• proteins
  • The MSH1 and MSH2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are predicted to encode proteins that are homologous to the Escherichia coli MutS and Streptococcus pneumoniae HexA proteins and their homologs. (genetics.org)
  • Cerebellar dysfunction Ataxia In terms of the genetics of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia 11 of 18 known genes are caused by repeated expansions in corresponding proteins, sharing the same mutational mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression is affected instead of proteins in subtype two SCAs because of this. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2001, a 14th biologically active protein called humanin was discovered, and was found to be encoded by the mitochondrial gene MT-RNR2 which also encodes part of the mitochondrial ribosome (made out of RNA): Unlike the other proteins, humanin does not remain in the mitochondria, and interacts with the rest of the cell and cellular receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adenine-thymine rich hairpin loops of the Borrelia bacteria range in size from 5 kilobase pairs (kb) to over 200 kb and contain the genes responsible for producing a group of major surface proteins, or antigens, on the bacteria that allow it to evade the immune response of its infected host. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, TCL-1/MTCP-1 is a protein domain found in proteins encoded for by two related protooncogenes, other words by genes that help promote cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • Specifically, it has been suggested that certain genes (such as the genes for cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II) within the organelle are necessary to regulate redox balance throughout membrane-associated electron transport chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • In diagnosing autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia the individuals clinical history or their past health examinations, a current physical examination to check for any physical abnormalities, and a genetic screening of the patients genes and the genealogy of the family are done. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moving further into SCA7's pathology, a similar genetic process is described, while the function of ATXN7 (an ataxin gene) is much like a component of the SAGA complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial inheritance is therefore non-Mendelian, as Mendelian inheritance presumes that half the genetic material of a fertilized egg (zygote) derives from each parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitochondrial diseases are genetic disorders carried in mitochondrial DNA, or nuclear DNA coding for mitochondrial components. (wikipedia.org)
  • There also exists virulence plasmids that contain the genetic elements necessary for bacteria to become pathogenic as well as degradative plasmids that harbor the genes that allow bacteria to degrade a variety of substances such as aromatic compounds and xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogeny
  • Metta, Muralidhar & Nagaraju, J. (2006): Molecular phylogeny of silkmoths reveals the origin of domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori from Chinese Bombyx mandarina and paternal inheritance of Antheraea proylei mitochondrial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • DiGeorge syndrome is typically due to the deletion of 30 to 40 genes in the middle of chromosome 22 at a location known as 22q11.2. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa , sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • circular
  • In humans, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) forms closed circular molecules that contain 16,569 DNA base pairs, with each such molecule normally containing a full set of the mitochondrial genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • inheritance
  • Because mitochondrial diseases (diseases due to malfunction of mitochondria) can be inherited both maternally and through chromosomal inheritance, the way in which they are passed on from generation to generation can vary greatly depending on the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the complex ways in which mitochondrial and nuclear DNA "communicate" and interact, even seemingly simple inheritance is hard to diagnose. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • A functional MSH1 gene present on a single-copy centromere plasmid was incapable of rescuing the established msh1 petite phenotype. (genetics.org)
  • plasmid
  • Once delivered into the host, the products of the plasmid genes will then stimulate both the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The his4x mutation, lying near the 5' end of the gene, was converted with equal frequency in both wild-type and msh2 strains. (genetics.org)
  • order
  • The size of the amplified fragments was used to order the primer containing genes. (usda.gov)
  • An ancestral gene order reconstruction shows that Orthurethra in contrast to other Stylommatophora, have tRNA-H before tRNA-G and that the gene order in the 'non-achatinoid' clade is identical to that of closely related non-stylommatophoran taxa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ancestral gene order reconstructions reveal rearrangements that characterize systematic groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CREx is a tool for comparisons of gene order data. (uni-leipzig.de)
  • it heuristically determines rearrangement scenarios to transform one gene order into the other. (uni-leipzig.de)
  • occur
  • Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)