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  • synthesis
  • The absolute configuration of the glycosides was confirmed after hydrolysis and synthesis of O -( S )-methyl butyrated (SMB) sugar derivatives by comparison of their 1 H-NMR data with those of reference sugars. (mdpi.com)
  • This paper presents a review on kaurane diterpenes and their glycoside derivatives, covering aspects of their occurrence, biological activities and the synthesis of these natural products and their analogues. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, the principal methods of glycosidation byenzymatic and chemical processes are both presented, and a few papers on the synthesis of kaurane glycosides are succinctly discussed. (mdpi.com)
  • The first chemical synthesis of the natural triterpenoid saponin Patrinia-glycoside B-II, namely oleanolic acid 3- O -α- l -rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β- d -gluco-pyranosyl-(1→3)]-α- l -arabinopyranoside, has been accomplished in a linear 11-step sequence 11 with 9.4% overall yield. (mdpi.com)
  • Though there are several molecules that fall into the category of steviol glycoside, synthesis follows a similar route. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of steviol glycoside begins with isoprene units created via the DXP or MEP pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • The structures of the new steroidal glycosides were determined based on the results of spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR data and hydrolysis. (mdpi.com)
  • Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2 E ,4 E ,7 Z )-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2- O - β -D-glucopyranosyl- β -D-glucopyra-noside ( 1 ) and amyl-1- O - β -D-apio-furanosyl-1,6- O - β -D-glucopyranoside ( 2 ), respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Six kaempferol and twelve quercetin glycosides were isolated, their structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and chemical methods. (mdpi.com)
  • Their structures also often have a d-mycosamine (a type of amino-glycoside) group bonded to the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino-sugar portion of this class of molecules (e.g., the 2-deoxystreptamine in kanamycins, gentamicins, and tobramycin, see above) are implicated in the association of the small molecule with ribosomal structures that lead to the infidelities in translation (ibid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycomimetic is a term used to refer to molecules that have structures similar to carbohydrates, but with some variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • steviol glycosides
  • The active compounds of stevia are steviol glycosides (mainly stevioside and rebaudioside), which have up to 150 times the sweetness of sugar, are heat-stable, pH-stable, and not fermentable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steviol glycosides are the chemical compounds responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the South American plant Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) and the main ingredients (or precursors) of many sweeteners marketed under the generic name stevia and several trade names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana have been reported to be between 30 and 320 times sweeter than sucrose, although there is some disagreement in the technical literature about these numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steviol glycosides stimulate the insulin secretion through potentiation of the β-cell, preventing high blood glucose after a meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for steviol glycosides, expressed as steviol equivalents, has been established to be 4 mg/kg body weight/day, and is based on no observed effects of a 100 fold higher dose in a rat study. (wikipedia.org)
  • The steviol glycosides found in S. rebaudiana leaves, and their weight percentage, include: Stevioside (5-10%) Rebaudioside A (2-4%) Rebaudioside C (1-2%) Dulcoside A (0.5-1%) Rebaudioside B Rebaudioside D Rebaudioside E The last three are present only in minute quantities, and rebaudioside B has been claimed to be a byproduct of the isolation technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative sweetness seems to vary with concentration: a mix of steviol glycosides in the natural proportions was found to be 150 times sweeter than sucrose when matching a 3% sucrose solution, but only 100 times sweeter when matching a 10% sucrose solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • saponin
  • Patrinia-glycoside B-II (PB-II, Figure 1 ), a typical triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seeds of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fischer [ 11 ], contains the unique oligosaccharide substructure and also displays prominent inhibitory activity against many tumor cell lines [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • To investigate the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of this type of saponin, we have developed a convenient method for the chemical preparation of Patrinia-glycoside B-II. (mdpi.com)
  • Saponin glycosides reduce surface tension of water with foaming and will break down lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucoside
  • The known flavonoid chrysin-7-O-(β-D-glycopyranoside) (chrysin glucoside,1) as a major fraction and a new glycoside flavone, chrysin-7-O-β-D-[(6"-acetyl)glycopyranoside] (2) were isolated from the flowers and leaves of CalycotomeVillosa Subsp. (mdpi.com)
  • Rhein is commonly found as a glycoside such as rhein-8-glucoside or glucorhein. (wikipedia.org)
  • stevioside
  • A commercial steviol glycoside mixture extracted from the plant was found to have about 80% stevioside, 8% rebaudioside A, and 0.6% rebaudioside C. The Chinese plant Rubus chingii produces rubusoside, a steviol glycoside not found in Stevia. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • Cistanche tubulosa is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for regulating immunity and phenylethanol glycosides (CPhGs) are among the primary components responsible for this activity. (mdpi.com)
  • hydrogen
  • As well as obvious changes in the immediate vicinity of the substitution, e.g. that replacement of an acetal oxygen by methylene (CH2) would result in loss of a hydrogen-bond participatory atom, such a substitution is expected to have more subtle effects resulting from a change in the dipole of the molecule, such as slight changes in hydrogen bonding or pKa values of the unchanged hydroxyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • stevia
  • In the United States, high-purity stevia glycoside extracts are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and allowed as ingredients in food products, but stevia leaf and crude extracts do not have GRAS or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only limited research was conducted on the topic until in 1931 two French chemists isolated the glycosides that give stevia its sweet taste. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological activities
  • At this point, some general considerations on glycosides are introduced, and kaurane glycosides are presented and discussed on the basis of their toxic importance and occurrence in the plant kingdom, having focused on related aspects of their biological activities and the relationships between these activities and the structural factors of their molecules. (mdpi.com)
  • Roots
  • Deng, X.-M. New secoiridoid Glycosides from the Roots of Picrorhiza Scrophulariiflora . (mdpi.com)
  • Zou L-C, Zhu T-F, Xiang H, Yu L, Yan Z-H, Gan S-C, Wang D-C, Zeng S, Deng X-M. New secoiridoid Glycosides from the Roots of Picrorhiza Scrophulariiflora . (mdpi.com)
  • Cassava roots (also called manioc), an important potato-like food grown in tropical countries (and the base from which tapioca is made), also contain cyanogenic glycosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • specifically
  • More specifically, these molecules suppress the protein Bcl-2, which is a cancer-prone lymphoma protein, and induce cell death upon BRO (melanoma) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • A new phenolic glycoside ( 1 ), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2- O - β -D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)- O - β -D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia , along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. (mdpi.com)
  • generally
  • Accordingly, a stepwise glycosylation strategy was adopted in this work, as this strategy generally affords the 1,2- trans -glycoside linkage exclusively. (mdpi.com)
  • rich
  • Predators like ants, wasps, birds, and small animals prefer to feed on iridoid glycoside poor caterpillars rather than iridoid glycoside rich larvae, potentially due to these effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • A variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, and plants, produce small molecule secondary metabolites also known as natural products, which play a role in cell signaling, pigmentation and in defense against predation. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Enzymes and receptors are often activated or inhibited by endogenous protein, but can be also inhibited by endogenous or exogenous small molecule inhibitors or activators, which can bind to the active site or on the allosteric site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases (or glycosidases), are enzymes that break glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, enzymes that add a fructose group to a molecule are called fructosyl-transferases, beta-D-fructofuranosyl transferases or fructotranferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Cellulose is a straight chain polymer: unlike starch, no coiling or branching occurs, and the molecule adopts an extended and rather stiff rod-like conformation, aided by the equatorial conformation of the glucose residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many properties of cellulose depend on its chain length or degree of polymerization, the number of glucose units that make up one polymer molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This specificity allows researchers to obtain glycosides in high epimeric excess, one example being Wen-Ya Lu's conversion of D-Glucose to Ethyl β-D-glucopyranoside using naturally-derived glucosidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • In particular, the structure of the ring attached at the R end of the molecule allows it to be classified as either a cardenolide or bufadienolide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • A wide range of abnormal cell growth types such as osteosarcoma, prostate, lung, gastric and kidney cells are inhibited by certain active molecules. (biotanicahealth.com)
  • milkweed): oleandrin Adonis vernalis (Spring pheasant's eye): adonitoxin Kalanchoe daigremontiana and other Kalanchoe species: daigremontianin and others Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort): scillarenin Drimia maritima (squill): proscillaridine A Bufo marinus (cane toad): various bufadienolides Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in cardiac muscle cells to alter their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • units
  • This family includes glucosyltransferases or sucrose 6-glycosyl transferases (GTF-S) (EC 2.4.1.5CAZY GH_70) which catalyse the transfer of D-glucopyramnosyl units from sucrose onto acceptor molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • contains
  • Rhubarb contains anthraquinones including rhein, and emodin and their glycosides (e.g. glucorhein), which impart cathartic and laxative properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • X-gal has a number of variants, which are similar molecules with slight differences serving mainly to produce colors other than blue as a signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Examples of secondary metabolites include: Alkaloids Glycosides Lipids Nonribosomal peptides, such as actinomycin-D Phenazines Natural phenols (including flavonoids) Polyketide Terpenes, including steroids Tetrapyrroles. (wikipedia.org)