• airway
  • Exposure of formalin above permissible limit may create physiological modifications of respiratory mucosa , which causes upper airway irritation, sore throat, tingling and burning sensations of the nose and nasal blockage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the human respiratory system, mucus, also known as airway surface liquid (ASL), aids in the protection of the lungs by trapping foreign particles that enter them, in particular, through the nose, during normal breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small particles such as dust, particulate pollutants, and allergens, as well as infectious agents and bacteria are caught in the viscous nasal or airway mucus and prevented from entering the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, mucus aids in moisturizing the inhaled air and prevents tissues such as the nasal and airway epithelia from drying out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nasal and airway mucus is produced continuously, with most of it swallowed subconsciously, even when it is dried. (wikipedia.org)
  • the mucus helps maintain epithelial moisture and traps particulate material and pathogens moving through the airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relationship between humidity and temperature of inspired gas and the function of the airway mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the turbinates divide the nasal airway into 4 groove-like air passages, and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface area of nasal mucosa, which, as a ciliated mucous membrane with shallow blood supply, cleans and warms the inhaled air in preparation for the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes lead to airway obstruction by constriction of the smooth muscles, edema of the airways, influx of inflammatory cells, and formation of intraluminal mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • glands
  • Deep to the mucosa is a layer containing smooth muscle fibers, hyaline cartilage, and scattered seromucous and mucous glands. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Sympathetic innervation to the blood vessels of the mucosa causes them to constrict, while the control of secretion by the mucous glands is carried on postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers originating from the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • cilia
  • The mucus cleans and protects the air passages by trapping bacteria and debris while the cilia propel the mucus across the surface. (blausen.com)
  • The mucus traps contaminants in the inspired air, while the cilia acts as an "elevator", moving the contaminants up towards the mouth for expulsion. (brighthub.com)
  • Within the thin fluid film of mucus the cilia act out movements coordinated in direction towards the pharynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eds Holgate ST, et al Academic Press, 1999 ISBN 9780080526928 M.A. Sleigh, J.R. Blake, N. Liron: The Propulsion of Mucus by Cilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • submucosa
  • The submucosa is the tissue that connects the mucosa to the muscle outside the tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus factory is at the bottom, in the submucosa, it is composed of many little sacs (acini) where the mucus originates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopically, Peyer's patches appear as oval or round lymphoid follicles (similar to lymph nodes) located in the submucosa layer of the ileum and extend into the mucosa layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • This narrows the tracheal lumen and increases the velocity of airflow, which helps dislodge mucus and foreign particles. (getbodysmart.com)
  • This secreted mucus covers the nasal cavities, and serves as a filter, by trapping air-borne particles larger than 2 to 3 micrometers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peyer's patches thus act for the gastrointestinal system much as the tonsils act for the respiratory system, trapping foreign particles, surveilling them, and destroying them. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthma
  • The hypercapnia during an asthma episode may be a sign of impending respiratory failure. (allnurses.com)
  • A decoction or a tincture can be used to allay respiratory spasms which can be beneficial for dry, irritating coughs or asthma. (herbaleducation.net)
  • Hypersecretion of mucus can occur in inflammatory respiratory diseases such as respiratory allergies, asthma, and chronic bronchitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very severe acute asthma (termed "near-fatal" as there is an immediate risk to life) is characterised by a peak flow of less than 33% predicted, oxygen saturations below 92% or cyanosis (blue discoloration, usually of the lips), absence of audible breath sounds over the chest ("silent chest"), reduced respiratory effort and visible exhaustion or drowsiness. (wikipedia.org)
  • One important question is whether atopic individuals with asthma, in contrast to atopic persons without asthma, have a defect in mucosal integrity that makes them susceptible to penetration of allergens into the mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • Sites of systemic absorption include broken skin tissue, inflamed gastric sites, eczematous skin and respiratory mucosa with the risk of a reaction increasing with number and duration of sprays administered. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • tachypnea
  • Other clinical findings may include a serous or light mucoid nasal discharge, epiphora, tender but rarely swollen submandibular lymph nodes, hyperemia of nasal and conjunctival mucosa, tachypnea, tachycardia, limb edema, muscle soreness and stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • and as this child tries to get enough air, then their respiratory rate increases - so this tachypnea lowers carbon dioxide levels in the blood (hypocapnia). (allnurses.com)
  • infection
  • This kind of cold weather causes changes in our respiratory mucosa , making it very dry and prone to an infection build-up. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During times of infection, mucus can change color to yellow or green either as a result of trapped bacteria or due to the body's reaction to viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of a viral infection such as cold or flu, the first stage and also the last stage of the infection cause the production of a clear, thin mucus in the nose or back of the throat. (wikipedia.org)
  • columnar
  • Turbinates are composed of pseudostratified columnar, ciliated respiratory epithelium with a thick, vascular, and erectile glandular tissue layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Also, allergic rhinitis makes the mucosa more reactive to infectious agents and potentiates mucus production. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition to serving a protective function against infectious agents, such mucus provides protection against toxins produced by predators, can facilitate movement and may play a role in communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The respiratory disease caused by BoHV-1 is commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • The body's natural reaction is to increase mucus production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to acting as a filter, mucus produced within the nose supplements the body's effort to maintain temperature, as well as contributes moisture to integral components of the respiratory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Final pathology of the right-sided lesion revealed mostly dilated vascular channels with unremarkable overlying respiratory mucosa , consistent with a hemangioma (figure 3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patient death followed the anaphylactic shock developed due to numerous bee bites, in the lack of immediate specialized medical assistance, and immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of mast cells in skin and respiratory mucosa , associated to vascular congestion, edema, and hemorrhages, confirming the tissular allergic phenomena as an initiator factor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Excess nasal mucus, as with a cold or allergies, due to vascular engorgement associated with vasodilation and increased capillary permeability caused by histamines, may be treated cautiously with decongestant medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • alveoli
  • So it's just a matter of where the most bronchoconstriction and mucus accumulation is that determines which alveoli will have adequate air supply. (allnurses.com)
  • secretion
  • Mucus (/ˈmjuːkəs/ MEW-kəss) is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1660-62 he published "De catarrhis", a multi-volume work in which he refuted the long-held belief that nasal mucus was a cerebral secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • viscous
  • Thereby the viscous film of mucus including its freight is transported off in direction towards the mouth, where it is either swallowed or expelled via coughing. (wikipedia.org)
  • nose
  • The average human nose produces about a liter of mucus per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of mucus in the nose and throat is normal, but increased quantities can impede comfortable breathing and must be cleared by blowing the nose or expectorating phlegm from the throat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nasal mucus may be removed by blowing the nose or by using nasal irrigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa, in particular the venous plexus of the conchae is regulated by the pterygopalatine ganglion and heats or cools the air in the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triggered by the flow of the air, the pressure of the air in the nose, and the quality of the air, impulses from the nasal mucosa are transmitted by the trigeminal nerve to the breathing centres in the brainstem, and the generated response is transmitted to the bronchi, the intercostal muscles, and the diaphragm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face and serves as an alternative respiratory passage especially during suckling for infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • venous
  • The shallowness of the venous blood supply of the mucosa contributes to the ease with which nosebleed can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesion
  • Paranasal sinus mucoceles occur with the collection of mucus in a cystic lesion lined with normal respiratory mucosa, as a result of the obliteration of the sinus ostium caused by chronic inflammation, trauma, iatrogenic injury, and tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cells
  • The green color of mucus comes from the heme group in the iron-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase secreted by white blood cells as a cytotoxic defense during a respiratory burst. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs acting on respiratory system: Expectorants and antitussives, respiratory stimulants, bronchodilators and mucolytics. (scribd.com)
  • The forced oscillation technique offers a simple and detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. (scielo.br)
  • This method characterizes the respiratory impedance and its two components, respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). (scielo.br)
  • Another important advantage, particularly in pathophysiological research, is that the FOT is able to provide information on the mechanical characteristics of the respiratory system that are complementary to spirometry. (scielo.br)
  • How does air cycle through the respiratory system and where does gas exchange occur? (brighthub.com)
  • The gas exchange function of the respiratory system expels these wastes away from the body. (brighthub.com)
  • The respiratory system is also responsible for the production of sound and aids in balancing the pH balance of the blood. (brighthub.com)
  • These hollow sections of the skull are lined with the same mucosa as other parts of the respiratory system. (brighthub.com)
  • Play media The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most fish, and a number of other aquatic animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either partially or completely external organs, bathed in the watery environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The respiratory system in plants includes anatomical features such as stomata, that are found in various parts of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The respiratory epithelium also serves as a means of access for the lymphatic system, which protects the body from being infected by viruses or bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal
  • Peyer's patches thus establish their importance in the immune surveillance of the intestinal lumen and in facilitating the generation of the immune response within the mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses and related animals such as donkeys, mules and zebras (collectively known as equines). (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • in an adult human the total surface area of the mucosa is about 400 square meters while the surface area of the skin is about 2 square meters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubes
  • The mucosa is the lining of the tubes, like a kind of skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acini empty into little tubes (tubules) that lead to a reservoir (collecting duct) that has a portal through the skin (mucosa) that can open and close allowing the mucus into the main tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Heat and exchange moisturizers (HME) are devices used in mechanically ventilated patients intended to help prevent complications due to "drying of the respiratory mucosa, such as mucus plugging and endotracheal tube (ETT) occlusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome conventional humidifiers are preferred to HMEs for improved elimination of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)