• chromosome
  • This gene, IL8RB , a gene encoding another high affinity IL8 receptor, and IL8RBP, a pseudogene of IL8RB, form a gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q33-q36. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, IL-10 is encoded by the IL10 gene, which is located on chromosome 1 and comprises 5 exons, and is primarily produced by monocytes and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes, namely type 2 T helper cells (TH2), mast cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • N. M. Sawtell and R. L. Thompson, " Herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcription unit promotes anatomical site-dependent establishment and reactivation from latency," Journal of Virology , vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 2157-2169, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • genes
  • At least 2 leptin genes (lepa and lepb) exist in the crown-clade (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The MyD88 gene was originally described as one of several myeloid differentiation primary response genes that are induced in murine M1 myeloblastic leukemia cells upon stimulation with IL-6. (google.com)
  • Mice express no less than 7 Fpr receptors and encoding genes that are homologous to FPR1 although no single one of these FPRs appears to perform exactly the same functions as any one of the human FPRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two receptors where thereafter discovered and named FPR2 and FPR3 based on the similarity of their genes' predicted amino acid sequence to that of FPR1 rather than on any ability to bind or be activated by the formyl oligopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • While human leukocyte antigen typing, autoantibody measurement, and thecharacterization of many regions affording genetic susceptibility have contributedtremendously to our ability to predict the onset of, comprehend the etiologyof, and track the progression of type 1 diabetes, these approaches are far fromcomplete in terms of their understanding. (ufl.edu)
  • Individuals with high risk human leukocyte antigen, autoantibody, andgenotypic profiles still escape overt disease, while in contrast individualswith low risk factors can progress to type 1 diabetes. (ufl.edu)
  • Publications] Tamaki K, et al: 'Identificabiln and characterization of novel dermal THY-1 antigen Bearing DendRicic cells in murinl skin' Journal of Imvestgatine Deimatology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The small ICs (Ig dimers or soluble antigen/donor Ig complexes) require CSF-1-dependent macrophages and FcγRII expression to mediate their as-yet-undefined anti-inflammatory effect. (jci.org)
  • As interleukin (IL)-10 is a key immunoregulatory cytokine, we questioned whether neutralization of IL-10 during priming with soluble antigen could prime for a subsequent T helper cell type 1 (Th1) effector recall response. (rupress.org)
  • In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). (rupress.org)
  • It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host may determine whether an antigen primes for an appropriate memory effector response (for review see references 1-3). (rupress.org)
  • Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune response initiated by soluble antigen, including deletion or anergy (for review see references 1 and 2). (rupress.org)
  • The chemokine receptors CXCR1CXCR2 modulate antigen-induced arthritis by regulating adhesion of neutrophils to the synovial microvasculature. (docme.ru)
  • We undertook this study to investigate the role of these receptors in mediating neutrophil adhesion, subsequent migration, and neutrophildependent hypernociception in a murine model of monarticular antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). (docme.ru)
  • 1994
  • From 1994-1997 he had an Assistant Professorship at the Department for Internal Medicine at the University of Leipzig with Prof. Werner Scherbaum. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors [ PMID: 8702856 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location [ PMID: 1833184 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The crystal structures of IL1A and IL1B [ PMID: 2602367 ] have been solved, showing them to share the same 12-stranded beta-sheet structure as both the heparin binding growth factors and the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitors [ PMID: 1738162 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A similar gene product from Cowpox virus (CPV) has also been shown to specifically bind murine IL-1 beta [ PMID: 1339315 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This entry represents Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL1R1), the crystal structure of the soluble extracellular part of type-I IL1R complexed with IL1RA has been determined to 2.7A resolution [ PMID: 9062194 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular
  • Thus, increased myocardial expression of CT-1 immediately became a candidate for the molecular basis of pathological hypertrophy and remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy phenotypes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Fetal gene induction in the failing human heart is under partial β 1 -adrenergic control, 17 and so β-adrenergic stimulation of CT-1 gene expression is a candidate for the molecular mechanism of adrenergically-driven pathological remodeling in the failing human heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ability of OSM to signal via two receptor complexes conveniently offers a molecular explanation to the shared and unique effects of OSM with respect to LIF. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Rønnestad and colleagues recently detected five isoforms of the leptin receptor (lepr) that have differences in 3'-end of the mRNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • gp130
  • CT-1 has hypertrophic and cardioprotective properties and acts through LIF receptor β/glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-coupled signaling pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • Structurally, gp130 is composed of five fibronectin type-III domains and one immunoglobulin-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domain in its extracellular portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The members of the IL-6 receptor family all complex with gp130 for signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many other proteins which associate with gp130, such as cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), oncostatin M (OSM), and IL-11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this group include LIF-R, OSM-R, and G-CSF-R. gp130 is an important part of many different types of signaling complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-11 is a member of the IL-6-type cytokine family, distinguished based on their use of the common co-receptor gp130. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type I receptor is composed of gp130 and LIFR, the type II receptor is composed of gp130 and OSMR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently it was shown that the presence of gp130 alone was sufficient to reproduce the low affinity form of the receptor, and co-transfection of COS-7 cells with LIFR and gp130 produced a high affinity receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two receptor complexes, namely gp130/LIFR and gp130/OSMR, were termed the type I and type II Oncostatin-M receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • We have recently described an additional high affinity receptor for IL-13, IL-13Rα2, whose function in IL-13 signaling is unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Coexpression of IL-13Rα1 with IL-4Rα results in the formation of a high affinity receptor signaling complex ( 8 , 9 , 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • In addition to the dominant species of monomeric IgG (which would bind FcRn and the high-affinity FcγRI), multiple types of ICs, which bind all Fc receptors, are likely to form in vivo after the administration of IVIg. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, α-helix 1 for lepa2 appears to be split by a short-disordered region, and may therefore have a poorer affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of the conserved tertiary structure of Lep is most likely explained by requirements for specific LepR-binding affinity and is constrained by the structure of the receptor-binding pocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • 2 When administered to mice intraperitoneally, CT-1 stimulates growth in the liver, kidney, and spleen and causes increases in platelet and red cell counts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interleukin 3 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells into myeloid progenitor cells or, with the addition of IL-7, into lymphoid progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It stimulates the growth of certain lymphocytes and, in the murine model, stimulates an increase in the cortical thickness and strength of long bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • To that end, this effortsought to characterize genetic and immunologic biomarkers that might providenovel insights into type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and progression. (ufl.edu)
  • In this paper, we review the available literature on the role of IL-1 β in the pathogenesis of bone loss. (hindawi.com)
  • [ 1 ] It has also recently been linked to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Dysregulated production of IL6 and this receptor are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as multiple myeloma, autoimmune diseases and prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • More recently, PEGylated recombinant murine IL-10 (PEG-rMuIL-10) has been shown to induce IFNγ and CD8+ T cell dependent anti-tumor immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, PEGylated recombinant human IL-10 (PEG-rHuIL-10) has been shown to enhance CD8+ T cell secretion of the cytotoxic molecules Granzyme B and Perforin and potentiate T cell receptor dependent IFNγ secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signalling), or that of other T cells (paracrine signalling) - both involve IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor on T cells (upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-10 induction involves ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB signalling and transcriptional activation via promoter binding of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutrophils
  • Blockade of CXCR1/CXCR2 receptors inhibits neutrophil recruitment by inhibiting the adhesion of neutrophils to synovial microvessels. (docme.ru)
  • Studies conducted in the 1970s found that a series of N-formylmethionine-containing oligopeptides, including the most potent and best known member of this series, N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP or fMet-Leu-Phe), stimulated rabbit and human neutrophils by an apparent receptor-dependent mechanism to migrate in a directional pattern in classical laboratory assays of chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • These results are consistent with a phenotype of enhanced IL-13 responsiveness and demonstrate a role for endogenous IL-13 and IL-13Rα2 in regulating immune responses in wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • A novel mechanism by which interferon-gamma can regulate interleukin (IL)-13 responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these oligopeptides were produced by bacteria or synthetic analogs of such products, it was suggested that the N-formyl oligopeptides are important chemotatic factors and their receptors are important chemotactic factor receptors that act respectively as signaling and signal-recognizing elements to initiate Inflammation responses in order to defend against bacterial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • N. M. Sawtell, D. K. Poon, C. S. Tansky, and R. L. Thompson, "The latent herpes simplex virus type 1 genome copy number in individual neurons is virus strain specific and correlates with reactivation," Journal of Virology , vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 5343-5350, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • mice
  • Serum immunoglobulin E levels were increased in IL-13Rα2 −/− mice despite the fact that serum IL-13 was absent and immune interferon γ production increased compared with wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • It was recently shown ( 4 ) that the protective effect of IVIg is associated with upregulation of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIB on splenic macrophages and is abrogated in mice lacking Fc γ RIIB . (jci.org)
  • Importantly, vagus neurogramactivity in wild type and TLR4 receptor knock out mice exhibits receptor dependency of endotoxin mediated signals. (springer.com)
  • These methods for recording vagus neurogram in mice provide a useful tool to further delineate the role of vagus neural pathways in a standardized murine disease model. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin 3 originally was discovered by JN Ihle in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lack of IL-10 has been shown to cause COX activation and resultant Thromboxane receptor activation to cause vascular endothelial and cardiac dysfunctions in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 10 knockout frail mice develop cardiac and vascular dysfunction with increased age. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor necros
  • Nevertheless, cytokine-based therapy must be administered via a systemic route, current treatments are costly, and many patients fail to respond to blockade of either tumor necrosis factor ␣ (TNF␣) (3) or interleukin-1␤ (4). (docme.ru)
  • signal transducer
  • The cytoplasmic region of murine IL-13Rα2 does not posses an obvious signaling motif or Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) * binding sequence ( 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Thus, while other targets may prove effective in the treatment of immune complex-related (IC-related) autoimmunity ( 9 , 10 ), at least 2 distinct FcγR therapeutic approaches are tenable: direct blockade of the phagocytic Fc receptors and IVIg-triggered, FcγRIIB-mediated inhibition (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • IL-10 may autoregulate its expression via a negative feed-back loop involving autocrine stimulation of the IL-10 receptor and inhibition of the p38 signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble form
  • Expression of IL-13Rα2 transcripts are restricted to spleen and brain and in contrast to IL-13Rα1, a soluble form of this receptor has been detected in mouse serum ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Biological
  • 8 Therefore, CT-1 likely has multiple, diverse biological functions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanical stretch of cardiac myocytes increases the expression of CT-1 and activates the JAK/STAT pathway, 9 providing a link from the biological properties of CT-1 to its potential role in remodeling in response to hemodynamic overload. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interleukin 3 is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease as part of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In this study, we identifiled novel dermal thy-1+ dendritic cells (Dermal Thy-1^+DC) and futher studied, 1) the ontogeny of T cells in the skin, 2) cytokine secretion by fetal keratinocytes (KC), 3) interaction between KC and Langerhans cells (LC). (nii.ac.jp)
  • This interaction is of unknown physiological significance although peptide T20/DP178 is a licensed anti-retrovirus agent (pentafuside) termed Enfuvirtide which acts at the level of HIV-target cell fusion and is used clinically to treat HIV-1 infection). (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 and the approved symbol CXCR1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these, only the longest form conserved all functionally important domains (such as three fibronectin type III domains, the Ig C2-like domain, a pair of WSXWS motifs, two JAK2-binding motif boxes, and a STAT-binding domain), while the other four forms have only the intra-cellular region. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Furthermore, murine fetal skin harbored immature macrophages. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Interleukin 6 is secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response, e.g. during infection and after trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • In general cells derived from endothelial and tumour origins express high levels of OSM receptors, whereas cells of Haematopoietic origin tend to express lower numbers. (wikipedia.org)