• organism
  • The relatively large size of the chick as a model organism allowed scientists during this time to make these significant observations without the help of a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death is the permanent termination of all biological functions which sustain an organism, and as such, is the end of its life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stochastic
  • Phylogenetics is an area that deals with the reconstruction and analysis of phylogenetic (evolutionary) trees and networks based on inherited characteristics Traditional population genetic models deal with alleles and genotypes, and are frequently stochastic. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The biological attributes, dispersal mode, growth form, and regeneration strategy were determined for the endemic and non-endemic flora of the southern Langeberg, Cape Province, South Africa. (springer.com)
  • Work in this area dates back to the 19th century, and even as far as 1798 when Thomas Malthus formulated the first principle of population dynamics, which later became known as the Malthusian growth model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Units
  • The input stage of these models is not electrical, but rather has either pharmacological (chemical) concentration units, or physical units that characterize an external stimulus such as light, sound or other forms of physical pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Many of the included examples are characterised by highly complex, nonlinear, and supercomplex mechanisms, as it is being increasingly recognised that the result of such interactions may only be understood through a combination of mathematical, logical, physical/chemical, molecular and computational models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative
  • This unit builds on the foundation provided in Quantitative Methods in Biology to familiarise students with more advanced model building techniques including generalised linear, mixed and additive models, regression trees, bootstrapping methods, and non-linear regression. (edu.au)
  • neural
  • So far the physics engine Gepetto has been built and models of the neural connectome and a muscle cell have been created in the NeuroML format. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • He has presided the International Council for NMR in Biological Systems, the Indian Biophysical Society, the Indian Chemical Society and has served as the vice president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinguish
  • Although there are many commonalities, two aspects, in particular, distinguish biological networks from networks found in other fields: Firstly, in biological systems, copy numbers of many species are very low, which can give rise to significant relative fluctuations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some models in this category are black box models and distinguish only between two measured voltage levels: the presence of a spike (also known as "action potential") or a quiescent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • Computers are critical to analysis and modelling of these data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical Product Safety Evaluation: Biological Models and Statistical Methods presents cutting-edge biological models and statistical methods that are tailored to specific objectives and data types for safety analysis and benefit-risk assessment. (target.com)
  • Such models contain key proteins involved in the process and can be used for prioritizing disease targets, for understanding of drug action and prevention of drug-induced toxicities, for analysis of patient predispositions and design of personalized therapies, for design of diagnostic biomarkers and analysis of patient molecular data. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This approach extends a contingency table analysis of the data, which merely indicated the association between individual biological traits and endemism. (springer.com)
  • numerical
  • The model allowed numerical estimation of the probability that a species with a given set of attributes would be endemic. (springer.com)
  • 20th century
  • Great advances in immunology and oncology continued to characterize the 20th century, for which we indebted to the chicken model. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • In certain such cases, as the small copy number limit is reached, differential equation-based models break down since the assumption of continuous molecular concentrations is no longer valid. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It provides examples for analysis of gene expression microarrays to infer biological models, to find biomarkers for drug response and for applications of high-throughput molecular profiling technologies for personalized medicine. (eurekaselect.com)
  • species
  • Population models can track the fragile species and work and curb the decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, Lotka and Volterra formed the Lotka-Volterra model for competition that applies the logistic equation to two species illustrating competition, predation, and parasitism interactions between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The equilibrium model of island biogeography describes the number of species on an island as an equilibrium of immigration and extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hierarchy of complexity levels of organization in the biosphere is also recognized in modern classifications of taxonomic ranks, such as: biological domain and biosphere, biological kingdom, Phylum, biological class, order, family, genus and species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discrete
  • The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated by the analysis of stability and bifurcations of several discrete biological models using implementations of algebraic methods. (springer.com)
  • Allen L.J.: Some discrete-time SI, SIR, and SIS epidemic models. (springer.com)
  • interactions
  • Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the simultaneous effects and interactions between these biological attributes on the occurrence of endemism. (springer.com)
  • Modeling of dynamic interactions in nature can provide a manageable way of understanding how numbers change over time or in relation to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • unified theory
  • To accelerate the convergence to a unified theory, we list several models in each category, and where applicable, also references to supporting experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Many variant models have been studied, and interest has focused on proving computational universality for systems with a small number of membranes, for the purpose of solving NP-complete problems such as Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problems and the traveling salesman problem (TSP). (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Biological systems manifest many important examples of emergent properties in the complex interplay of components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various models of the spread of infections have been proposed and analyzed, and provide important results that may be applied to health policy decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • order
  • The computerized text-mining algorithms are used to convert free grammar of human language into a set of formalized relationships between biological concepts in order to use this wealth of information. (eurekaselect.com)
  • laboratory
  • The probabilistic description taken by the models in this category was inspired from laboratory experiments involving either natural or pharmacological stimulation which exhibit variability in the resulting spike pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2010 At the technion he also heads the Enterprise Systems Modeling Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexity
  • this is because the latter is restricted primarily to simplified models of biological organization and organisms, as well as to only a general consideration of philosophical or semantic questions related to complexity in biology. (wikipedia.org)