• human monocytes
  • Treatment with galectin-1 in vitro differentially regulates constitutive and inducible FcγRI expression on human monocytes and FcγRI-dependent phagocytosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Investigation of the mechanisms involved in these functions showed that galectin-1 does not affect survival of human monocytes, but rather influences FcγRI- and MHC-II-dependent functions through active mechanisms involving modulation of an ERK1/2-dependent pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our laboratory has previously found that the cytokine IFNγ can induce cell death in human monocytes in an autophagy-dependent manner. (usask.ca)
  • Endotoxin-induced production of plasminogen activator inhibitor by human monocytes is autonomous and can be inhibited by lipid X". Blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood monocytes
  • These results indicate that soluble factors derived from tumor cells, including hyaluronan fragments, co-opt the normal development of Mφ to dynamically educate the recruited blood monocytes in different niches of a tumor. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mφ constitute a major component of the leukocyte infiltrate of tumors, and the tumor-associated Mφ (TAM) are derived almost entirely from circulating blood monocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • chemokine
  • In D6 −/− mice, which lack the chemokine scavenging receptor D6, hepatic macrophage infiltration was significantly increased, but tumour formation and progression did not differ from that of WT mice. (bmj.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotaxis
  • C3a is an effector of the complement system with a range of functions including T cell activation and survival, angiogenesis stimulation, chemotaxis, mast cell degranulation, and macrophage activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • They are central to so-called innate immunity-immune defenses that can act without previous exposure to a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a macrophage ingests a pathogen, the pathogen becomes trapped in a phagosome, which then fuses with a lysosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • 260x260px]] There are two categories to which parts of the immune system are assigned: the non-specific, or innate immune system and the adaptive immune system.The non-specific response is a generalized response to pathogen infections involving the use of several white blood cells and plasma proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • We are thus interested in understanding how the autophagy pathway can play a dual role in human monocyte survival. (usask.ca)
  • Microglia
  • Microglia, the brain-resident macrophages that remove dead neurons, play a critical role in the brain's response to ischemic injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, IRF2BP2 expression in macrophages/microglia is important to limit inflammation and stroke injury, in part by mediating the beneficial effect of IFNβ. (frontiersin.org)
  • The interaction between neurons and microglia, the brain-resident macrophages, plays a critical role in how the brain responds to ischemic injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • tissues
  • Upregulated expression of CCR8 is also detected within human cancer tissues and primarily limited to tumor-associated macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Macrophages are responsible for protecting tissues from foreign substances, but are also suspected to be important in the formation of important organs like the heart and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunosuppressive
  • Macrophages (Mφ) in most solid tumors exhibit a distinct immunosuppressive phenotype, but the mechanisms that allow tumor microenvironments to "educate" Mφ are incompletely understood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Here, we report that culture supernatants (TSNs) from several types of tumor cell lines can drive monocytes to become immunosuppressive Mφ. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CD14
  • There are at least three types of monocytes in human blood: The classical monocyte is characterized by high level expression of the CD14 cell surface receptor (CD14++ CD16− monocyte) The non-classical monocyte shows low level expression of CD14 and additional co-expression of the CD16 receptor (CD14+CD16++ monocyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • The intermediate monocyte with high level expression of CD14 and low level expression of CD16 (CD14++CD16+ monocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Here, we demonstrate that primary infection led to TLR2-dependent recruitment of monocyte/macrophages into the upper airway lumen, where they engulfed pneumococci. (jci.org)
  • cell
  • Finally, I present several hypotheses for the potential molecular mechanisms involved in Atg peptide-induced autophagic cell death in monocytes revealed by kinome analysis, which provide a basis for further exploration into this extremely interesting area. (usask.ca)
  • However, the question remains as to which immunologic components link activation of innate immunity by RT with increased cross-priming and production of an antitumor T-cell response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Monocytes are also capable of killing infected host cells via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its activity was defined in the mid 1960s by immunologists who sought to replicate, in vitro, key features of cell-mediated immunity ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • MIF's role in adaptive immunity is less well-characterized, but immunoneutralization of MIF inhibits delayed-type hypersensitivity, T cell priming, and antibody production in vivo ( 16 , 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • Macrophages display a plasticity that allows them to respond to numerous types of infections, permitting them to change their physiology, while serving as a common "janitorial cell" to the immune system. (wikipedia.org)