• encode
  • Virtually all plasmid vectors in common use encode one or more antibiotic resistance genes as a selectable marker, for example a gene encoding ampicillin or kanamycin resistance, which allows bacteria that have been successfully transformed to multiply uninhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike viruses (which encase their genetic material in a protective protein coat called a capsid), plasmids are "naked" DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some classes of plasmids encode the conjugative "sex" pilus necessary for their own transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The term's early usage included any bacterial genetic material that exists extrachromosomally for at least part of its replication cycle, but because that description includes bacterial viruses, the notion of plasmid was refined over time to comprise genetic elements that reproduce autonomously. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for plasmids to replicate independently within a cell, they must possess a stretch of DNA that can act as an origin of replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a number of elements, such as the gene for plasmid-specific replication initiation protein (Rep), repeating units called iterons, DnaA boxes, and an adjacent AT-rich region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smaller plasmids make use of the host replicative enzymes to make copies of themselves, while larger plasmids may carry genes specific for the replication of those plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This host-to-host transfer of genetic material is one mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, and plasmids are considered part of the mobilome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later in 1968, it was decided that the term plasmid should be adopted as the term for extrachromosomal genetic element, and to distinguish it from viruses, the definition was narrowed to genetic elements that exist exclusively or predominantly outside of the chromosome and can replicate autonomously. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Many of the genes carried by a plasmid are beneficial for the host cells, for example: enabling the host cell to survive in an environment that would otherwise be lethal or restrictive for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some plasmids, however, have no observable effect on the phenotype of the host cell or its benefit to the host cells cannot be determined, and these plasmids are called cryptic plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleotide sequences of interest are preserved as inserts to a plasmid or the genome of a bacteriophage that has been used to infect bacterial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • product
  • All participants who try the new Zyppy Plasmid Miniprep kit and complete a simple product evaluation form will be automatically entered into a drawing for the chance to win an iPod Nano. (protocol-online.org)
  • state
  • The relationship between microbes and plasmid DNA is neither parasitic nor mutualistic, because each implies the presence of an independent species living in a detrimental or commensal state with the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, plasmids provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer within a population of microbes and typically provide a selective advantage under a given environmental state. (wikipedia.org)