• genes
  • The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance - currently one of the greatest threats to human health according to WHO - is to a large extent enabled by plasmid-mediated horizontal transfer of resistance genes. (chalmers.se)
  • Plasmid DNA also in circle but much smaller than cell DNA o It has genes but not any of the genes that bacteria cells need for their normal lives o How does a cell acquire a plasmid? (coursehero.com)
  • Plasmids carrying bla NDM frequently carried AmpC or extended spectrum β-lactamase genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Direct identification of antibiotic resistance genes on single plasmid molecules using CRISPR/Cas9 in combination with optical DNA mapping. (gu.se)
  • These plasmids are separate from the bacteria's actual DNA, and can pick up and exchange genes between bacteria. (phys.org)
  • Essentially, that's what the plasmids are doing with genes - including genes that give the bacteria's "home" the ability to become resistant to antibiotics . (phys.org)
  • Outside the T-DNA, are located the genes for the opine catabolism, the genes involved in the process of T-DNA transfer from the bacterium to the plant cell and the genes involved in bacterium-bacterium plasmid conjugative transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of T-DNA transfer is mediated by the cooperative action of proteins encoded by genes determined in the Ti plasmid virulence region (vir genes) and in the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ti plasmid also contains the genes for opine catabolism produced by the crown gall cells, and regions for conjugative transfer and for its own integrity and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two genes are under the same promoter elements and are transcribed into a single messenger RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the reporter enzymes themselves (e.g. firefly luciferase) can be direct targets of small molecules and confound the interpretation of HTS data, novel coincidence reporter designs incorporating artifact suppression have been developed Reporter genes can be used to assay for the activity of a particular promoter in a cell or organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes, researchers were able to infect plants with A. tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulence genes encoded by the Ti plasmid generate single-strand T-DNA molecules, which in turn are transferred to healthy hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular plasmid
  • He also discovered that a particular plasmid associated with the antibiotic-resistant salmonella from the manure, which weighed around 95 kb, was now turning up in different salmonella serotypes from the soil samples (kb stands for kilo-base pair - a measurement used to identify plasmids). (phys.org)
  • This tells us that this particular plasmid is shuttling across different serotypes," Thakur says. (phys.org)
  • gene
  • XX RN RC plasmid from pBR329 & linker & pSV2-glo RC pECV1 from plasmid & pBR327/RchR-beta-IIIC4, beta-globin gene RA Kartasova T., Cornelissen B.J., Belt P., Van De Putte P. (stanford.edu)
  • Reporter gene assay have been increasingly used in high throughput screening (HTS) to identify small molecule inhibitors and activators of protein targets and pathways for drug discovery and chemical biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The so-called 'dosage' of a gene refers to the amount of mRNA transcripts and subsequently translated protein molecules are produced from a gene per time and per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are plasmids that usually consist of a strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation of the gene (or complementary DNA) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electroporation mediated delivery of a plasmid coding gene for interleukin-12 (pIL-12) was performed and safety, tolerability and therapeutic effect were monitored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression Plasmid Transduction Rieger R. Michaelis A., Green M. M. (1976). (wikipedia.org)
  • siRNA
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the inhibitor of β-TrCP1, β-TrCP2, RSK1, or RSK2 is an siRNA molecule. (google.es)
  • 5. The method of claim 4 , wherein the siRNA molecule comprises the sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:19, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:21, and SEQ ID NO:22. (google.es)
  • It is based on a physical method named electroporation, where a transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is achieved when submitted to short and intense electric pulses, thus enabling the transport of large molecules (naked plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA) into cells that otherwise cannot permeate through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The plasmids and methods of the present invention are useful for in vitro evolution of proteins. (google.com)
  • Based on the properties of intercalating molecules i.e., fluorescing upon binding to DNA and unwinding of DNA base-pairs, recently a single-molecule technique has been introduced to directly visualize individual plectonemes along supercoiled DNA which would further allow to study the interactions of DNA processing proteins with supercoiled DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • antisense
  • In plasmid R1, the inhibitory complex between the antisense RNA (CopA) and its target mRNA (CopT) is characterised by a four-way junction structure and a side-by-side helical alignment. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Toward this aim, we have developed an optical DNA mapping procedure where individual intact plasmids are elongated within nanofluidic channels and visualized through fluorescence microscopy, yielding barcodes that reflect the underlying sequence. (chalmers.se)
  • The assay rapidly identifies plasmids through statistical comparisons with barcodes based on publicly available sequence repositories and also enables detection of structural variations. (chalmers.se)
  • Since the assay yields holistic sequence information for individual intact plasmids, it is an ideal complement to next generation sequencing efforts which involve reassembly of sequence reads from fragmented DNA molecules. (chalmers.se)
  • A custom DNA plasmid sequence can be created and replicated in more than one way. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 2. The plasmid of claim 1 wherein the cytidine suicide analogue is selected from the group consisting of 2'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine, 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine, and 2'-pyrimidinone-1β-D-2-deoxyriboside. (google.com)
  • 3. The plasmid of claim 2 wherein the cytidine suicide analogue is 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine. (google.com)
  • cell
  • However, high-copy number plasmids have a cost for the hosting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell membrane permeability is increased and otherwise nonpermeant molecules enter the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • A negatively supercoiled DNA molecule will produce either a one-start left-handed helix, the toroid, or a two-start right-handed helix with terminal loops, the plectoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ti plasmids in galls produce various opines that are then secreted from the gall. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • Rapid identification and characterization of plasmids is thus important both for individual clinical outcomes and for epidemiological monitoring of antibiotic resistance. (chalmers.se)
  • different
  • Transposition is a precise process in which a defined DNA segment is excised from one DNA molecule and moved to another site in the same or different DNA molecule or genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • region
  • The mechanism is similar to a treadmill mechanism: Multiple TubR dimer binds to the centromere-like region stbDRs of the plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • In that study, Sytox Orange (an intercalating dye), has been used to induce supercoiling on surface tethered DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)