• human monocytes
  • Treatment with galectin-1 in vitro differentially regulates constitutive and inducible FcγRI expression on human monocytes and FcγRI-dependent phagocytosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Investigation of the mechanisms involved in these functions showed that galectin-1 does not affect survival of human monocytes, but rather influences FcγRI- and MHC-II-dependent functions through active mechanisms involving modulation of an ERK1/2-dependent pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our laboratory has previously found that the cytokine IFNγ can induce cell death in human monocytes in an autophagy-dependent manner. (usask.ca)
  • Endotoxin-induced production of plasminogen activator inhibitor by human monocytes is autonomous and can be inhibited by lipid X". Blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • proinflammatory
  • Kinetic experiments revealed that soon after exposure to these TSNs, monocytes began to provoke transient proinflammatory responses and then became refractory to subsequent stimulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using high-throughput flow cytometry, NOTCH2 expression on CD14+ monocytes and increased frequency of proinflammatory monocyte subsets were identified as baseline predictors of nADA development in MS patients treated with IFN-β. (jci.org)
  • Reduced monocyte NOTCH2 expression in nADA+ MS patients was associated with NOTCH2 activation measured by increased expression of Notch-responsive genes, polarization of monocytes toward a nonclassical phenotype, and increased proinflammatory IL-6 production. (jci.org)
  • blood monocytes
  • These results indicate that soluble factors derived from tumor cells, including hyaluronan fragments, co-opt the normal development of Mφ to dynamically educate the recruited blood monocytes in different niches of a tumor. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mφ constitute a major component of the leukocyte infiltrate of tumors, and the tumor-associated Mφ (TAM) are derived almost entirely from circulating blood monocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • anti-inflammatory
  • These mutant mice had larger infarctions 4 days after stroke associated with fewer anti-inflammatory M2 microglia/macrophages recruited to the peri-infarct area, suggesting an impaired clearance of injured tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since IRF2BP2 modulates interferon signaling, and interferon beta (IFNβ) has been reported to be anti-inflammatory and reduce ischemic brain injury, we asked whether loss of IRF2BP2 in macrophages/microglia would affect the response to IFNβ in our stroke model. (frontiersin.org)
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of IFNβ was lost in IRF2BP2-deficient macrophages and IFNβ failed to protect mice lacking IRF2BP2 in macrophages/microglia from ischemic injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • bacteria
  • Dr. Cohn's experiments," reported the Times in his obituary, "threw light on the functions of T-cells, made in the bone marrow, and macrophages, large cells that can surround and digest foreign substances like protozoa and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages can digest more than 100 bacteria before they finally die due to their own digestive compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemokine
  • In D6 −/− mice, which lack the chemokine scavenging receptor D6, hepatic macrophage infiltration was significantly increased, but tumour formation and progression did not differ from that of WT mice. (bmj.com)
  • Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Macrophages (Mφ) in most solid tumors exhibit a distinct immunosuppressive phenotype, but the mechanisms that allow tumor microenvironments to "educate" Mφ are incompletely understood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • phenotype
  • Tumor-derived factors, including IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, "educate" the newly recruited monocytes to take on a M2 phenotype and perform a protumoral role. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Nonetheless, more mature macrophages from B6 mice expressed inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and higher NO production in response to L. braziliensis parasites, whereas BALB/c mice developed macrophages expressing an incomplete M1 phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, ATRA uncouples macrophage maturation and development of M1 phenotype and downmodulates macrophage-mediated immunity to L. major parasites. (frontiersin.org)
  • chemotaxis
  • Many factors produced by other cells can regulate the chemotaxis and other functions of monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • C3a is an effector of the complement system with a range of functions including T cell activation and survival, angiogenesis stimulation, chemotaxis, mast cell degranulation, and macrophage activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper airway
  • Here, we demonstrate that primary infection led to TLR2-dependent recruitment of monocyte/macrophages into the upper airway lumen, where they engulfed pneumococci. (jci.org)
  • Together, the data indicate that the nose and upper airway remotely prime the lung immunity to protect the lungs from direct viral infections. (jci.org)
  • pathogen
  • They are central to so-called innate immunity-immune defenses that can act without previous exposure to a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a macrophage ingests a pathogen, the pathogen becomes trapped in a phagosome, which then fuses with a lysosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • 260x260px]] There are two categories to which parts of the immune system are assigned: the non-specific, or innate immune system and the adaptive immune system.The non-specific response is a generalized response to pathogen infections involving the use of several white blood cells and plasma proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Our previous studies showed that IRF2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2) regulates peripheral macrophage polarization, limits their inflammatory response and reduces susceptibility to atherosclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Leptin's functional receptor (ObRb) is expressed not only in the hypothalamus where it regulates energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine function, but also in all cell types of innate and adaptive immunity ( 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • survival
  • We are thus interested in understanding how the autophagy pathway can play a dual role in human monocyte survival. (usask.ca)
  • Microglia
  • Microglia, the brain-resident macrophages that remove dead neurons, play a critical role in the brain's response to ischemic injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, IRF2BP2 expression in macrophages/microglia is important to limit inflammation and stroke injury, in part by mediating the beneficial effect of IFNβ. (frontiersin.org)
  • The interaction between neurons and microglia, the brain-resident macrophages, plays a critical role in how the brain responds to ischemic injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • tissues
  • 3 , 8 , 9 Mφ in normal or inflamed tissues exhibit spontaneous antitumor activity, whereas TAM are polarized M2 cells that suppress antitumor immunity and promote tumor progression. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Upregulated expression of CCR8 is also detected within human cancer tissues and primarily limited to tumor-associated macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Macrophages are responsible for protecting tissues from foreign substances, but are also suspected to be important in the formation of important organs like the heart and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppress
  • Conclusions Distinct axes of the adaptive immune system, which are also prognostic in human HCC, actively suppress DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by controlling tumour formation and progression. (bmj.com)