• Isomer
  • if the energy barrier is high enough that there is restricted rotation, a molecule may exist for a relatively long time period as a stable rotational isomer or rotamer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the trans isomer on the other hand, this does not occur because the two C−Cl bond moments cancel and the molecule has a net zero dipole (it does however have a non-zero quadrupole). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a trans isomer, the dipoles of the substituents will cancel out[citation needed] due to being on opposite sides of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Problem 1 (12 pts) Draw a complete Lewis structure for each of the following molecules or ions and indicate formal charges. (coursehero.com)
  • In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his version of the theory, Jorgensen claimed that when a molecule dissociates in a solution there were two possible outcomes: the ions would bind via the ammonia chains Blomstrand had described or the ions would bind directly to the metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRANS
  • Molecule I is cis-1,2-dichloroethene and molecule II is trans-1,2-dichloroethene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider the following fluoromethylpentene: The proper name for this molecule is either trans-2-fluoro-3-methylpent-2-ene because the alkyl groups that form the backbone chain (i.e., methyl and ethyl) reside across the double bond from each other, or (Z)-2-fluoro-3-methylpent-2-ene because the highest-priority groups on each side of the double bond are on the same side of the double bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • bonds
  • The molecular configuration of a molecule is the permanent geometry that results from the spatial arrangement of its bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stereoisomerism about double bonds arises because rotation about the double bond is restricted, keeping the substituents fixed relative to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • That excludes any different arrangements which are simply due to the molecule rotating as a whole, or rotating about particular bonds. (studyvilla.com)
  • Think about what happens in molecules where there is unrestricted rotation about carbon bonds - in other words where the carbon-carbon bonds are all single. (studyvilla.com)
  • For example, the cobalt(II) hexahydrate ion or the hexaaquacobalt(II) ion [Co(H2O)+ is a hydrated-complex ion that consists of six water molecules attached to a metal ion Co. The oxidation state and the coordination number reflect the number of bonds formed between the metal ion and the ligands in the complex ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • To handle a molecule containing one or more cycles, one must first expand it into a tree (called a hierarchical digraph by the authors) by traversing bonds in all possible paths starting at the stereocenter. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • We employ an all-atom force field based method to calculate changes in free energy associated with the transfer of the peptidic molecules from water to membrane. (nih.gov)
  • A single atom of the original molecule may appear in many places (some as ghosts, some not) in the tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • systematic
  • The purpose of the CIP system is to assign an R or S descriptor to each stereocenter and an E or Z descriptor to each double bond so that the configuration of the entire molecule can be specified uniquely by including the descriptors in its systematic name. (wikipedia.org)
  • enantiomer
  • three of which H. W. B. Roozeboom had distinguished by the year 1899: Conglomerate (sometimes racemic conglomerate) If the 'molecules' of the substance have a much greater affinity for the same enantiomer than for the opposite one, a mechanical mixture of enantiomerically pure crystals will result. (wikipedia.org)
  • stereocenter
  • After the substituents of a stereocenter have been assigned their priorities, the molecule is oriented in space so that the group with the lowest priority is pointed away from the observer. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic chemistry
  • The Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (CIP) sequence rules, named for organic chemists R.S. Cahn, C.K. Ingold, and V. Prelog-alternatively termed the CIP priority rules, system, or conventions-are a standard process used in organic chemistry to completely and unequivocally name a stereoisomer of a molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The minimum number of carbons in a backbone needed to form a molecule that is still considered a carbohydrate is 3, and carbohydrates with three carbons are called trioses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A monomer molecule will receive an electron at the cathode to become a radical anion, and a monomer molecule will give up an electron at the anode to form a radical cation (Figure 6). (wikipedia.org)
  • pairs
  • We find that the intentional introduction of hydrogen bond acceptor-donor pairs in such molecules can improve membrane permeability while retaining or improving other favorable drug-like properties. (nih.gov)
  • amino acids
  • Many biologically active molecules are chiral, including the naturally occurring amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • We evaluate experimentally and computationally the membrane permeability of matched sets of peptidic small molecules bearing natural or bioisosteric unnatural amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • reactions
  • The reagents of, and the reactions that produce, racemic mixtures are said to be "not stereospecific" or "not stereoselective", for their indecision in a particular stereoisomerism. (wikipedia.org)
  • bond
  • Problem 3 (8 pts) Predict the approximate bond angle in each of the following molecules. (coursehero.com)
  • Fluoro is the highest-priority group on the left side of the double bond, and ethyl is the highest-priority group on the right side of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple
  • Polymers almost always appear as mixtures of molecules of multiple molar masses, each of which could be considered a separate chemical substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • They are part of the group of saxitoxins, a large group of neurotoxins along with a molecule that is also referred to as saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NSTX) and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX). (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently eight molecules are assigned to the group of gonyautoxins, known as gonyautoxin 1 (GTX-1) to gonyautoxin 8 (GTX-8). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldoses can be distinguished from ketoses, which have the carbonyl group away from the end of the molecule, and are therefore ketones. (wikipedia.org)