• mutations
  • We use a pseudo infinite-sites model for mutations ( i.e. , where the number of sites is finite but new mutations can appear only at nonpolymorphic locations) and a finite-sites model for recombination and remove locations that are no longer polymorphic, at regular intervals. (genetics.org)
  • The total number of new mutations added to a chromosome in any particular generation is modeled as a Poisson random variable with mean equal to the per-generation per-sequence mutation rate u . (genetics.org)
  • It has been proposed that autism spectrum disorders are caused by combinations of multiple genetic variants, or mutations that affect many essential genes to shape different aspects of cognition and behavior. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Scientists in the laboratory of Lauren Weiss, PhD, an associate professor of psychiatry and member of the Institute for Human Genetics at UCSF, looked at genetic mutations that cause either the deletion or duplication of a region of DNA on chromosome 16 that includes 29 genes implicated in important cellular functions in the brain. (ucsf.edu)
  • Luksza and co-author Michael Laessig estimated the frequency of these mutations in the viral RNA and factored in such variables as infection rates to come up with a model predicting a strain's evolutionary fitness. (nationalmemo.com)
  • mutation
  • Some mice with a genetic mutation for mahogany-colored coats also develop spongiform degeneration of brain tissue, similar to mad cow disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers again created neurons from cells donated by patients who carry a genetic mutation, this time in a critical signaling pathway that is necessary in every cell in the body. (ucsf.edu)
  • The mutation causes an extremely rare genetic disease called cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, which is characterized by abnormal development of the heart, facial features, skin and hair. (ucsf.edu)
  • This strain improves upon existing models and allows in vivo functional assessments of a clinically relevant mutation involved in FTD. (sciencemag.org)
  • Populations diverge from each other as a result of evolutionary forces such as genetic drift, natural selection, mutation, and migration. (uconn.edu)
  • The origins of these mean field computational techniques can be traced to 1950 and 1954 with the work of Alan Turing on genetic type mutation-selection learning machines and the articles by Nils Aall Barricelli at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogenesis is caused by mutation and epimutation of the genetic material of normal cells, which upsets the normal balance between proliferation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic and epigenetic changes can occur at many levels, from gain or loss of entire chromosomes, to a mutation affecting a single DNA nucleotide, or to silencing or activating a microRNA that controls expression of 100 to 500 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Anatoly Samoylenko, Seppo Vainio and colleagues describe a novel model to assay the roles of co-regulated genes in kidney development and renal carcinogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • In agreement with this model, 75/79 would be homozygous for the genes pat-3 and pat-4 wich are partially recessive and with independent segregation. (csic.es)
  • GENETIC model systems have a long-standing history as important tools to discover novel genes and processes in cell and developmental biology. (genetics.org)
  • More recently, such selection has become a vital part of genetic engineering, with selectable markers such as antibiotic resistance genes being used to manipulate DNA in molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding the changes that have occurred during organism's evolution can reveal the genes needed to construct parts of the body, genes which may be involved in human genetic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapter 6 of this book is titled "Sexual Reproduction and Sexual Selection" and includes a genetic interpretation of Darwin's initial idea of sex-limited genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many studies have been published exploring the genetic basis of sex-limited genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor suppressor genes are often disabled by cancer-promoting genetic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has also contributed towards the development of novel genetic tools for biomedical research, including an RNA interference (RNAi) method that allows efficient knockdown of neuronal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • A related article published by Weiss's group on Nov. 21, 2017, in Molecular Psychiatry developed a second novel genetic model of autism. (ucsf.edu)
  • It is now in an era of post-GWAS, in which we are looking for better ways to explain the GWAS results, to follow up with replication/validation studies, and to find novel genetic components that explains the phenotypes. (usc.edu)
  • I proposed a novel study design for genetic association studies using next-generation sequencing, investigated a hierarchical model for variable selection in GWAS analysis, and implemented a quantile regression model to prioritize GWAS results. (usc.edu)
  • algorithm
  • We present an exact forward-in-time algorithm that can efficiently simulate the evolution of a finite population under the Wright-Fisher model. (genetics.org)
  • Our algorithm is implemented in the C++ programming language and we simulate data sets under the Wright-Fisher model assumptions. (genetics.org)
  • The origins of Quantum Monte Carlo methods are often attributed to Enrico Fermi and Robert Richtmyer who developed in 1948 a mean field particle interpretation of neutron-chain reactions, but the first heuristic-like and genetic type particle algorithm (a.k.a. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In this Phase 1 STTR we propose to generate a pig model of metabolic syndrome and rapid atherosclerosis by knocking out the low density lipoprotein receptor gene in a strain of minipigs (Ossabaw) with a genetic propensity for Type 2 diabetes. (sbir.gov)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This STTR proposes to create a pig model of metabolic syndrome and rapid atherosclerosis by knocking out the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene in the Ossabaw minipig. (sbir.gov)
  • The second modelling is more compact since the unique place abstracts the cell in which each token represents a specific gene and its expression level. (unice.fr)
  • The growing suite of molecular-genetic and genomic tools described here provides a system to couple gene discovery to mechanistic dissections of gene function in the cell. (genetics.org)
  • statistical
  • In statistics, a Pólya urn model (also known as a Pólya urn scheme or simply as Pólya's urn), named after George Pólya, is a type of statistical model used as an idealized mental exercise framework, unifying many treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • variation
  • Because loci associated with one another physically are likely to show similar patterns of variation, we introduce conditional autoregressive (CAR) models to incorporate the local correlations among loci. (uconn.edu)
  • With its potential to discover a much greater amount of genetic variation, next-generation sequencing is fast becoming an emergent tool for genetic association studies. (usc.edu)
  • This hidden diversity could then be unleashed by extreme changes in the environment or by molecular switches, releasing previously cryptic genetic variation that can then contribute to a rapid burst of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • However, despite their inefficiency, forward simulations are necessary if we wish to simulate data sets under complex and realistic biological scenarios ( e.g. , natural selection at multiple linked loci) that are difficult to model accurately using the coalescent. (genetics.org)
  • For certain types of genetic markers, and for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular, it is reasonable to presume that genotypes at most loci are selectively neutral. (uconn.edu)
  • We conduct a simulation study to investigate the performance of the models by using different level of population divergence and number of loci included in the analysis. (uconn.edu)
  • differences
  • This term is restricted to autosomal traits, and should not be confused with sex-linked characteristics, which have to do with genetic differences on the sex chromosomes (see sex-determination system). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many genetic differences (polymorphisms) have little effect on health or reproductive success but help to distinguish one population from another. (wikipedia.org)
  • particle
  • The terminology "propagation of chaos" originated with the work of Mark Kac in 1976 on a colliding mean field kinetic gas model The theory of mean field interacting particle models had certainly started by the mid-1960s, with the work of Henry P. McKean Jr. on Markov interpretations of a class of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also quote an earlier pioneering article by Theodore E. Harris and Herman Kahn, published in 1951, using mean field but heuristic-like genetic methods for estimating particle transmission energies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resampled or Reconfiguration Monte Carlo methods) for estimating ground state energies of quantum systems (in reduced matrix models) is due to Jack H. Hetherington in 1984 In molecular chemistry, the use of genetic heuristic-like particle methods (a.k.a. pruning and enrichment strategies) can be traced back to 1955 with the seminal work of Marshall. (wikipedia.org)
  • parameters
  • We find that the recombination graph is generally a very good approximation for models with complete outcrossing, whereas, for models with self-fertilization, the approximation becomes slightly inexact for some combinations of selfing and recombination parameters. (genetics.org)
  • By adapting a Laplace prior distribution for model parameters, and incorporating external information in the prior distribution for the shrinkage parameter of the Laplace distribution, we aimed to perform variable selection using the specified hierarchical model. (usc.edu)
  • trait
  • Once a preference becomes established, females choosing males with elaborate secondary sexual traits will produce sons that carry alleles for the trait and daughters that carry alleles for the preference, generating genetic coupling that will drive self-reinforcing coevolution of both trait and preference, due to the mating advantage of males with the trait, creating a Fisherian runaway sexy sons process. (wikipedia.org)
  • He extensively explores this apparently sex-limited trait from a genetic perspective in this ground-breaking 50 page paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • However, theoretical models that incorporate a complex genotype-phenotype map have found evidence for the evolution of phenotypic robustness contributing to genetic assimilation, even when selection is only for developmental stability and not for a particular phenotype, and so the quantitative genetics models do not apply. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular
  • Note that in some sense, the Pólya urn model is the "opposite" of the model of sampling without replacement, where every time a particular value is observed, it is less likely to be observed again, whereas in a Pólya urn model, an observed value is more likely to be observed again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note also that in a Pólya urn model, successive acts of measurement over time have less and less effect on future measurements, whereas in sampling without replacement, the opposite is true: After a certain number of measurements of a particular value, that value will never be seen again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model system that combines the power of forward and reverse genetics with a suite of useful biochemical and cell biological attributes. (genetics.org)
  • As such, Tetrahymena 's utility as a genetic model organism is revealed by its short life cycle, easy and cost-effective laboratory handling, and its accessibility to both forward and reverse genetics. (genetics.org)
  • It is, however, possible to explain genetic assimilation using only quantitative genetics and a threshold model, with no reference to the concept of canalisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Genetic association studies aim to find the genetic variations that are associated with phenotypes (traits). (usc.edu)
  • BACs are preferred for these kind of genetic studies because they accommodate much larger sequences without the risk of rearrangement, and are therefore more stable than other types of cloning vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • The Australian geneticist Alex Fraser also published in 1957 a series of papers on the genetic type simulation of artificial selection of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • reveals
  • Model comparison using several criteria, including DIC and LPML, reveals that CAR models are superior to alternative models for the data used in the analysis. (uconn.edu)
  • biological
  • There is a need to model biological systems to aid in medication and drug delivery. (army.mil)
  • Because of the complexity of the interweaving retroactions, the overall behavior is difficult to grasp and the development of formal methods is needed in order to confront the supposed properties of the biological system to the model. (unice.fr)
  • Tetrahymena thermophila is a ciliate model organism whose study has led to important discoveries and insights into both conserved and divergent biological processes. (genetics.org)
  • T. thermophila ( Figure 1 ) is a ciliate model organism whose study has led to fundamental biological insights covering the central dogma and beyond. (genetics.org)
  • In this review, we discuss major biological questions to which T. thermophila is amenable and the genetic tools available to answer them. (genetics.org)
  • generate
  • used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to generate a mouse model of FTD-like syndrome. (sciencemag.org)
  • The classical approach is then to generate all Petri nets corresponding to all remaining sets of parameter values and to confront each model to the available knowledge or hypothesis. (unice.fr)
  • syndrome
  • However, a marked deficiency in current pig models is that they do not present with metabolic syndrome and significant atherosclerosis, underlying conditions that can drastically alter restenosis and thrombosis. (sbir.gov)
  • The ideal pig model would be of manageable size and manifest both metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis at an early age. (sbir.gov)
  • estimate
  • We estimate an assortative mating coefficient, mixture proportions, and regression relationships between environmental factors and the mixture proportions in a single hierarchical model. (uconn.edu)
  • sequences
  • Forward simulations, in contrast, model the evolution of all the sequences in a population exactly, forward in time and generation by generation. (genetics.org)
  • study
  • As an animal model, the mahoganoid mutant mice probably will not be useful to study spongiform encephalopathies like mad cow disease, Gunn believes, because rogue prions are not the cause of the mouse condition. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the scope of this dissertation, I focused on three different aspects of genetic association study. (usc.edu)
  • single
  • We apply the hierarchical-beta models to a subset of single nucleotide polymorphism data from the HapMap project. (uconn.edu)
  • time
  • Similar models have been proposed for postcopulatory female preferences, such as the time at which females removed the male's sperm ampulla after mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russell began modeling as a part-time profession in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • simulation
  • We use our simulation program to evaluate coalescent models with recombination by comparing them to the exact Wright-Fisher model. (genetics.org)
  • Both the simulation and application to real data confirm that our model provides a better estimation for the covariate effects. (uconn.edu)
  • data
  • We apply the model to a data set derived from gray seals in the Orkney Islands. (uconn.edu)
  • We compare our model with a similar model previously used to analyze these data. (uconn.edu)
  • several
  • Since her debut as a model, she has walked at several fashion shows, for various designers and fashion houses including Chanel, Versace, Prada, Vivienne Westwood, Victoria's Secret, Diane von Fürstenberg and Louis Vuitton among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are several theories, the use of animal models has provided new insight on spike-and-wave discharge in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal model
  • Cornell geneticist Teresa Gunn displays a mahoganoid mutant mouse, a possible animal model for brain disease in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thus, the development of efficacious and safe stents continues to be confounded by the absence of asufficient large animal model of atherosclerosis. (sbir.gov)