• secretions
  • What are the functions of gastric secretions? (brainscape.com)
  • The aim of this study is the development of a diagnostic marker within mucus secretions for the detection of pre-malignant disease amongst the high risk population of the Western Cape region of South Africa. (nrf.ac.za)
  • As mucins are lost during routine histology preparation, they stain pale, but if preserved correctly the cells stain strongly with special techniques like PAS or toluidine blue, the last representing the anionic nature of foveolar cell secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diets high in grain: results in increased serum gastrin secretions and production in volatile fatty acids, and limiting high-carbohydrate feed can help reduce gastric acidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucin originates from the mucus secretions from submaxillary glands, which are salivary glands that are located under the floor of the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • MUC2
  • Ajoika, Y., Allison, L. J. and Jass, J. R. (1996) Significance of MUC1 and MUC2 mucin expression in colorectal cancer. (springer.com)
  • porcine
  • Seven components, including porcine gastric mucin, lincomycin, glutamine, and glucose were found to induce CFA/I surface expression in vitro in a minimal media while five others were inhibitory, including leucine and 1,10-phenanthroline. (plos.org)
  • However, it is the mucin from bovine and porcine sources that have been used in several biomaterial applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • crude mucus gel
  • The epithelial surfaces of the major internal tracts of the body are protected by a continuous layer of crude mucus gel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mucins were extracted from crude mucus gel scrapings according to a carefully designed technique in which proteolytic inhibitors were used to minimise the possibility of endogenous proteolysis in the laboratory through possible contamination. (nrf.ac.za)
  • molecular weight
  • Bobeck, L. A., Tsai, H., Biesbrock, A. R. and Levine, M. J. (1993) Molecular cloning, sequence and specificity of expression of the gene encoding the low molecular weight human salivary mucin (MUC7). (springer.com)
  • These mucins, from the HO, PH, HGU and HCA groups eluted mainly in the included volume of a Sepharose 2B column as broad, polydisperse peaks, suggesting that they were degraded and comprised mainly lower molecular weight PAS positive material in relation to large polymeric gel forming mucin. (nrf.ac.za)
  • Furthermore mucins in the diseased (HGU and HCA) groups co-fractionated in the caesium chloride gradient with a glycosylated component, the molecular weight of which was shown to be Hw55-65kOa by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SOS-PAGE). (nrf.ac.za)
  • They have a high molecular weight and exist as either membrane-bound or secretory mucins. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Tumour-associated epitopes on mucins make them suitable as immune-targets on malignant epithelial cells, rendering mucins important as diagnostic and prognostic markers for various diseases, even influencing the design of mucin-based vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings raise questions of how such a naturally occurring biological substance such as mucus, with remarkable protective properties of epithelial surfaces against aggressive luminal factors in delicate locations, could be used as a tool in the fight against HIV-AIDS, which has reached epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other constituents present in mucus from the surface of the gastrointestinal tract are proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, sloughed epithelial cells and bacteria (Allen and Hoskins, 1988). (springer.com)
  • In the airway, mucus is swept by the cilia of epithelial cells, and propelled out of the lungs and into the pharynx, which results in the removal of debris and pathogens from the airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus prevents large particles from contacting the epithelial cell layer while allowing small molecules to pass. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus also facilitates passage of the luminal contents along the length of the intestines, protects the epithelial cells from digestive enzymes, and prevents the direct contact of microorganisms with the epithelial layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Sepharose 4B gel chromatography, on the other hand, revealed that this degradation of the mucins was most extensive in the HCA group and decreased in order in the HGU, PH and HO groups. (nrf.ac.za)
  • The results indicated that mucins in gastric cancer, though different from those in other groups by virtue of their greater degradation, were similar to mucins from the ulcerated stomachs in that they co-fractionated with an albumin-carbohydrate complex in a caesium chloride gradient. (nrf.ac.za)
  • submaxillary
  • Opting for commercial available pig gastric or bovine submaxillary mucins, two common model for human mucins, seems much more cost effective than setting up a purification pipeline in the lab. (biopolymersforlife.org)
  • Bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) coatings are a surface treatment provided to biomaterials intended to reduce the growth of disadvantageous bacteria and fungi such as S. epidermidis, E. coli, and Candida albicans. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • In 1959 Heatley [ 5 ] proposed that mucus on the gastric mucosal surface acted as a mixing barrier and postulated the existence of a pH gradient from the lumen (acid) to the mucosal surface (neutrality). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The deficiency of the essential amino acid threonine, for example, curbs the body's ability to produce mucin, and, correspondingly, the bacteria's ability to function and procreate. (blogspot.com.au)
  • 1985) Properties of gastric and duodenal mucus: effect of proteolysis, disulfide reduction, bile, acid, ethanol, and hyper-tonicity on mucus gel structure. (springer.com)
  • Gastric chief cells produce pepsinogen, which is activated by the acid to form pepsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus allows the acid at pH above 4 to penetrate lining, but below pH 4 (i.e. when acid is more concentrated) the acid cannot penetrate the mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988
  • Allen, A. and Hoskins, L. C. (1988) Colonic mucus in health and disease, in Diseases of the Colon and Rectum , (eds R. Kirsner and R. G. Shortes ), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, pp. 65-94. (springer.com)
  • Digestion
  • The secreted mucin assists in digestion by coating the bolus such that it travels easily through the digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • bile
  • This fluid is composed of four primary components: ions, digestive enzymes, mucus, and bile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histology
  • Mucin within the granules stains pale in routine histology sections, primarily because these carbohydrate-rich proteins are washed out in the preparation of microscopy samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • This gene has been linked to mucus hypersecretion in the pulmonary tracts and associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (wikipedia.org)
  • protects
  • Mucus protects the tissue surface from mechanical damage, stabilizes the luminal microenvironment, and traps pathogens including bacteria and viruses for mucociliarly clearance. (novusbio.com)
  • gastrointestinal
  • Allen, A. (1981a) The structure and function of gastrointestinal mucus, in Basic Mechanisms of Gastrointestinal Mucosal Cell Injury and Protection , (ed. (springer.com)
  • Allen, A. (1981b) Structure and function of gastrointestinal mucus, in Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract , (ed. (springer.com)
  • The field of oral drug delivery has been struggling with mucus and mucins for decade, now developing new methods to pass through- or to stick to- the mucus layer covering our gastrointestinal tract and deliver fragile and complex therapeutic proteins such as growth factors and antibodies ( 6 ). (biopolymersforlife.org)
  • glycans
  • The gel-like properties of mucins are given by its glycans (bound carbohydrates) attracting relatively large quantities of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • esophagus
  • Esophageal ulceration is partially prevented by the tone of the cardia sphincter to prevent reflux, as well as by saliva, which both washes the esophagus and contains mucins that can help protect its surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The esophagus may be affected by gastric reflux, cancer, prominent dilated blood vessels called varices that can bleed heavily, tears, constrictions, and disorders of motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper parts of the esophagus and the upper esophageal sphincter receive blood from the inferior thyroid artery, the parts of the esophagus in the thorax from the bronchial arteries and branches directly from the thoracic aorta, and the lower parts of the esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter receive blood from the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper and middle parts of the esophagus drain into the azygos and hemiazygos veins, and blood from the lower part drains into the left gastric vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphatically, the upper third of the esophagus drains into the deep cervical lymph nodes, the middle into the superior and posterior mediastinal lymph nodes, and the lower esophagus into the gastric and celiac lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • granules
  • These are shorter than their surface counterpart and contain lesser quantities of mucin granules in their apical surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goblet cell is highly polarized with the nucleus and other organelles concentrated at the base of the cell and secretory granules containing mucin, at the apical surface. (wikipedia.org)