• neurons
  • In vertebrates, skeletal muscle contractions are neurogenic as they require synaptic input from motor neurons to produce muscle contractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of particular VGCCs allows Ca2+ to rush into the cell, which, depending on the cell type, results in activation of calcium-sensitive potassium channels, muscular contraction, excitation of neurons, up-regulation of gene expression, or release of hormones or neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue culture of squid neurons, glia, and muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • twitch
  • Large motor units are the ones having fastest and largest twitch contraction, thus producing greatest force. (biology-online.org)
  • The contraction produced can be described as a twitch, summation, or tetanus, depending on the frequency of action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscles present viscoelasticity, therefore a viscous damper may be included in the model, when the dynamics of the second-order critically damped twitch is regarded. (wikipedia.org)
  • myocardium
  • Deformations within regions of the myocardium are measured by the mechanical quantity, strain, and correlate with the contractility of the muscle. (medgadget.com)
  • actin
  • Myosin's binding to actin causes crossbridge formation, and contraction of the muscle begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual subunits serve different functions: Troponin C binds to calcium ions to produce a conformational change in TnI Troponin T binds to tropomyosin, interlocking them to form a troponin-tropomyosin complex Troponin I binds to actin in thin myofilaments to hold the troponin-tropomyosin complex in place Smooth muscle does not have troponin. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Titin capping protein or Telethonin is encoded by the gene TCAP and helps with T-tubule development and is potentially responsible for the increasing number of T-tubules seen as muscles grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeleton
  • Our muscles, bones, and tendons , which are dense connective tissues that attach bone to muscle, work together to act like a series of levers allowing for the skeleton to move. (sophia.org)
  • It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human skeleton is composed of both fused and individual bones supported by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, members of the skeletal muscle lipid droplet-associated proteins family associate with other proteins, as activator of adipose triglyceride lipase and its coactivator comparative gene identification-58, to regulate lipolysis in skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • When the researchers treated smooth muscle cells from mice with the drug carbachol, the amount of calcium available within the cells increased. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because there is much more calmodulin than MLCK in cells, they expected the increase in calcium to lead to more MLCK activation, and that therefore the contraction would be stronger. (innovations-report.com)
  • To track the progress of this intricate chemical dance, researchers genetically engineered a mouse containing a fluorescent molecule, or biosensor that directly monitors the calcium/calmodulin activation of MLCK in real time in smooth-muscle cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In cardiac muscle cells, as the action potential passes down the T-tubules it activates L-type calcium channels in the T-tubular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the electrical signals increase the influx of calcium ions into the cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the muscle cell is stimulated to contract by an action potential, calcium channels open in the sarcoplasmic membrane and release calcium into the sarcoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main difference is that the TnC subunit of troponin in skeletal muscle has four calcium ion-binding sites, whereas in cardiac muscle there are only three. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous
  • Contraction is controlled by the central nervous system (CNS), which comprises the brain and spinal cord. (biology-online.org)
  • Muscles are innervated, to communicate nervous energy to, by nerves, which conduct electrical currents from the central nervous system and cause the muscles to contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • flexion
  • Flexion is typically instigated by muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, USA Track & Field defined this class as, "These athletes have no hand function, are unable to use the muscles that straighten their elbows, and their hands remain in contact or close to the pushing rim with the power coming from their elbow flexion. (wikipedia.org)
  • smooth
  • The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. (genome.jp)
  • Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas are the first to use genetically engineered mice containing a fluorescent molecule to examine in real time the chemical reactions that result in smooth-muscle contraction. (innovations-report.com)
  • The result is that the strength of the contraction of smooth-muscle cells remains robust. (innovations-report.com)
  • The active effector of airway reactivity is airway smooth muscle, located in the wall of the airways, which contraction induces a reduction in airway lumen and hence an increased resistance to air flow. (omicsonline.org)
  • The contractile state of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is modulated by a variety of extracellular agonists acting on specific receptors located in the plasma membrane of ASM cells (ASMCs). (omicsonline.org)
  • Some physiologists have suggested that it is the lack of oxygen itself that causes capillary beds to vasodilate by the smooth muscle hypoxia of the vessels in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three types of muscles-cardiac, skeletal, and smooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smooth muscles are used to control the flow of substances within the lumens of hollow organs, and are not consciously controlled. (wikipedia.org)
  • like the smooth muscles, these muscles are not under conscious control. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Instead of opposing reactions, these muscle groups are working together to increase the force or to stabilize another muscle in the body. (sophia.org)
  • Heart
  • Less frequently, valvular, heart muscle, or arrhythmia issues are the primary focus of the test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discussions of troponin often pertain to its functional characteristics[citation needed] and/or to its usefulness as a diagnostic marker[citation needed] or therapeutic target for various heart disorders in particular as a highly specific marker for myocardial infarction or heart muscle cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the organ level blebbistatin stops the contraction of skeletal muscle or heart muscle. (wikipedia.org)