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  • airway
  • Previous studies indicate that in selected obstructive sleep apnea participants a standard dose of a z-drug can shift the threshold for awakening during sleep (arousal) whilst maintaining the upper airway muscle activity required to keep the airway open. (edu.au)
  • This study aims to investigate the effects of different doses of sleeping pills (Z-drugs) on how easily people wake up when the airway narrows during sleep, the activity of a major muscle located under the tongue (genioglossus) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) severity and symptoms. (edu.au)
  • Approximately 1/3 of all obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients have poor upper airway muscle activity during sleep which contributes to the repetitive narrowing or closure of the airway during sleep. (edu.au)
  • Recent studies have found that combination of these noradrenergic and antimuscarinic agents help to improve upper airway muscle activity during sleep. (edu.au)
  • research
  • Repeated freezing and thawing of cells is not recommended.Standard biochemical procedures performed with cell cultures include RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometry or generating cell derivatives for desired research applications. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • molecules
  • For example, up to 200,000 different small molecules might be made in plants, although not all these will be present in the same species, or in a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, when produced in biologic systems (cells), these gaseous molecules are referred to as gasotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerate muscle
  • Satellite cells adopt a quiescent state, and upon environmental cues, such as mechanical stress, injury or in pathological environment of degenerative muscle diseases, they are activated to proliferate and terminally differentiate to regenerate muscle [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Duchenne
  • When a child's muscles are already withering away from something like Duchenne muscular dystrophy , it would not be ethical to take muscle samples from them and do further damage," he explained. (webmd.com)
  • intracellular calcium
  • For example: dimerized Homer physical tether linking inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and ryanodine receptors on the intracellular calcium stores with cell surface group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and the Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor The plant alkaloid ryanodine, for which this receptor was named, has become an invaluable investigative tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • A group of researchers at Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) Lisboa has revealed the mechanism by which cellular nuclei reach their position within muscle cells. (phys.org)
  • proteins
  • Each muscle cell contains many long, stringlike proteins called myofilaments. (livestrong.com)
  • When these proteins connect and slide past one another in a complex interaction, the muscle fiber contracts and generates movement. (livestrong.com)
  • At the onset of differentiation, histone acetyltransferases such as p300 and PCAF are recruited to muscle specific genes by myogenic bHLH, Mef2, and SRF proteins and exert their enzymatic activity on regulatory chromatin regions and on transcription factors such as MyoD [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Electric eels have several thousand of these cells stacked, each producing 0.15 V. The cells function by pumping positive sodium and potassium ions out of the cell via transport proteins powered by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum can be summarized as the synthesis and export of proteins and membrane lipids, but varies between ER and cell type and cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • Smooth muscle cells are also found inside blood vessels and around the pupil of the eye. (livestrong.com)
  • This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct these new blood vessels. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Lead author of the research, Dr Sanjay Sinha, Wellcome Trust Intermediate Clinical Fellow at the University of Cambridge said: "This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct these new blood vessels. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Smooth muscle cells also affect the diameter of the blood vessels. (reference.com)
  • Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when the heart's supplementary blood vessels are obstructed by an unstable build-up of white blood cells, cholesterol, and fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • junctions
  • Porous junctions called intercalated discs form junctions between the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of these junctions and bridges the heart muscle is able to act as a single coordinated unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are used in research because of their resemblance to nerve-muscle junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD97 in colonic enterocytes strengthens E-cadherin-based adherens junctions to maintain lateral cell-cell contacts and regulates the localization and degradation of β-catenin through glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Akt signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • When a woman gives birth, the smooth muscle cells found in the uterus contract to push the baby out of the birth canal. (reference.com)
  • A ciliated columnar epithelium lines the lumen of the uterine tube, where currents generated by the cilia propel the egg cell toward the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy occurs through sarcomerogenesis, the creation of new sarcomere units in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike in muscle, repolarization occurs at a slow rate (100 ms). This prevents the heart from undergoing sustained contractions because it forces the refractory period and cardiac action potential firing to be of the same length of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemoglobin is a quaternary protein that occurs in the red blood cell, whereas, myoglobin is a tertiary protein found the muscle cells of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum occurs in most types of eukaryotic cells, but is absent from red blood cells and spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Once the action potential is over, potassium ions flow out of the cell due to increased cell membrane permeability to those ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • a plasma membrane component) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) use heterodimeric LPAR1-CD97 to drive Gi/o protein-phospholipase C-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling and induce [Ca2+] in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitable
  • these differences in ion levels are important in processes such as osmoregulation, cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • myogenic
  • Myogenic lineage commitment and execution of the terminal differentiation program relies on the activity of the paired-box transcription factors Pax3 and Pax7 and of the muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) MyoD, Myf5, MRF4, and myogenin [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During embryonic development, myogenic precursor cells derived from the somites express Pax3 and Pax3/Pax7 and are capable of proliferation and self-renewal [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to extrinsic signals, Pax3+ cells are committed to myoblasts and undergo terminal myogenic differentiation through the transcriptional network activated by MRFs. (hindawi.com)
  • Satellite cells encompass a population of cells that maintains the uncommitted state and another group of cells that are committed to the myogenic lineage and will undergo myogenic differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • metabolic
  • A new Junior Research Group at the Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention will focus on metabolic adaption of heart muscle cells to find new therapies for combating heart disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Phthalate exposure changes the metabolic profile of cardiac muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • these saw that a 20% reduction in the amount of water in a cell inhibits metabolism, with metabolism decreasing progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolic activity halting when the water level reaches 70% below normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantity of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a cell can slowly interchange from one type to the other, depending on the changing metabolic activities of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • shorten
  • Smooth muscle cells were observed to freely shorten in a unique corkscrew-like fashion with a pitch of 1.4 cell lengths (that is, the length change required for one complete rotation of cell) at a rate of 27 degrees per second. (sciencemag.org)
  • calcium
  • The cardiac muscle differs in that there are more calcium channels that counteract the potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • While potassium quickly flows out of the cell, calcium slowly flows into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In susceptible individuals, the medications induce the release of stored calcium ions within muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RYR2 ryanodine receptor isoform is the major cellular mediator of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ryanodine receptors are very close to mitochondria and calcium release from RyR has been shown to regulate ATP production in heart and pancreas cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Activated platelets mediate inflammatory signaling by regulated interleukin 1 β synthesis," Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 485-490, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • He published the first Bulgarian textbook of Cell Biology in 1996 and in 2005 founded the Bulgarian Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1991, Chaldekov became founder and chief editor of Biomedical Reviews, An International Journal of Cell Biology of Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bulgarian Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • postnatal
  • During postnatal life, muscle growth relies on satellite cells, which are a subpopulation of somite-derived cells that reside between myofibers and the basal lamina [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • respiration
  • The function of intercostal muscle is to assist in respiration. (reference.com)
  • Muscle cells, when put into action, can quickly require a large amount of oxygen for respiration because of their incredible demand for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, muscle cells use myoglobin to accelerate oxygen diffusion and act as localized oxygen reserves for times of intense respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • The cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases characterized by disruptions to cardiac muscle cell growth and / or organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition may also occur as a new mutation or be associated with a number of inherited muscle diseases, such as central core disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a potential advance for medical research, scientists say they've created the first functioning human muscle from skin cells. (webmd.com)
  • Human smooth muscle cell culture. (bio.net)
  • The specialized structure of the 3 types of muscle cells in the human body enables their functional purposes. (livestrong.com)
  • Biomedical engineers at Duke University have created a fully functioning artificial human heart muscle large enough to patch over damage typically seen in patients who have suffered a heart attack. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There are 11 each of internal and external intercostal muscles in the human body. (reference.com)
  • In human muscle cells, what does the fermentation process produce? (reference.com)
  • while human cytosolic pH ranges between 7.0 - 7.4, and is usually higher if a cell is growing. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work has been cited almost 4000 times [mean per item 15, h index his best known are his publications in the field of ion-selective microelectrodes in the brain and in work on human muscles, work on the quantal and non-quantal release of neurotransmitters (which he discovered in mammals) and on the activity of the gaseous hormone nitric oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • contractile
  • Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. (phys.org)
  • Because the arrangement of the contractile apparatus determines the manner in which a single smooth muscle cell shortens, shortening of a contracting cell was examined by tracking of marker bead movements on the cell surface by means of digital video microscopy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Corkscrew-like shortening was interpreted in terms of a structural model in which the contractile apparatus or cytoskeleton (or both) are helically oriented within the cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Such an arrangement of these cytoarchitectural elements may help to explain in part the contractile capabilities of smooth muscle. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each myocardial cell contains myofibrils, which are specialized organelles consisting of long chains of sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units of muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • repolarization
  • Repolarization of the ventricle happens in the opposite direction of depolarization and is negative current, signifying the relaxation of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Planarian cell renewal is achieved as a result of proliferation and differentiation of totipotent undifferentiated cells called neoblasts. (springer.com)
  • According to this model, neoblasts at the base of the pharynx would enter the pharynx, where they would start differentiation to myocytes, move to the subepithelial musculature and intercalate between the old muscle cells. (springer.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Muscle differentiation" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Application of next-generation sequencing technology in the skeletal muscle differentiation field is rapidly extending our knowledge on how chromatin modifications, transcription factors and chromatin regulators orchestrate gene expression pathways guiding myogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we review recent biological insights gained by the application of next-generation sequencing techniques to decode the epigenetic profile and gene regulatory networks underlying skeletal muscle differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • Importantly, transcription factors and chromatin modifiers are also able to alter the cellular expression program to maintain cell identity even upon removal of the initiating differentiation stimuli [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Differentiation processes are achieved by sculpting cell-specific epigenomes, which establish and maintain cellular diversity [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • protein
  • Scientists have examined a protein that will find application in optogenetics and could be used to control muscle and neuronal cells. (phys.org)
  • Myotilin (myofibrillar titin-like protein) also known as TTID (TiTin Immunoglobulin Domain) is a muscle protein that is found within the Z-disc of sarcomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myotilin is a structural protein that, along with titin and alpha-actinin give structural integrity to sarcomeres at Z-discs in striated muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve-muscle
  • His laboratory studies of nerve systems, the electrophysiology and biochemistry of nerve-muscle contacts and synapses in the brain led to a range of interesting findings and discoveries, among others concerning the effect of adrenalin and noradrenalin on improving the effectiveness of nerve connections and non-quantal discharge of neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • He wrote the book "Nerve-Muscle connections" in 1990 and, together with MUDr. (wikipedia.org)
  • organ
  • The absence of mitosis within the planarian pharynx raises the question as to how cell renewal and growth occur within this organ. (springer.com)
  • In the electric torpedo ray, the organ is near the pectoral muscles and the gills (see the image). (wikipedia.org)
  • In each receptive organ, there are sensory cells embedded in the bottom of the opened "pit" that faces outside. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • One more rising problem is that Kendall Reyes Chargers Jersey , in addition to im pting the advancent and survival of aberrant cells, CR and mTOR inhibition may well also impt the stem mobile partnt and enrich maintenance or fix of tissues. (xobor.com)
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Targeting of p21 promoter is responsible for inducing cell differentiation, which is promoted by modifying the DNA nuclear microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • The latest thinking is that an antibody directed against endothelial cells is the pathogenic mechanism in this disease which causes the microscopic strokes in the brain, retina, and inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The different types can vary in whom they affect, which muscles they affect, and what the symptoms are. (blogspot.com)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • breast cancer
  • In addition, we confird that mammary tumors remarkably enriched in breast cancer stem cells have heightened sensitivity to the anti most cancers effects of CR. (xobor.com)
  • blood
  • Is yellowish skin coloration due to increase in the pigment bilirubin which is from the breakdown of red blood cells. (healthtap.com)
  • Pineal region tumors are normally composed of a variety of cells including astrocytes, ganglion cells, blood vessels, and pinealocytes, which are the cells of this organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs and symptoms may include high blood pressure, abdominal obesity but with thin arms and legs, reddish stretch marks, a round red face, a fat lump between the shoulders, weak muscles, weak bones, acne, and fragile skin that heals poorly. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • MSA is characterized by a combination of the following, which can be present in any combination: autonomic dysfunction parkinsonism (muscle rigidity +/ tremor and slow movement) ataxia (Poor coordination / unsteady walking) A variant with combined features of MSA and Lewy body dementia may also exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • leads
  • The cause is unknown but the current thinking is that antibodies are produced against endothelial cells in tiny arteries which leads to damage and the symptoms related to the illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific
  • The cell diversity is originated by cell differentiation, which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are meant to be certain cells in a specific area, for the pineal region these are ependymal cells, and the cells divide into millions. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • Specifically, papillary tumors of this region are made up of ependymal cells which form papilla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some stress relievers are made from closed-cell polyurethane foam rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Branches from the myenteric plexus perforate the circular muscle fibers to form the submucous plexus. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Muscle biopsies from such patients are usually normal, but some have also shown nonspecific signs of inflammation such as dense hyaline material surrounding endomysial capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • A stress ball is a malleable toy, usually not more than 7 cm in diameter, which is squeezed in the hand and manipulated by the fingers, ostensibly to relieve stress and muscle tension or to exercise the muscles of the hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The mastoid air cell system is in functional and anatomic continuity with the middle ear, and inflammation of the middle ear is often associated with mastoid fluid or mucosal inflammation. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy-Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • Specially M Wnt cells, cloned from a spontaneous mammary tumor from a MMTV Wnt 1 transgenic mouse, ow a senchy mal morphology, stably convey stem cell markers Manti Te'o Chargers Jersey , and swiftly create claudin reduced maArlen Booth s Cocaine Coma provides an important social mentary, exploring many societal problems while grounding itself in a story of an ordinary, middle class Chicago family to which anyone could relate. (xobor.com)