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  • genes
  • The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance - currently one of the greatest threats to human health according to WHO - is to a large extent enabled by plasmid-mediated horizontal transfer of resistance genes. (chalmers.se)
  • Plasmid DNA also in circle but much smaller than cell DNA o It has genes but not any of the genes that bacteria cells need for their normal lives o How does a cell acquire a plasmid? (coursehero.com)
  • Plasmids carrying bla NDM frequently carried AmpC or extended spectrum β-lactamase genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Direct identification of antibiotic resistance genes on single plasmid molecules using CRISPR/Cas9 in combination with optical DNA mapping. (gu.se)
  • Outside the T-DNA, are located the genes for the opine catabolism, the genes involved in the process of T-DNA transfer from the bacterium to the plant cell and the genes involved in bacterium-bacterium plasmid conjugative transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of T-DNA transfer is mediated by the cooperative action of proteins encoded by genes determined in the Ti plasmid virulence region (vir genes) and in the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ti plasmid also contains the genes for opine catabolism produced by the crown gall cells, and regions for conjugative transfer and for its own integrity and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • These plasmids are separate from the bacteria's actual DNA, and can pick up and exchange genes between bacteria. (phys.org)
  • Essentially, that's what the plasmids are doing with genes - including genes that give the bacteria's "home" the ability to become resistant to antibiotics . (phys.org)
  • The two genes are under the same promoter elements and are transcribed into a single messenger RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the reporter enzymes themselves (e.g. firefly luciferase) can be direct targets of small molecules and confound the interpretation of HTS data, novel coincidence reporter designs incorporating artifact suppression have been developed Reporter genes can be used to assay for the activity of a particular promoter in a cell or organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes, researchers were able to infect plants with A. tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular plasmid
  • He also discovered that a particular plasmid associated with the antibiotic-resistant salmonella from the manure, which weighed around 95 kb, was now turning up in different salmonella serotypes from the soil samples (kb stands for kilo-base pair - a measurement used to identify plasmids). (phys.org)
  • This tells us that this particular plasmid is shuttling across different serotypes," Thakur says. (phys.org)
  • agarose gel electrophor
  • Experimentally, in the absence of any enzyme, many intact plasmid dsDNA circles give two bands on agarose gel electrophoresis under a certain given condition, while the same plasmid molecules after cutting once by a restriction enzyme give only one band under the same, condition. (springer.com)
  • Many techniques have been developed to detect genotoxicity, as comet assay, in eukaryotic cells, and plasmid DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. (scielo.br)
  • mRNA
  • In plasmid R1, the inhibitory complex between the antisense RNA (CopA) and its target mRNA (CopT) is characterised by a four-way junction structure and a side-by-side helical alignment. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Toward this aim, we have developed an optical DNA mapping procedure where individual intact plasmids are elongated within nanofluidic channels and visualized through fluorescence microscopy, yielding barcodes that reflect the underlying sequence. (chalmers.se)
  • The assay rapidly identifies plasmids through statistical comparisons with barcodes based on publicly available sequence repositories and also enables detection of structural variations. (chalmers.se)
  • Since the assay yields holistic sequence information for individual intact plasmids, it is an ideal complement to next generation sequencing efforts which involve reassembly of sequence reads from fragmented DNA molecules. (chalmers.se)
  • 5. The method of claim 4 , wherein the siRNA molecule comprises the sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:19, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:21, and SEQ ID NO:22. (google.es)
  • A custom DNA plasmid sequence can be created and replicated in more than one way. (wikipedia.org)
  • siRNA
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the inhibitor of β-TrCP1, β-TrCP2, RSK1, or RSK2 is an siRNA molecule. (google.es)
  • It is based on a physical method named electroporation, where a transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is achieved when submitted to short and intense electric pulses, thus enabling the transport of large molecules (naked plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA) into cells that otherwise cannot permeate through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The plasmids and methods of the present invention are useful for in vitro evolution of proteins. (google.com)
  • Based on the properties of intercalating molecules i.e., fluorescing upon binding to DNA and unwinding of DNA base-pairs, recently a single-molecule technique has been introduced to directly visualize individual plectonemes along supercoiled DNA which would further allow to study the interactions of DNA processing proteins with supercoiled DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three components, a parC DNA site, and two proteins parR and parM all combine to create the ParMRC system, a type II plasmid partitioning system. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 2. The plasmid of claim 1 wherein the cytidine suicide analogue is selected from the group consisting of 2'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine, 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine, and 2'-pyrimidinone-1β-D-2-deoxyriboside. (google.com)
  • 3. The plasmid of claim 2 wherein the cytidine suicide analogue is 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine. (google.com)
  • present invention
  • The present invention relates to use of a nucleic acid molecule having intra-molecular base pairing as an internal control in nucleic acid amplification. (google.it)
  • segment
  • Transposition is a precise process in which a defined DNA segment is excised from one DNA molecule and moved to another site in the same or different DNA molecule or genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • Rapid identification and characterization of plasmids is thus important both for individual clinical outcomes and for epidemiological monitoring of antibiotic resistance. (chalmers.se)
  • produce
  • A negatively supercoiled DNA molecule will produce either a one-start left-handed helix, the toroid, or a two-start right-handed helix with terminal loops, the plectoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • claim
  • 2. Use according to claim 1 where the nucleic acid molecule is RNA. (google.it)
  • 3. Use according to any preceding claim where the nucleic acid molecule is self- stabilising due to GC intra-molecular base pairing. (google.it)
  • 4. Use according to any preceding claim where the nucleic acid molecule has greater than 50% intra-molecular base pairing. (google.it)
  • 5. Use according to any preceding claim where the nucleic acid molecule is a modified hepatitis delta virus genome. (google.it)
  • 12. A kit comprising the nucleic acid molecule of any preceding claim and instructions for using the nucleic acid molecule as an internal control a nucleic acid amplification. (google.it)
  • take
  • Plectonemes are typically more common in nature, and this is the shape most bacterial plasmids will take. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • The invention relates to a method of nucleic acid amplification comprising having components which amplify target nucleic acid if it is present in a sample and comprising a nucleic acid molecule having intra-molecular base pairing as an internal control. (google.it)
  • 1. Use of a nucleic acid molecule having intra-molecular base pairing as an internal control in nucleic acid amplification. (google.it)
  • 11. A method of nucleic acid amplification comprising having components which amplify target nucleic acid if it is present in a sample and comprising a nucleic acid molecule having intra-molecular base pairing as an internal control. (google.it)
  • found
  • CopA-like RNA is a family of non-coding RNAs found on the R1 plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1907 a bacterium that caused plant tumors, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was discovered and in the early 1970s the tumor-inducing agent was found to be a DNA plasmid called the Ti plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • cryptic
  • By far the best characterized of the cryptic systems in E. 23 Analysis of Small Molecule Metabolism in Zebrafish By SHIU-YING HO, MICHAEL PACK, and Try binary options for free A. (imbc-med.ru)
  • whereas
  • CD3 delta knockout mice have double positive (DP) T cell precursors that express both CD4 and CD8 molecules, whereas knockouts of the other TCR subunits cannot advance to this stage of development. (openwetware.org)
  • Mechanisms for this include simple dilution (an egg contains on average 200,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a healthy human sperm was reported to contain on average 5 molecules ), degradation of sperm mtDNA in the male genital tract, in the fertilized egg, and, at least in a few organisms, failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Using the genetic sequence information for the 1918 flu virus, Dr. Nabel and his VRC colleagues created plasmids--small strands of DNA designed to express specific characteristics--carrying genes for the virus' hemagglutinin (HA) protein, the surface protein found in all flu viruses that allows the virus to stick to a cell and cause infection. (innovations-report.com)
  • These dyes are generally used with the chelator carboxyl groups masked as acetoxymethyl esters, in order to render the molecule lipophilic and to allow easy entrance into the cell. (pearltrees.com)
  • In E. coli, multiple plasmid copies appear to cluster together, creating a few multiplasmid clusters in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • David H. Figurski, Robert F. Pohlman, David H. Bechhofer, Alice S. Prince and Christie A. Kelton: "Broad host range plasmid RK2 encodes multiple kil genes potentially lethal to Escherichia coli host cells", Genetics, Volume 79. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the main purpose of dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase is to increase the rate of diffusion of the molecules into the cells and inhibit them from diffusing out. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Mycolactone was originally isolated from M. ulcerans 1615, a Malaysian isolate, as a mixture of cis/trans isomers designated mycolactone A and mycolactone B. Identical molecules were also found to be present in two M. ulcerans isolates from the Democratic Republic of Congo. (wikipedia.org)
  • CopA-like RNA is a family of non-coding RNAs found on the R1 plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • The RK2 Plasmid is a broad-host-range plasmid belonging to the incP incompatibility group It is notable for its ability to replicate in a wide variety of single-celled organisms, which makes it suitable as a genetic engineering tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broad-Host-Range Plasmids from Agricultural Soils Have IncP-1 Backbones with Diverse Accessory Genes", Appl Environ Microbiol. (wikipedia.org)