action potential, calcium channels open in the sarcoplasmic membrane and release calcium into the sarcoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main difference is that the TnC subunit of troponin in skeletal muscle has four calcium ion-binding sites, whereas in cardiac muscle there are only three. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual subunits serve different functions: Troponin C binds to calcium ions to produce a conformational change in TnI Troponin T binds to tropomyosin, interlocking them to form a troponin-tropomyosin complex Troponin I binds to actin in thin myofilaments to hold the troponin-tropomyosin complex in place Smooth muscle does not have troponin. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Titin capping protein or Telethonin is encoded by the gene TCAP and helps with T-tubule development and is potentially responsible for the increasing number of T-tubules seen as muscles grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, members of the skeletal muscle lipid droplet-associated proteins family associate with other proteins, as activator of adipose triglyceride lipase and its coactivator comparative gene identification-58, to regulate lipolysis in skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous
  • Contraction is controlled by the central nervous system (CNS), which comprises the brain and spinal cord. (biology-online.org)
  • Muscles are innervated, to communicate nervous energy to, by nerves, which conduct electrical currents from the central nervous system and cause the muscles to contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeleton
  • It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human skeleton is composed of both fused and individual bones supported by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • smooth muscle
  • The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. (genome.jp)
  • Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas are the first to use genetically engineered mice containing a fluorescent molecule to examine in real time the chemical reactions that result in smooth-muscle contraction. (innovations-report.com)
  • The result is that the strength of the contraction of smooth-muscle cells remains robust. (innovations-report.com)
  • An anti-oestrogenic effect of progesterone has therefore been demonstrated in rat detrusor smooth muscle. (bl.uk)
  • Is Non-Cardiac Chest Pain Caused by Sustained Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Contraction? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some evidence suggests it may be related to sustained esophageal contractions (SECs) of longitudinal smooth muscle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins (called venodilators), large arteries, and smaller arterioles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some physiologists have suggested that it is the lack of oxygen itself that causes capillary beds to vasodilate by the smooth muscle hypoxia of the vessels in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasodilation works to decrease TPR and blood pressure through relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media layer of large arteries and smaller arterioles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasodilation is the result of relaxation in smooth muscle surrounding the blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Discussions of troponin often pertain to its functional characteristics[citation needed] and/or to its usefulness as a diagnostic marker[citation needed] or therapeutic target for various heart disorders in particular as a highly specific marker for myocardial infarction or heart muscle cell death. (wikipedia.org)