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  • genome
  • The functions of most genes, including those on extra-chromosomal elements, aren't known and it's estimated that each bacterium has about 40% of its genome devoted to unique genes. (apsnet.org)
  • gene
  • These new and evolving techniques are enabling the study of virulence (the disease severity) and pathogenicity (the ability to cause disease), strain (descendants of a single isolation in culture) identification and typing (similarity or difference analysis relative to other strains), evolution and spread of bacteria, gene expression and gene regulation. (apsnet.org)
  • Plant
  • Plant associated bacteria may be beneficial or detrimental. (apsnet.org)
  • Individual bacterial cells cannot be seen without the use of a microscope, however, large populations of bacteria become visible as aggregates in liquid, as biofilms on plants, as viscous suspensions plugging plant vessels, or colonies on petri dishes in the laboratory. (apsnet.org)
  • The most exciting and current areas of research on plant-associated bacteria are the result of new intellectual discoveries, analyses and fields of study, new techniques and new instrumentation unavailable even a decade ago. (apsnet.org)
  • Both bacteria are gram-negative rods, have a single polar flagellum used for mobility, and are found only in association with plants or plant materials. (blogspot.com)
  • study
  • The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze and compare the mechanical efficacy of irrigation on bacterial debridement in curved and straight root canals over sequential treatment procedures using real-time imaging of bioluminescent bacteria. (scribd.com)
  • As it is considered one of the highest UV-exposed environments, HAAL microbes constitute model systems to study UV-resistance mechanisms in environmental bacteria at various complexity levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • carotovorum and Ralstonia solanacearum were used as representative cells in the study of phytopathogenic bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • spread
  • In some cases, and perhaps most, microorganisms organize in dense growths to form biofilms that tightly adhere to surfaces, serving as protectants against the elements and enabling cells to produce a favorable environment for survival and spread. (apsnet.org)
  • Post-harvest wash water can spread the bacterium from contaminated to healthy fruit, therefore most peppers are packed dry to minimize BSR. (blogspot.com)
  • further
  • Ver3, a gammaproteobacterium isolated from Lake Verde (4,400 m), together with further experimental evidence supporting the phenomenological observations regarding this bacterium ability to cope with increased UV-induced DNA damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • plant
  • Both bacteria are gram-negative rods, have a single polar flagellum used for mobility, and are found only in association with plants or plant materials. (blogspot.com)
  • Plant associated bacteria may be beneficial or detrimental. (apsnet.org)
  • Individual bacterial cells cannot be seen without the use of a microscope, however, large populations of bacteria become visible as aggregates in liquid, as biofilms on plants, as viscous suspensions plugging plant vessels, or colonies on petri dishes in the laboratory. (apsnet.org)
  • The most exciting and current areas of research on plant-associated bacteria are the result of new intellectual discoveries, analyses and fields of study, new techniques and new instrumentation unavailable even a decade ago. (apsnet.org)
  • model
  • The close phylogenetic relationship and similar biochemical properties of xanthomonad NAGS-K and mammalian NAGS suggest that we have identified a close relative to the bacterial antecedent of mammalian NAGS and that the enzyme from X. campestris could become a good model for mammalian NAGS in structural, biochemical and biophysical studies. (biomedcentral.com)