Loading...



  • neurons
  • A Nurr1/CoREST pathway in microglia and astrocytes protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-induced death," Cell , vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 47-59, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • We have known for some time that neurons can undergo apoptosis, a form of cell death, and ultimately be removed by microglia," said Stephen Noctor, assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the study's lead author. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Microglia are actually eating healthy progenitor cells, thereby regulating the number of neurons produced in the developing brain. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Microglia were concentrated in the proliferative zone where NPCs proliferate and produce new neurons. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Researchers led by Charles Glabe at the University of California, Irvine, reported that using the drug PLX3397 to selectively kill off microglia in an AD mouse model reduced accumulation of Aβ inside neurons, and prevented the formation of neuritic plaques. (alzforum.org)
  • The researchers propose a cascade in which microglia somehow promote the toxic accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ, which ultimately kills neurons and triggers the formation of neuritic plaques. (alzforum.org)
  • In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the bidirectional interaction between neurons and microglia. (hindawi.com)
  • Next, we discuss some of the recent data on how microglia signal to neurons. (hindawi.com)
  • These studies suggest an interesting possibility that microglia and neurons engage in dynamic communication essential for nervous system development and maintenance. (hindawi.com)
  • In the following pages, we survey the recent microglia literature that highlight the interaction between microglia and neurons in the healthy brain (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Distinguishing features of microglia are their "ramified" branches that emerge from the cell body that communicate with surrounding neurons and other glial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • However, there is now evidence that under certain conditions, such as inflammation, microglia can also phagocytose viable neurons, thus executing their death. (scribd.com)
  • Such phagocytic cell death may result from exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) or other eat-me signals on otherwise viable neurons as a result of physiological activation or sub-toxic insult, and neuronal phagocytosis by activated microglia. (scribd.com)
  • Microglia are key cells in overall brain maintenance-they are constantly scavenging the CNS for plaques, damaged or unnecessary neurons and synapses, and infectious agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes included in the sensome code for receptors and transmembrane proteins on the plasma membrane that are more highly expressed in microglia compared to neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study has shown that direct injection of amyloid into brain tissue activates microglia, which reduces the number of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • After insult to the brain, such as traumatic brain injury, astrocytes may become activated in response to signals released by injured neurons or activated microglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The findings pinned down a new role for microglia in wiring the brain, indicating that adult neural circuitry is determined not only by the nerve cells but also by the brain's immune cells, and helped to explain how the brain, which starts out with a surplus of neurons, trims some of the excess away. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under basal conditions, apoptotic corpses of newly generated neurons are rapidly phagocytosed from the niche by unactivated microglia in the adult SGZ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia are specialized macrophages capable of phagocytosis that protect neurons of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the healthy central nervous system, microglia processes constantly sample all aspects of their environment (neurons, macroglia and blood vessels). (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • C. K. Combs, J. Colleen Karlo, S. C. Kao, and G. E. Landreth, " β -amyloid stimulation of microglia anti monocytes results in TNF α -dependent expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal apoptosis," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1179-1188, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • amyloid
  • M. Kitazawa, T. R. Yamasaki, and F. M. LaFerla, "Microglia as a potential bridge between the amyloid β -peptide and tau," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , vol. 1035, pp. 85-103, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • M. Li, K. Pisalyaput, M. Galvan, and A. J. Tenner, "Macrophage colony stimulatory factor and interferon- γ trigger distinct mechanisms for augmentation of β -amyloid-induced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity," Journal of Neurochemistry , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 623-633, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • This seemingly directed response of microglia to amyloid deposits conflicts with the fact that the increasing buildup of Aβ plaques is not inhibited by these cells during disease progression. (springer.com)
  • Ard MD, Cole GM, Wei J, Mehrle AP, Fratkin JD (1996) Scavenging of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein by microglia in culture. (springer.com)
  • Microglia synthesize amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to excitotoxic injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloid plaques can stimulate microglia to produce neurotoxic compounds such as cytokines, excitotoxin, nitric oxide and lipophylic amines, which all cause neural damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia have also been suggested as a possible source of secreted β amyloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. (hindawi.com)
  • Further confounding the issue regarding the origin of CNS microglia are studies demonstrating the generation of microglia-like cells from a murine embryonal carcinoma cell line (P19) during neural differentiation [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Microglia actively survey their environment through, and change their cell morphology significantly in response to neural injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • microglial cells
  • In this Review, we highlight recent findings about the steady-state functions of microglial cells, the factors that are important for physiological microglial function, and how microglia help to maintain tissue homeostasis in the CNS. (jci.org)
  • This special issue aimed to give an overview of the current knowledge on the role of microglial cells and processes mediated by microglia during health and disease. (hindawi.com)
  • cytokines
  • Microglia then acquire a phagocytic phenotype and produce several antiinflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β. (jci.org)
  • In the healthy brain, cells secrete cytokines to produce a local inflammatory environment to recruit microglia and clear the infection or injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophage
  • Regardless of the origin, the microglia/macrophage population are usually the dominant glioma-infiltrating immune cells (5-30%) [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell lineage derivation of the CNS microglia/macrophage is depicted, with arrows indicating lineage relatedness. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies during the 90s demonstrated a positive correlation between the number of microglia/macrophage and glioma malignancy [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, it has been reported that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) dependent action enhances macrophage/microglia recruitment in glioma [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, recent studies have emphasized a predominant role of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-SCF) in microglia/macrophage attraction [ 19 ] which confirmed previous reports [ 20 , 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • brain
  • Akerblom M, Sachdeva R, Quintino L et al (2013) Visualization and genetic modification of resident brain microglia using lentiviral vectors regulated by microRNA-9. (springer.com)
  • Microglia are resident brain cells that sense pathological tissue alterations. (sciencemag.org)
  • Studying tissue from primates and rats, the researchers noted that microglia colonize the proliferative zones of the prenatal brain. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The investigators found that PS-expressing cells could be found throughout the brain, but were not concentrated with microglia in the proliferative zones. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Microglia are generated in the yolk sack and quickly become attracted to the proliferative zones in the brain, colonize that zones and have a feast," said Noctor. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In contrast, animals fed with PLX3397-laced chow had up to 80 percent fewer microglia and 90 percent fewer neuritic plaques throughout the brain, including hippocampus, cortex, and amygdala. (alzforum.org)
  • Traditionally, microglia were studied for their role as pathologically responsive cells with virtually no interest in their functions in the healthy brain. (hindawi.com)
  • The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in microglia studies in the healthy brain. (hindawi.com)
  • Microglia are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system [ 5 ] and are now considered to be the primary component of the brain immune system [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia account for 10-15% of all cells found within the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the unavailability of antibodies from the rest of the body (few antibodies are small enough to cross the blood-brain barrier), microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, microglia are the resident innate immune cells that are activated in response to these cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a healthy brain, microglia direct the immune response to brain damage and play an important role in the inflammation that accompanies the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia are located throughout the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia are of utmost importance in brain maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • Akiyama H, Itagaki S, McGeer PL (1988) Major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on rat microglia following epidural kainic acid lesions. (springer.com)
  • The most accepted sequence of events is first NAWM appearance, then the so-called pre-active lesions, with activated microglia, and finally the BBB breakdown, which produces the entrance of T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • In addition to their function as a resident immune cell in the CNS parenchyma, microglia display a variety of other functions to maintain tissue homeostasis. (jci.org)
  • This level of plasticity is required to fulfill the vast variety of functions that microglia perform. (wikipedia.org)
  • When microglia are activated they induce the synthesis and secretion of proteolytic enzymes that are potentially involved in many functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia have a variety of different functions required to maintain homeostasis in the host body. (wikipedia.org)
  • originate
  • Although their developmental origin has been debated for several decades, the general contemporary consensus is that microglia originate from two sources to populate the CNS: an early source in the embryonic yolk sac and a later source from myeloid progenitors that invade the CNS during embryonic and postnatal development. (hindawi.com)
  • parenchyma
  • Microglia modulate wiring and patterning in the developing CNS by regulating apoptosis of neuronal subpopulations, releasing neurotrophic factors, and guiding sprouting vessels in the parenchyma. (jci.org)
  • Microglia are constantly surveying the parenchyma, and they detect changes in their microenvironment, contributing to the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • role
  • In addition, regional differences in the distribution of microglia point to another role for the cells. (ucdavis.edu)
  • While there is limited evidence, at present, that microglia play a role in autism, this could be an important investigative path. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Glabe told Alzforum that he sought to understand the role microglia play in the development of neuritic plaques. (alzforum.org)
  • The findings point to a role for microglia in the formation of neuritic plaques, Glabe said. (alzforum.org)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor (SF), which plays a role in glioma motility and mitogenesis, may be one chemokine responsible for the microglia infiltration in malignant gliomas [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We further elucidated the role of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases in the antiinflammatory actions of cryptolepine in LPS-stimulated microglia. (hindawi.com)
  • Microglia can take on the role of neuroprotection or neurotoxicity in order to face these dangers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia also have a role in neurodegenerative disorders, which are characterized by progressive cell loss in specific neuronal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stevens is exploring the role of microglia in disorders such as autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • implications
  • Stevens' work has led her to the discovery of different aspects of microglia, and the implications of their relevancy to the neurological fields of disease in science. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Activated microglia mediate synapse loss and short-term memory deficits in a mouse model of transthyretin-related oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis," Cell Death & Disease , vol. 4, article e789, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • findings
  • In addition to this well-accepted function, recent findings point to major roles for microglia in instructing and regulating the proper function of the neuronal networks in the adult CNS, but these cells are also involved in creating neuronal networks by orchestrating construction of the whole network during development. (jci.org)
  • roles
  • However, expression of immune proteins by microglia is not synonymous with inflammation, because these molecules can have central nervous system (CNS)-specific roles. (sciencemag.org)
  • neuritic
  • Treating 5xFAD mice with PLX3397, a CSF1R inhibitor that ablates microglia, prevented neuritic plaque formation. (alzforum.org)
  • A distinctive and, to Glabe's mind, suspicious, halo of microglia surrounds neuritic plaques, prompting him to probe whether the cells promoted this pathology or were merely looky-loos. (alzforum.org)
  • The few neuritic plaques that did exist were smaller and more compact than those in control mice, and remaining microglia surrounded them. (alzforum.org)
  • Neuritic beading induced by activated microglia is an early feature of neuronal dysfunction toward neuronal death by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and axonal transport," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 280, no. 11, pp. 10444-10454, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • cerebral
  • Toda esta informação deve ajudar cientistas a classificar para fora o "bons" do "mau" quando se trata do microglia, particularmente em microglia ativado assim chamado que aparecem após a lesão cerebral e nas doenças como o autismo e o Alzheimer. (news-medical.net)
  • neurotoxicity
  • Tumor necrosis factor- α induces neurotoxicity via glutamate release from hemichannels of activated microglia in an autocrine manner," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 281, no. 30, pp. 21362-21368, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • morphology
  • Furthermore, microscopic analysis of microglia morphology in high-grade glioma revealed an activated state, described by amoeboid or spherical shape [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • processes
  • Since these processes must be efficient to prevent potentially fatal damage, microglia are extremely sensitive to even small pathological changes in the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Likewise, microglia are commonly found "trapped" in gliomas and it is unclear if they have coproliferated with the tumor cells. (hindawi.com)