• genome
  • Proteomics, the study of the expression and interaction of proteins, has taken off in the wake of microbial genome sequencing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In transduction, a virus takes up a piece of DNA from its bacterial host and incorporates it into its own viral genome. (panspermia.org)
  • Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. (genetics.org)
  • The estimates also suggest that many truncated genes are in the process of being eliminated from the genome. (genetics.org)
  • Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • This will not only yield more accurate estimates of the rates of gene insertions/deletions, but also provide a quantitative view of the effect of truncated genes on rate estimation, which has been understudied in bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • Overprinting has been hypothesized as a mechanism for de novo emergence of new genes from existing sequences, either older genes or previously non-coding regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the same nucleotide sequence to encode multiple genes may provide evolutionary advantage due to reduction in genome size and due to the opportunity for transcriptional and translational co-regulation of the overlapping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • in most cases the overprinted gene is more phylogenetically restricted and is less likely to match the codon usage distribution found in the genome overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • She attended Hornsby Girls High School and graduated from the University of Sydney with a BSc(Hons) (1966) and MSc (1968) before taking up a scholarship to do a PhD course on bacterial genetics in the MRC Microbial Genetics Unit at the University of Edinburgh (awarded 1971). (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal Gene Tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Iron is a critical metal for essential cellular processes, such as respiration, in both human and microbial cells. (evmedreview.com)
  • Cosmic Ancestry holds that these processes cannot write useful new genes. (panspermia.org)
  • Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA), and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other genes of interest might be those that are key in various metabolic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, she has authored, co-authored and contributed to numerous book chapters, including "Root Interactions with Soil Microbial Communities and Processes" in The Rhizosphere: An Ecological Perspective (Z.G. Cardon and J.L. Whitbeck, Academic Press, 2007) and "Mechanisms Determining Patterns of Nutrient Dynamics" (with Valerie T. Eviner) in California Grasslands: Ecology and Management (M.R. Stromberg, J.D. Corbin, and C. M. D'Antonion). (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In this study, a novel and efficient delivery platform based on bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) were developed, and the efficiency of BMs in delivering small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) as well as antiproliferative effects in vitro were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel and efficient gene delivery system based on BMs was successfully produced for cancer therapy, and these innovative carriers will potentially find widespread applications in the pharmaceutical field. (biomedcentral.com)
  • virulence
  • Because there would be no evolutionary advantage to a pathogen keeping a protein that only serves to have it recognised by the plant, it is believed that the products of Avr genes play an important role in virulence in genetically susceptible hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests recent evolution of the Pto R gene and the pressure to evolve to target AvrPto, turning a virulence effector to an avirulence effector. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbiome
  • this figure was based on estimates that the human microbiome includes around 100 trillion bacterial cells and an adult human typically has around 10 trillion human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm
  • The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • effectors
  • The eukaryotes cited above all have "domesticated amidase effectors" ( dae ) genes, all of which are extremely similar to one of the four extant bacterial tae genes. (evmedreview.com)
  • Thus, this term can encompass some conserved microbial signatures (also called pathogen or microbe associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs)) and pathogen effectors (e.g. bacterial type III effectors and oomycete effectors) as well as any genes that control variation in the activity of those molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Arsenite in water can be thought of as an inorganic equivalent of non-ionized glycerol and is transported across cell membranes from bacterial cells to human cells by glyceroporin membrane channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Pseudogenes could also result from the degradation of transferred genes and might even be acquired directly via lateral gene transfer. (genetics.org)
  • soil
  • 2013. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus significantly modifies the soil bacterial community and nitrogen cycling during litter decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013. Challenges in assessing links between root exudates and the structure and function of soil microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2012. Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and a soil microbial community mediating litter decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbes
  • This approach offers an alternative to microbial culturing, which is important because most microbes cannot be cultured in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it is difficult for the DGGE method to detect microbes that comprise less than 0.5%-1% of a bacterial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Out of various non-viral vectors available, cationic polymers have gained the significant importance for the efficient conveyance of genes due to their advantages such as high stability in physiological fluids, controlled release of active pharmaceutical agents (APIs) including genes, large capacity of gene packing and ease of structural modification to improve the transfection efficiency and stability of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • distinct
  • 2014) presents a fascinating study of examples in which bacterial genes have found their way to a number of distinct eukaryotic lineages including ticks and mites, gastropod (e.g., snails and slugs) and bivalve mollusks (e.g. clams and oysters), and choanoflagellates (a subset of ptotozoans). (evmedreview.com)
  • Biogeochemical stratification of microbial mats may produce distinct morphological features that can be preserved (e.g., iron formations and marine carbonates), and provide insights into past geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unidirectional genes with phase 0 overlap are not considered distinct genes, but rather as alternative start sites of the same gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • community
  • In the present study we verify the presence of a resident microbial community by fluorescence microscopy and focus on the cellulose-degrading members by culture-based and 13 C-labeled cellulose DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP) approaches. (mdpi.com)
  • Each dietary regime will affect the abiotic and biotic environment and alter the resident GI tract microbial community of the fish [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • instead, it presents an overall picture of a microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, one could study the pattern of microbial succession in a habitat, or one could examine the response of a microbial community to an environmental perturbation, such as the release of a pollutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of culturing status, the Zetaproteobacteria show up worldwide in estuarine and marine habitats associated with opposing steep redox gradients of reduced (ferrous) iron and oxygen, either as a minor detectable component or as the dominant member of the microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecologically, the Zetaproteobacteria play a major role in the engineering of their own environment through the use of the controlled deposition of mineralized iron oxides, also directly affecting the environment of other members of the microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Gene cassettes are mobile genetic units each carrying only one gene which can be readily transferred into and between larger, stable genetic backbones called integrons that are responsible for moving the cassettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In doing so, he discovered the differential interaction that is common to all gene-for-gene relationships and that is now known as the Person differential interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "avirulence gene" remains useful as a broad term that indicates a gene that encodes any determinant of the specificity of the interaction with the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • homology
  • Within the NBS-LRR class of R genes are two subclasses: - One subclass has an amino-terminal Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor homology region (TIR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The retinal chromophore is found solely in the opsin branch of this large gene family, meaning its occurrence elsewhere represents convergent evolution, not homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Living cells (microbial or human) are generally exposed to arsenic as arsenate or arsenite. (wikipedia.org)
  • mats
  • This mechanism of photoautotrophy usually uses hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an electron donor and a single photosystem as a catalyst, oxidizing sulfide to sulfur and sulfate to support the growth of phototrophs in anoxic sulfidic environments exposed to light, such as laminated microbial mats and pycnoclines of stratified lakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • LRRs are involved in protein-protein interactions, and the greatest variation amongst resistance genes occurs in the LRR domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution
  • Bacterial gene content variation during the course of evolution has been widely acknowledged and its pattern has been actively modeled in recent years. (genetics.org)
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • The PRR class of R genes includes the rice XA21 resistance gene that recognizes the ax21 peptide and the Arabidopsis FLS2 peptide that recognizes the flg22 peptide from flagellin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • The underlying assumption is that each microbe in the sample will have a different sequence on the target gene, so a restriction enzyme will cut each microbe's DNA in a different place. (wikipedia.org)
  • An overlapping gene is a gene whose expressible nucleotide sequence partially overlaps with the expressible nucleotide sequence of another gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, a nucleotide sequence may make a contribution to the function of one or more gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinting refers to a type of overlap in which all or part of the sequence of one gene is read in an alternate reading frame from another gene at the same locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • Depending on the kind of transduction, some or all of the daughter viruses take copies of parts of the bacterial DNA with them. (panspermia.org)