• amyloid
  • M. Kitazawa, T. R. Yamasaki, and F. M. LaFerla, "Microglia as a potential bridge between the amyloid β -peptide and tau," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , vol. 1035, pp. 85-103, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • M. Li, K. Pisalyaput, M. Galvan, and A. J. Tenner, "Macrophage colony stimulatory factor and interferon- γ trigger distinct mechanisms for augmentation of β -amyloid-induced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity," Journal of Neurochemistry , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 623-633, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • By tracking gene expression over time in microglia freshly isolated from AD mouse models, El Khoury and coauthors Suzanne Hickman and Elizabeth Allison report that the cells seem to start out by battling the buildup of amyloid. (alzforum.org)
  • We have found in the past that microglia can be both protective and detrimental, and I think this paper shows that at some stage of the disease, the microglia are good and can function to come in and clear amyloid, but either because they get overwhelmed or because of the inflammatory response itself, later they fail," El Khoury told Alzforum. (alzforum.org)
  • But if you look in the literature, people have described in patients as well as in animal models, a reduction in amyloid degrading enzymes where there is more amyloid in the brain, but this was not attributed to microglia. (alzforum.org)
  • Microglia synthesize amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to excitotoxic injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia have also been suggested as a possible source of secreted β amyloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric-oxide sy
  • It has been reported that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and/or interferon- γ enhanced the production of NO in microglia via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and caused neuron death within 48 hours [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • neural
  • In a surprise breakthrough, researchers at the UC Davis MIND Institute and their colleagues have found that microglia remove healthy neural progenitor cells (NPCs) through phagocytosis to control neuron production during brain development. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. (hindawi.com)
  • Further confounding the issue regarding the origin of CNS microglia are studies demonstrating the generation of microglia-like cells from a murine embryonal carcinoma cell line (P19) during neural differentiation [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Microglia actively survey their environment through, and change their cell morphology significantly in response to neural injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • 4 Our work uncovered subtle changes in the behavior of microglia during manipulations of visual experience including regulation of perisynaptic extracellular spaces, contact with subsets of structurally dynamic and transient dendritic spines, and phagocytic engulfment of intact synapses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There are a number of proteases that possess the potential to degrade both the extracellular matrix and neuronal cells that are in the neighborhood of the microglia releasing these compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • cathepsins B, L, and S, the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9, and the metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM8 (plasminogen) which forms outside microglia and degrades the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Activated microglia mediate synapse loss and short-term memory deficits in a mouse model of transthyretin-related oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis," Cell Death & Disease , vol. 4, article e789, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • scavenger receptors
  • In parallel to the decrease in Aβ scavenger receptors, the microglia also showed decreased mRNA for the Aβ-degrading enzymes insulysin, neprilysin, and matrix metalloproteinase 9. (alzforum.org)
  • yolk sac
  • Although their developmental origin has been debated for several decades, the general contemporary consensus is that microglia originate from two sources to populate the CNS: an early source in the embryonic yolk sac and a later source from myeloid progenitors that invade the CNS during embryonic and postnatal development. (hindawi.com)
  • macrophage
  • Regardless of the origin, the microglia/macrophage population are usually the dominant glioma-infiltrating immune cells (5-30%) [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell lineage derivation of the CNS microglia/macrophage is depicted, with arrows indicating lineage relatedness. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies during the 90s demonstrated a positive correlation between the number of microglia/macrophage and glioma malignancy [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, it has been reported that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) dependent action enhances macrophage/microglia recruitment in glioma [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, recent studies have emphasized a predominant role of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-SCF) in microglia/macrophage attraction [ 19 ] which confirmed previous reports [ 20 , 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • activation
  • Together these data suggest the hypothesis that mothers might get an immune response in the first trimester, which our data shows increases the activation of microglia, and as a result microglia may take out too many progenitor cells in the developing brain. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Rabies virus-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF- κ B signaling pathways regulates expression of CXC and CC chemokine ligands in microglia," Journal of Virology , vol. 79, no. 18, pp. 11801-11812, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Some evidence suggests the microglia can eat up Aβ and clear plaques, but their activation can also lead to harmful neuroinflammation (see ARF related news story ). (alzforum.org)
  • Acute inflammation in the brain is typically characterized by rapid activation of microglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are called pre-active lesions in its initial stage and they do not show autoimmune infiltrates at this stage They show microglia activation and degeneration of the neuron axons without T-cell infiltration. (wikipedia.org)
  • ischemia
  • Taken together, these data suggest novel ischemia/reperfusion-induced pathways for both TLR4-dependent and -independent, IFNAR1-dependent, type 1 IFN signaling in microglia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Innate immune responses are critical in stroke pathophysiology, and microglia are key cellular effectors in the CNS response to ischemia/reperfusion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using a transcriptional analysis approach, we identified a robust interferon stimulated gene response within microglia exposed to ischemia/reperfusion in both in vitro and in vivo experimental paradigms. (jneurosci.org)
  • adult
  • The work is based on a technique El Khoury and colleagues developed for rapidly isolating fresh microglia from adult mouse brain using antibodies to the cell surface marker CD11b. (alzforum.org)
  • morphology
  • Furthermore, microscopic analysis of microglia morphology in high-grade glioma revealed an activated state, described by amoeboid or spherical shape [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • chemokine
  • Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor (SF), which plays a role in glioma motility and mitogenesis, may be one chemokine responsible for the microglia infiltration in malignant gliomas [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • implications
  • Stevens' work has led her to the discovery of different aspects of microglia, and the implications of their relevancy to the neurological fields of disease in science. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Studying tissue from primates and rats, the researchers noted that microglia colonize the proliferative zones of the prenatal brain. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The investigators found that PS-expressing cells could be found throughout the brain, but were not concentrated with microglia in the proliferative zones. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Microglia are generated in the yolk sack and quickly become attracted to the proliferative zones in the brain, colonize that zones and have a feast," said Noctor. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Traditionally, microglia were studied for their role as pathologically responsive cells with virtually no interest in their functions in the healthy brain. (hindawi.com)
  • The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in microglia studies in the healthy brain. (hindawi.com)
  • The accumulation of phagocytic microglia in the brain could be good or bad for AD patients. (alzforum.org)
  • However microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are very active even in the absence of pathological insults and their processes periodically contact dendritic spines and axon terminals in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia account for 10-15% of all cells found within the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the unavailability of antibodies from the rest of the body (few antibodies are small enough to cross the blood-brain barrier), microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, microglia are the resident innate immune cells that are activated in response to these cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common causes of chronic neuroinflammation include: Toxic metabolites Autoimmunity Aging Microbes Viruses Traumatic brain injury Spinal cord injury Air pollution Passive smoke Microglia are recognized as the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • She continues to study the function of microglia in the healthy brain, most recently uncovering preliminary evidence that a certain protein serves as a 'don't eat me' tag that protects synapses from being engulfed by microglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a healthy brain, microglia direct the immune response to brain damage and play an important role in the inflammation that accompanies the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia are located throughout the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia are of utmost importance in brain maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • The resting microglia are characterized by small cell body with elaborated thin processes with multiple branches in all directions( Kreutzberg, 1996 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since these processes must be efficient to prevent potentially fatal damage, microglia are extremely sensitive to even small pathological changes in the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • When microglia are activated they induce the synthesis and secretion of proteolytic enzymes that are potentially involved in many functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapse
  • Based on these results, here we further discuss three means of synapse modification or elimination that could be mediated by microglia in the context of normal experience-dependent plasticity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • resident immune cells
  • More recent evidence indicated that regulation of inflammation within the CNS might be a better way to approach the treatment of the disease and microglia, the resident immune cells, may be a promising target of therapeutic studies. (hindawi.com)
  • increases
  • Neurofibromatosis-1 heterozygosity increases microglia in a spatially and temporally restricted pattern relevant to mouse optic glioma formation and growth," Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology , vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 51-62, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • neuronal death
  • Neuritic beading induced by activated microglia is an early feature of neuronal dysfunction toward neuronal death by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and axonal transport," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 280, no. 11, pp. 10444-10454, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • indicate
  • Together, these data could indicate a decreased capacity of the microglia to take up and degrade Aβ, the authors suggest. (alzforum.org)
  • tumor
  • have found that reactive microglia form a dense band that surround the tumor mass and can extend along the corpus callosum into the contralateral cerebral hemisphere [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Likewise, microglia are commonly found "trapped" in gliomas and it is unclear if they have coproliferated with the tumor cells. (hindawi.com)
  • lesions
  • The most accepted sequence of events is first NAWM appearance, then the so-called pre-active lesions, with activated microglia, and finally the BBB breakdown, which produces the entrance of T-cells. (wikipedia.org)