• alleles
  • is highly polymorphic, with up to 6 alleles with 12 homozygotic CA repeats provides a negative link between IFN and bone resorption (Naive and effector memory T cells acquire polarized cytokine gene acetylation patterns in part by activating the hallmark T(H)1 cytokine, IFNG . (wordpress.com)
  • One common example of a microsatellite is a (CA) n repeat, where n varies between alleles. (thermofisher.com)
  • We studied 616 consecutively diagnosed 0-34 year-old Swedish patients and 502 matched controls by PCR-based genotyping to determine the length of the 3'-end (AT)(n)repeat region of the CTLA-4 gene and categorizing alleles as predominantly monomorphic short (S) or highly polymorphic (in length) long (L) alleles. (lu.se)
  • A third-related finding is that frequent selection for different responses also enriches for microsatellite repeat tracts, which are inherently unstable and most responsible for the production of novel indel alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • specifically, the length differences observed between microsatellite alleles are generally multiples of the repeat unit length. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original SMM has been modified in multiple ways, including: taking into account the upper size limit to most microsatellites factoring in the likelihood of large alleles to show higher rates of mutation than small alleles and including variations that suggest that mutations are split between point mutations that disrupt stretches of repeats and the additions or removal of repeat units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Construction of phylogenies under the SMM is, however, complicated by the fact that it is possible to either gain or lose a repeat unit, thus alleles that are identical in size are not necessarily identical by descent (i.e. they show marker-size homoplasy). (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • To support a more efficient conservation of the national bean germplasm and promote its use in crop improvement, we performed, for the first time, a simultaneous molecular marker (21 microsatellites and a DNA marker for phaseolin-type diversity analysis) and seed and plant morphological characterization (14 traits) of 175 accessions from Portuguese mainland and islands traditional bean-growing regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • Category I includes Huntington's disease (HD) and the spinocerebellar ataxias that are caused by a CAG repeat expansion in protein-coding portions of specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These diseases are characterized by typically much larger repeat expansions than the first two groups, and the repeats are located outside of the protein-coding regions of the genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mononucleotide repeat
  • Some types of satellite DNA in humans are: A repeated pattern can be between 1 base pair long (a mononucleotide repeat) to several thousand base pairs long[citation needed], and the total size of a satellite DNA block can be several megabases without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • 1992). A microsatellite is a tract of tandemly repeated (i.e. adjacent) DNA motifs that range in length from one to six or up to ten nucleotides (the exact definition and delineation to the longer minisatellites varies from author to author), and are typically repeated 5-50 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Although these diseases share the same repeated codon (CAG) and some symptoms, the repeats for the different polyglutamine diseases occur on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, microsatellites that occur in coding regions often inhibit the expansion of most downstream events. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Insertions are thought to be self-accelerating: as repeats grow longer, the probability of subsequent mispairing events increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • For example, individual A might have gained a single additional repeat (from an ancestor who had 9) whereas individual B might have lost a single repeat (from an ancestor who had 11), resulting in both individuals with identical number of microsatellite repeats (that is, 10 repeats for a particular locus). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Currently, nine neurologic disorders are known to be caused by an increased number of CAG repeats, typically in coding regions of otherwise unrelated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Recent results suggest that the CAG repeats need not always be translated in order to cause toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • These disorders are characterized by autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance (with the exception of spino-bulbar muscular atrophy, which shows X-linked inheritance), midlife onset, a progressive course, and a correlation of the number of CAG repeats with the severity of disease and the age at onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the hexanucleotide repeat motif TTAGGG in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)