• genes
  • Plasmid DNA also in circle but much smaller than cell DNA o It has genes but not any of the genes that bacteria cells need for their normal lives o How does a cell acquire a plasmid? (coursehero.com)
  • Plasmids carrying bla NDM frequently carried AmpC or extended spectrum β-lactamase genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Direct identification of antibiotic resistance genes on single plasmid molecules using CRISPR/Cas9 in combination with optical DNA mapping. (gu.se)
  • Outside the T-DNA, are located the genes for the opine catabolism, the genes involved in the process of T-DNA transfer from the bacterium to the plant cell and the genes involved in bacterium-bacterium plasmid conjugative transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of T-DNA transfer is mediated by the cooperative action of proteins encoded by genes determined in the Ti plasmid virulence region (vir genes) and in the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ti plasmid also contains the genes for opine catabolism produced by the crown gall cells, and regions for conjugative transfer and for its own integrity and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding genes are frequently mapped to plasmids, yet few of these structures have been characterized at the molecular level, to date. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is acknowledged that the horizontal transfer of plasmids carrying these ESBL genes is an important contributory factor in the epidemiology of this bacterial ecosystem ( EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards [BIOHAZ], 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasmids evolve as an integral part of the bacterial genome, consisting of several extra-chromosomal traits, one of which is their resistance genes, which can be exchanged among bacteria of different origins by conjugation ( Carattoli, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike viruses (which encase their genetic material in a protective protein coat called a capsid), plasmids are "naked" DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids may carry genes that provide resistance to naturally occurring antibiotics in a competitive environmental niche, or the proteins produced may act as toxins under similar circumstances, or allow the organism to utilize particular organic compounds that would be advantageous when nutrients are scarce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smaller plasmids make use of the host replicative enzymes to make copies of themselves, while larger plasmids may carry genes specific for the replication of those plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the genes carried by a plasmid are beneficial for the host cells, for example: enabling the host cell to survive in an environment that would otherwise be lethal or restrictive for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two genes are under the same promoter elements and are transcribed into a single messenger RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the reporter enzymes themselves (e.g. firefly luciferase) can be direct targets of small molecules and confound the interpretation of HTS data, novel coincidence reporter designs incorporating artifact suppression have been developed Reporter genes can be used to assay for the activity of a particular promoter in a cell or organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes, researchers were able to infect plants with A. tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • siRNA
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the inhibitor of β-TrCP1, β-TrCP2, RSK1, or RSK2 is an siRNA molecule. (google.es)
  • 5. The method of claim 4 , wherein the siRNA molecule comprises the sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:19, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:21, and SEQ ID NO:22. (google.es)
  • It is based on a physical method named electroporation, where a transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is achieved when submitted to short and intense electric pulses, thus enabling the transport of large molecules (naked plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA) into cells that otherwise cannot permeate through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • antisense
  • In plasmid R1, the inhibitory complex between the antisense RNA (CopA) and its target mRNA (CopT) is characterised by a four-way junction structure and a side-by-side helical alignment. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The plasmids and methods of the present invention are useful for in vitro evolution of proteins. (google.com)
  • Based on the properties of intercalating molecules i.e., fluorescing upon binding to DNA and unwinding of DNA base-pairs, recently a single-molecule technique has been introduced to directly visualize individual plectonemes along supercoiled DNA which would further allow to study the interactions of DNA processing proteins with supercoiled DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical
  • The size of the plasmid varies from 1 to over 200 kbp, and the number of identical plasmids in a single cell can range anywhere from one to thousands under some circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Transposition is a precise process in which a defined DNA segment is excised from one DNA molecule and moved to another site in the same or different DNA molecule or genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • In 1907 a bacterium that caused plant tumors, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was discovered and in the early 1970s the tumor-inducing agent was found to be a DNA plasmid called the Ti plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • complementary
  • These are plasmids that usually consist of a strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation of the gene (or complementary DNA) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 2. The plasmid of claim 1 wherein the cytidine suicide analogue is selected from the group consisting of 2'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine, 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine, and 2'-pyrimidinone-1β-D-2-deoxyriboside. (google.com)
  • 3. The plasmid of claim 2 wherein the cytidine suicide analogue is 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine. (google.com)
  • cells
  • Over the course of three months, scientists used electronic pulses to ensure the DNA molecules were absorbed into the cells of each mouse. (medindia.net)
  • Some plasmids, however, have no observable effect on the phenotype of the host cell or its benefit to the host cells cannot be determined, and these plasmids are called cryptic plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher the copy number is, the more likely the two daughter cells will contain the plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • I really do not think that it is possible to get the mixed molecules because the ccc DNA means that the two strands cannot swim away from each other. (bio.net)
  • I always understood that this was iriversible since by pulling apart the strands somewhere in a supercoil you get even more extensive coiling elsewhere and the plasmid basically tied itself into an untangleable knot with some accessible single stranded bits and other inaccesible 'hyperknotted' bits. (bio.net)
  • Here you are usually dealing with restriction fragments, ie linear DS molecules where the strands separate completely on exposure to alkali and are deposited on, and bound to, the nylon membrane in random orientation. (bio.net)
  • mechanism
  • This host-to-host transfer of genetic material is one mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, and plasmids are considered part of the mobilome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, plasmids provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer within a population of microbes and typically provide a selective advantage under a given environmental state. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plasmid partition system is a mechanism that assures the stable transmission of plasmids during bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism is similar to a treadmill mechanism: Multiple TubR dimer binds to the centromere-like region stbDRs of the plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • The relationship between microbes and plasmid DNA is neither parasitic nor mutualistic, because each implies the presence of an independent species living in a detrimental or commensal state with the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few types of plasmids can also insert into the host chromosome, and these integrative plasmids are sometimes referred to as episomes in prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NTPase uses energy from NTP binding and hydrolysis to directly or indirectly move and attach plasmids to specific host location (e.g. opposite bacterial cell poles). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is only when a mutation in the recipient or a resident plasmid makes the host component of the plasmid maintenance system inactive that a. t. of a plasmid occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • A negatively supercoiled DNA molecule will produce either a one-start left-handed helix, the toroid, or a two-start right-handed helix with terminal loops, the plectoneme. (wikipedia.org)