• gene
  • These new and evolving techniques are enabling the study of virulence (the disease severity) and pathogenicity (the ability to cause disease), strain (descendants of a single isolation in culture) identification and typing (similarity or difference analysis relative to other strains), evolution and spread of bacteria, gene expression and gene regulation. (apsnet.org)
  • Among the 8 mutants with no canker symptoms are the hrpB4 and hrpX genes, two genes that belong to type III secretion system (TTSS), two hypothetical ORFS and, surprisingly, the htrA gene, a gene reported as involved with the virulence process in animal-pathogenic bacteria but not described as involved in phytobacteria virulence. (beds.ac.uk)
  • genes
  • The functions of most genes, including those on extra-chromosomal elements, aren't known and it's estimated that each bacterium has about 40% of its genome devoted to unique genes. (apsnet.org)
  • An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • elimination
  • Therefore, an important objective of endodontic therapy is the elimination of infected pulp tissue and intracanal bacteria via biomechanical instrumentation and intracanal irrigation (3- 8). (scribd.com)
  • LeBlanc JG, Milani C, de Giori GS, Sesma F, van Sinderen D, Ventura M. Bacteria as elimination subspecialties to their life: a technique Configuration breast. (gomte.com)
  • Plant
  • Plant associated bacteria may be beneficial or detrimental. (apsnet.org)
  • Individual bacterial cells cannot be seen without the use of a microscope, however, large populations of bacteria become visible as aggregates in liquid, as biofilms on plants, as viscous suspensions plugging plant vessels, or colonies on petri dishes in the laboratory. (apsnet.org)
  • The most exciting and current areas of research on plant-associated bacteria are the result of new intellectual discoveries, analyses and fields of study, new techniques and new instrumentation unavailable even a decade ago. (apsnet.org)
  • Both bacteria are gram-negative rods, have a single polar flagellum used for mobility, and are found only in association with plants or plant materials. (blogspot.com)
  • spread
  • In some cases, and perhaps most, microorganisms organize in dense growths to form biofilms that tightly adhere to surfaces, serving as protectants against the elements and enabling cells to produce a favorable environment for survival and spread. (apsnet.org)
  • Post-harvest wash water can spread the bacterium from contaminated to healthy fruit, therefore most peppers are packed dry to minimize BSR. (blogspot.com)