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  • protein-codin
  • In some of these mtDNAs, up to 25 percent of the total length is composed of tandem duplications of non-coding sequence that includes putative regulatory regions and/or pseudogenes of tRNAs and protein-coding genes along with otherwise unassignable sequences. (unt.edu)
  • The relationship among the four families obtained by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences based on predicted amino acid sequences of protein-coding genes is consistent with that based on their mt gene arrangement similarities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tRNA
  • All rearrangement-mediating duplications include either the origin of light strand replication and the nearby tRNA genes or the regions flanking the origin of heavy strand replication. (unt.edu)
  • The result suggested highly lineage-specific occurrence of several gene rearrangements, except for the translocation of the tRNA Pro gene from the 5' to 3' side of the control region, which likely occurred independently in both agamine and chamaeleonid lineages. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Two years later, with the same group he studied centipede species named Lithobius forficatus and discovered that only one of the 22 inferred tRNA genes provides a completely paired aminoacyl acceptor stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mt gene arrangement of A. perfoliata is identical to those of previously reported Hymenolepis diminuta (Hymenolepididae) and Dipylidium caninum (Dipylidiidae), but slightly different from those of other taeniids due to an order switch between tRNA(S2) and tRNA(L1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteins
  • Cerebellar dysfunction Ataxia In terms of the genetics of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia 11 of 18 known genes are caused by repeated expansions in corresponding proteins, sharing the same mutational mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression is affected instead of proteins in subtype two SCAs because of this. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2001, a 14th biologically active protein called humanin was discovered, and was found to be encoded by the mitochondrial gene MT-RNR2 which also encodes part of the mitochondrial ribosome (made out of RNA): Unlike the other proteins, humanin does not remain in the mitochondria, and interacts with the rest of the cell and cellular receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adenine-thymine rich hairpin loops of the Borrelia bacteria range in size from 5 kilobase pairs (kb) to over 200 kb and contain the genes responsible for producing a group of major surface proteins, or antigens, on the bacteria that allow it to evade the immune response of its infected host. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, TCL-1/MTCP-1 is a protein domain found in proteins encoded for by two related protooncogenes, other words by genes that help promote cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human HSPs are classified into 5 major groups according to the HNGC (HUGO gene nomenclature committee): HSP70 DnaJ (HSP40) HSPB (small heat shock proteins) HSPC (HSP90) chaperonins Chaperonins are characterized by their barrel-shaped structure with binding sites for client proteins inside the barrels. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • We sequenced the complete mtDNA 16S rRNA gene for 43 notothenioid species, the largest sampling to-date from all eight taxonomically recognized families. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During the 2004 study of 4 species (A. armillatus, S. tulumensis, H. macracantha and A. americanus) it was revealed that the gene arrangements of mtDNA shows that the species belong to Branchiura group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, biologists look at the same gene in many different species and document the sequence changes that accumulate over time. (berkeley.edu)
  • Results Glabraster antarctica is a single circum-Antarctic species with instances of gene flow between distant locations. (ucsd.edu)
  • mtDNA gene
  • Five chelicerates exhibit amplicons that are consistent with the insect mtDNA gene order. (usda.gov)
  • Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita . (pnas.org)
  • circular
  • In humans, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) forms closed circular molecules that contain 16,569 DNA base pairs, with each such molecule normally containing a full set of the mitochondrial genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Adaptation to local host plants may impact a pollinator's population genetic structure by reducing gene flow and driving population genetic differentiation, representing an early stage of ecological speciation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Main conclusions Despite gene flow over extraordinary distances, there is strong phylogeographic structuring and genetic barriers evident between geographically proximate regions (e.g. (ucsd.edu)
  • In diagnosing autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia the individuals clinical history or their past health examinations, a current physical examination to check for any physical abnormalities, and a genetic screening of the patients genes and the genealogy of the family are done. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moving further into SCA7's pathology, a similar genetic process is described, while the function of ATXN7 (an ataxin gene) is much like a component of the SAGA complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitochondrial diseases are genetic disorders carried in mitochondrial DNA, or nuclear DNA coding for mitochondrial components. (wikipedia.org)
  • There also exists virulence plasmids that contain the genetic elements necessary for bacteria to become pathogenic as well as degradative plasmids that harbor the genes that allow bacteria to degrade a variety of substances such as aromatic compounds and xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • Specifically, it has been suggested that certain genes (such as the genes for cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II) within the organelle are necessary to regulate redox balance throughout membrane-associated electron transport chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Cyclin-D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock protein HSP 90-beta also called HSP90beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSP90AB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Cyclin D1-CDK4 inhibits pRb through phosphorylation, allowing E2F transcription factors to transcribe genes required for entry into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 also binds to histone acetylases and histone deacetylases to regulate cell proliferation and cell differentiation genes in the early to mid-G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30-50%) pancreatic carcinomas (25%) bladder cancer (15%) pituitary adenomas (49-54%) breast carcinoma (13%) Cyclin D1 overexpression is strongly correlated to ER+ breast cancer and deregulation of cyclin D1 is associated with hormone therapy resistance in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA genes
  • The inverted repeat regions usually contain three ribosomal RNA and two tRNA genes, but they can be expanded or reduced to contain as few as four or as many as over 150 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two years later, with the same group he studied centipede species named Lithobius forficatus and discovered that only one of the 22 inferred tRNA genes provides a completely paired aminoacyl acceptor stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Moreover, an association has been established between common genetic variants within known microcephaly genes (MCPH1, CDK5RAP2) and normal variation in brain structure as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)‍-‌i.e., primarily brain cortical surface area and total brain volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genetic changes can abnormally inactivate the UBE3A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • A-T is caused by a defect in the ATM gene, which is responsible for managing the cell's response to multiple forms of stress including double-strand breaks in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We describe a protocol for culturing and dispensing fluorescent strains of C. elegans for high-throughput screening of chemical libraries or detection of environmental contaminants that alter the expression of a specific gene. (jove.com)
  • Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of myoglobin and cytoglobin genes in response to heat stress in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (auburn.edu)
  • Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes in channel catfish is highly regulated and time dependent after bacterial challenges. (auburn.edu)
  • Human populations studies show that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, causing up-regulation of their expression, correlate with increases in longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Sixteen years later, in 1905, Wilhelm Johannsen introduced the term 'gene' and William Bateson that of 'genetics' while Eduard Strasburger, amongst others, still used the term 'pangene' for the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • contains
  • Each minicircle contains one to three genes, but blank plasmids, with no coding DNA, have also been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • This region contains a gene called UBE3A that, when mutated or absent, likely causes the characteristic features of this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Her research focuses on attributing the development of autism to the existence of certain predisposing genes, with her coauthors on this topic including Peter Szatmari. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Because of their unusually short nanochromosomes, most of which contain only a single gene, they have been used as a model organism to study telomeres and to screen for non-coding RNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: Identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress. (auburn.edu)
  • influence
  • More recently, Herbert published an opinion paper in 2010 which argued, among other things, that "Systemic and central nervous system pathophysiology, including oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction can be consistent with a role for environmental influence," as well as a case report in the Journal of Child Neurology, which described a patient with autistic symptoms who improved markedly after she was placed on a gluten-free, casein-free diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although he did not use the term gene, he explained his results in terms of discrete inherited units that give rise to observable physical characteristics. (wikipedia.org)