• hyphae
  • The symbiosis between the free-living Scytonema and the germinating ascomycete spores of Erioderma pedicellatum is hypothesized to begin within the water sacs of Frullania asagrayana, where the fungal hyphae assimilates a cyanobacterium, and needs to develop for 5 to 10 years before it reaches a visible size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal hyphae may have several nuclei within each hyphal compartment, and many budding yeasts are diploid. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • haploid
  • Tetrahedral haploid spores are produced in the sporophyte by meiosis, which are then dispersed when the capsule explosively discharges its cap, called an operculum , and shoots the spores some distance. (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • These plants have developed the most elaborate sexual exchanges and need dispersal strategies-abilities that have produced an amazing diversity of plants, ranging from the arctic to the equator. (ambrosevideo.com)
  • Two central hypotheses suggest different explanations for the origin of ECM fungal diversity: (i) dual origins, initially with the Pinaceae in the Jurassic and later with angiosperms during the Late Cretaceous, and (ii) a simultaneous and convergent radiation of ECM lineages in response to cooling climate during the Palaeogene and advancing temperate ECM plant communities. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • the application of molecular tools, such as DNA sequencing , to study fungal diversity has greatly enhanced the resolution and added robustness to estimates of diversity within various taxonomic groups. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sphagnum
  • Hence, as sphagnum moss grows, it can slowly spread into drier conditions, forming larger mires , both raised bogs and blanket bogs . (wikipedia.org)
  • This stage dominates the environment where Sphagnum grows, obliterating and burying the protonema and eventually building up into layers of dead moss called peat. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Natural dispersal of E. pedicellatum is evidently possible within these old-growth forests, but there are no known examples of E. pedicellatum establishing in stands previously clear-cut. (wikipedia.org)
  • These spores, known as cryptospores, were produced either singly (monads), in pairs (dyads) or groups of four (tetrads), and their microstructure resembles that of modern liverwort spores, suggesting they share an equivalent grade of organisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Fungal cells contain membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles, DNA with noncoding regions called introns, sterol-containing membranes, and ribosomes of the 80S type. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • either
  • A close examination of algal spores shows that none have trilete spores, either because their walls are not resistant enough, or in those rare cases where it is, the spores disperse before they are squashed enough to develop the mark, or don't fit into a tetrahedral tetrad. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Unlike other mosses, the long-lived gametophytes do not rely upon rhizoids to assist in water uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • million
  • The first evidence of plants on land comes from spores of mid-Ordovician age (early Llanvirn, ~470 million years ago). (wikipedia.org)
  • green
  • The sporophyte is relatively short-lived, and consists almost entirely of a shiny green, spherical spore capsule that becomes black with spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • shape
  • Depending exactly when the tetrad splits, each of the four spores may bear a "trilete mark", a Y-shape, reflecting the points at which each cell squashed up against its neighbours. (wikipedia.org)