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  • genomes
  • The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) will cosponsor the Conference on Microbial Genomes, to be held January 28-31, 2001 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Monterey, California. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Microbial genomes will also offer important information for developing new DNA-based vaccines, gene therapies and new biodegradable chemicals for industrial processes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the present article we review the differential contribution to the evolution of bacterial genomes that processes such as gene modification, gene acquisition and gene loss may have when bacteria colonize different habitats that present characteristic ecological features. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from the perspective of processes of short-sighted evolution and punctual acquisition of evolutionary novelties followed by long stasis periods. (mdpi.com)
  • Bacterial genomes are known to harbor pseudogenes. (genetics.org)
  • For instance, in plant mitochondrial genomes, which have an α-proteobacterial ancestry, most, if not all, of the laterally transferred genes are pseudogenes ( R ichardson and P almer 2007 ). (genetics.org)
  • and most of them are transient in bacterial genomes ( L erat and O chman 2005 ). (genetics.org)
  • reported that genomes with truncated homologs might erroneously lead to false inferences of "gene gain" rather than multiple instances of "gene loss. (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, the detection of low copy targets such as genes present in single copies in the microbial genomes, has remained problematic. (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe an emulsion-based procedure to trap individual microbial cells into picoliter-volume polyacrylamide droplets that provide a rigid support for genetic material and therefore allow complete degradation of cellular material to expose the individual genomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The amplified genomes are labeled based on the presence of a target gene and differentiated from those that do not contain the gene by flow cytometry. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using the Escherichia coli strains XL1 and MC1061, which differ with respect to the presence (XL1), or absence (MC1061) of a single copy of a tetracycline resistance gene per genome, we demonstrate that XL1 genomes present at 0.1% of MC1061 genomes can be differentiated using this method. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we present a technique that permits an unbiased genome exposure of individual microbial cells by trapping them individually into rigid polyacrylamide droplets that support their genomes even after cell material has been degraded. (frontiersin.org)
  • For a long time, microbiologists took the reduction approaches to study individually isolated bacterial colonies from complex microbial communities and to analyze individually isolated bacterial genes from complex microbial genomes, hoping to understand the whole by examining smaller and smaller components (Fig. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Overlapping genes are particularly common in rapidly evolving genomes, such as those of viruses, bacteria, and mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinting is known to be a common source of new genes in virus genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overlapping genes are particularly common in viral genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other studies dispute this conclusion and argue that the distribution of overlaps in viral genomes is more likely to reflect overprinting as the evolutionary origin of overlapping viral genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Proteomics, the study of the expression and interaction of proteins, has taken off in the wake of microbial genome sequencing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In transduction, a virus takes up a piece of DNA from its bacterial host and incorporates it into its own viral genome. (panspermia.org)
  • Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. (genetics.org)
  • The estimates also suggest that many truncated genes are in the process of being eliminated from the genome. (genetics.org)
  • Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • This will not only yield more accurate estimates of the rates of gene insertions/deletions, but also provide a quantitative view of the effect of truncated genes on rate estimation, which has been understudied in bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • Overprinting has been hypothesized as a mechanism for de novo emergence of new genes from existing sequences, either older genes or previously non-coding regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the same nucleotide sequence to encode multiple genes may provide evolutionary advantage due to reduction in genome size and due to the opportunity for transcriptional and translational co-regulation of the overlapping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • in most cases the overprinted gene is more phylogenetically restricted and is less likely to match the codon usage distribution found in the genome overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Smith MW, Allen LZ, Allen AE, Herfort L, Simon HM (2013) Contrasting genomic properties of free-living and particle-attached microbial assemblages within a coastal ecosystem. (springer.com)
  • Combination of these two benefits to permit the detection of low copy genomic targets in diverse microbial populations has remained problematic. (frontiersin.org)
  • A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach is used to fluorescently label the picoreactors containing genomic DNA that contains the target gene. (frontiersin.org)
  • The latter served as reference genomic sequences - 3000 such sequences of individual bacterial isolates are currently planned - for comparison purposes during subsequent metagenomic analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hall's work has characterized a variety of mobile elements, including plasmids, genomic islands, transposons, gene cassettes and integrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hall's recent work has identified large antibiotic resistance gene clusters, including genomic resistance islands in Salmonella, Klebsiella pneumonia and in Acinetobacter baumanni and examined their evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinted genes are particularly common features of the genomic organization of viruses, likely to greatly increase the number of potential expressible genes from a small set of viral genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • It involves the digestion of bacterial genomic DNA with specific restriction enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • She attended Hornsby Girls High School and graduated from the University of Sydney with a BSc(Hons) (1966) and MSc (1968) before taking up a scholarship to do a PhD course on bacterial genetics in the MRC Microbial Genetics Unit at the University of Edinburgh (awarded 1971). (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal Gene Tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transposable element (TE) (also called a transposon or jumping gene) is a mobile segment of DNA that can sometimes pick up a resistance gene and insert it into a plasmid or chromosome, thereby inducing horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Iron is a critical metal for essential cellular processes, such as respiration, in both human and microbial cells. (evmedreview.com)
  • Cosmic Ancestry holds that these processes cannot write useful new genes. (panspermia.org)
  • Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA), and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other genes of interest might be those that are key in various metabolic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, she has authored, co-authored and contributed to numerous book chapters, including "Root Interactions with Soil Microbial Communities and Processes" in The Rhizosphere: An Ecological Perspective (Z.G. Cardon and J.L. Whitbeck, Academic Press, 2007) and "Mechanisms Determining Patterns of Nutrient Dynamics" (with Valerie T. Eviner) in California Grasslands: Ecology and Management (M.R. Stromberg, J.D. Corbin, and C. M. D'Antonion). (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In this study, a novel and efficient delivery platform based on bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) were developed, and the efficiency of BMs in delivering small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) as well as antiproliferative effects in vitro were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel and efficient gene delivery system based on BMs was successfully produced for cancer therapy, and these innovative carriers will potentially find widespread applications in the pharmaceutical field. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Escherichia
  • Zambrano MM, Siegele DA, Almirón M, Tormo A, Kolter R. Microbial competition: Escherichia coli mutants that take over stationary phase cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbiome
  • this figure was based on estimates that the human microbiome includes around 100 trillion bacterial cells and an adult human typically has around 10 trillion human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm
  • The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • effectors
  • Thus, this term can encompass some conserved microbial signatures (also called pathogen or microbe associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs)) and pathogen effectors (e.g. bacterial type III effectors and oomycete effectors) as well as any genes that control variation in the activity of those molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Arsenite in water can be thought of as an inorganic equivalent of non-ionized glycerol and is transported across cell membranes from bacterial cells to human cells by glyceroporin membrane channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Pseudogenes could also result from the degradation of transferred genes and might even be acquired directly via lateral gene transfer. (genetics.org)
  • community
  • Yannarell AC, Triplett EW (2005) Geographic and environmental sources of variation in lake bacterial community composition. (springer.com)
  • In the present study we verify the presence of a resident microbial community by fluorescence microscopy and focus on the cellulose-degrading members by culture-based and 13 C-labeled cellulose DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP) approaches. (mdpi.com)
  • Each dietary regime will affect the abiotic and biotic environment and alter the resident GI tract microbial community of the fish [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • instead, it presents an overall picture of a microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, one could study the pattern of microbial succession in a habitat, or one could examine the response of a microbial community to an environmental perturbation, such as the release of a pollutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it is difficult for the DGGE method to detect microbes that comprise less than 0.5%-1% of a bacterial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of culturing status, the Zetaproteobacteria show up worldwide in estuarine and marine habitats associated with opposing steep redox gradients of reduced (ferrous) iron and oxygen, either as a minor detectable component or as the dominant member of the microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecologically, the Zetaproteobacteria play a major role in the engineering of their own environment through the use of the controlled deposition of mineralized iron oxides, also directly affecting the environment of other members of the microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus significantly modifies the soil bacterial community and nitrogen cycling during litter decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013. Challenges in assessing links between root exudates and the structure and function of soil microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2012. Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and a soil microbial community mediating litter decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbes
  • This approach offers an alternative to microbial culturing, which is important because most microbes cannot be cultured in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Out of various non-viral vectors available, cationic polymers have gained the significant importance for the efficient conveyance of genes due to their advantages such as high stability in physiological fluids, controlled release of active pharmaceutical agents (APIs) including genes, large capacity of gene packing and ease of structural modification to improve the transfection efficiency and stability of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • distinct
  • 2014) presents a fascinating study of examples in which bacterial genes have found their way to a number of distinct eukaryotic lineages including ticks and mites, gastropod (e.g., snails and slugs) and bivalve mollusks (e.g. clams and oysters), and choanoflagellates (a subset of ptotozoans). (evmedreview.com)
  • Biogeochemical stratification of microbial mats may produce distinct morphological features that can be preserved (e.g., iron formations and marine carbonates), and provide insights into past geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unidirectional genes with phase 0 overlap are not considered distinct genes, but rather as alternative start sites of the same gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Gene cassettes are mobile genetic units each carrying only one gene which can be readily transferred into and between larger, stable genetic backbones called integrons that are responsible for moving the cassettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In doing so, he discovered the differential interaction that is common to all gene-for-gene relationships and that is now known as the Person differential interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "avirulence gene" remains useful as a broad term that indicates a gene that encodes any determinant of the specificity of the interaction with the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • variation
  • Bacterial gene content variation during the course of evolution has been widely acknowledged and its pattern has been actively modeled in recent years. (genetics.org)
  • Unfortunately, the information of truncated genes has not been considered in any existing mathematical models on gene content variation. (genetics.org)
  • Rate variation among genes is allowed in the model by incorporating a discrete Γ-distribution. (genetics.org)
  • LRRs are involved in protein-protein interactions, and the greatest variation amongst resistance genes occurs in the LRR domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Flor showed that the inheritance of both resistance in the host and parasite ability to cause disease is controlled by pairs of matching genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One is a plant gene called the resistance (R) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene-for-gene relationships are a widespread and very important aspect of plant disease resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes the N resistance gene of tobacco against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein products encoded by this class of resistance gene are located within the plant cell cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PRR class of R genes includes the rice XA21 resistance gene that recognizes the ax21 peptide and the Arabidopsis FLS2 peptide that recognizes the flg22 peptide from flagellin. (wikipedia.org)
  • examples include rice Xa21D for resistance against Xanthomonas and the cf genes of tomato that confer resistance against Cladosporium fulvum. (wikipedia.org)
  • LRR swapping experiments between resistance genes in flax rust resulted in the specificity of the resistance gene for the avirulence gene changing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most resistance genes are autosomal dominant but there are some, most notably the mlo gene in barley, in which monogenic resistance is conferred by recessive alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • homology
  • Within the NBS-LRR class of R genes are two subclasses: - One subclass has an amino-terminal Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor homology region (TIR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The retinal chromophore is found solely in the opsin branch of this large gene family, meaning its occurrence elsewhere represents convergent evolution, not homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary advantage
  • Because there would be no evolutionary advantage to a pathogen keeping a protein that only serves to have it recognised by the plant, it is believed that the products of Avr genes play an important role in virulence in genetically susceptible hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundance
  • The pelagic zone of Lake Baikal is an ecological niche where phytoplankton bloom causes increasing microbial abundance in spring which plays a key role in carbon turnover in the freshwater lake. (springer.com)
  • freshwater
  • Jones AC, Liao TSV, Najar FZ, Roe BA, Hambright KD, Caron DA (2013) Seasonality and disturbance: annual pattern and response of the bacterial and microbial eukaryotic assemblages in a freshwater ecosystem. (springer.com)
  • study
  • In this study, we developed a model to incorporate truncated genes. (genetics.org)
  • To further address the problem, a study incorporating the information of truncated genes is highly desirable. (genetics.org)
  • In this study, we developed a model that considers the information of truncated genes and makes use of a parameter-rich time-reversible rate matrix. (genetics.org)
  • cells
  • Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Living cells (microbial or human) are generally exposed to arsenic as arsenate or arsenite. (wikipedia.org)
  • mats
  • This mechanism of photoautotrophy usually uses hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an electron donor and a single photosystem as a catalyst, oxidizing sulfide to sulfur and sulfate to support the growth of phototrophs in anoxic sulfidic environments exposed to light, such as laminated microbial mats and pycnoclines of stratified lakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests recent evolution of the Pto R gene and the pressure to evolve to target AvrPto, turning a virulence effector to an avirulence effector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • The underlying assumption is that each microbe in the sample will have a different sequence on the target gene, so a restriction enzyme will cut each microbe's DNA in a different place. (wikipedia.org)
  • An overlapping gene is a gene whose expressible nucleotide sequence partially overlaps with the expressible nucleotide sequence of another gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, a nucleotide sequence may make a contribution to the function of one or more gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinting refers to a type of overlap in which all or part of the sequence of one gene is read in an alternate reading frame from another gene at the same locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryota
  • The highly connected taxa in co-occurrence networks were operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and autotrophic and unclassified Eukaryota which might be analogous to microbial keystone taxa. (springer.com)
  • copies
  • Depending on the kind of transduction, some or all of the daughter viruses take copies of parts of the bacterial DNA with them. (panspermia.org)
  • genomes
  • The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) will cosponsor the Conference on Microbial Genomes, to be held January 28-31, 2001 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Monterey, California. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Microbial genomes will also offer important information for developing new DNA-based vaccines, gene therapies and new biodegradable chemicals for industrial processes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the present article we review the differential contribution to the evolution of bacterial genomes that processes such as gene modification, gene acquisition and gene loss may have when bacteria colonize different habitats that present characteristic ecological features. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from the perspective of processes of short-sighted evolution and punctual acquisition of evolutionary novelties followed by long stasis periods. (mdpi.com)
  • Bacterial genomes are known to harbor pseudogenes. (genetics.org)
  • For instance, in plant mitochondrial genomes, which have an α-proteobacterial ancestry, most, if not all, of the laterally transferred genes are pseudogenes ( R ichardson and P almer 2007 ). (genetics.org)
  • and most of them are transient in bacterial genomes ( L erat and O chman 2005 ). (genetics.org)
  • reported that genomes with truncated homologs might erroneously lead to false inferences of "gene gain" rather than multiple instances of "gene loss. (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, the detection of low copy targets such as genes present in single copies in the microbial genomes, has remained problematic. (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe an emulsion-based procedure to trap individual microbial cells into picoliter-volume polyacrylamide droplets that provide a rigid support for genetic material and therefore allow complete degradation of cellular material to expose the individual genomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The amplified genomes are labeled based on the presence of a target gene and differentiated from those that do not contain the gene by flow cytometry. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using the Escherichia coli strains XL1 and MC1061, which differ with respect to the presence (XL1), or absence (MC1061) of a single copy of a tetracycline resistance gene per genome, we demonstrate that XL1 genomes present at 0.1% of MC1061 genomes can be differentiated using this method. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we present a technique that permits an unbiased genome exposure of individual microbial cells by trapping them individually into rigid polyacrylamide droplets that support their genomes even after cell material has been degraded. (frontiersin.org)
  • For a long time, microbiologists took the reduction approaches to study individually isolated bacterial colonies from complex microbial communities and to analyze individually isolated bacterial genes from complex microbial genomes, hoping to understand the whole by examining smaller and smaller components (Fig. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Overlapping genes are particularly common in rapidly evolving genomes, such as those of viruses, bacteria, and mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinting is known to be a common source of new genes in virus genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overlapping genes are particularly common in viral genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other studies dispute this conclusion and argue that the distribution of overlaps in viral genomes is more likely to reflect overprinting as the evolutionary origin of overlapping viral genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Proteomics, the study of the expression and interaction of proteins, has taken off in the wake of microbial genome sequencing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In transduction, a virus takes up a piece of DNA from its bacterial host and incorporates it into its own viral genome. (panspermia.org)
  • Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. (genetics.org)
  • The estimates also suggest that many truncated genes are in the process of being eliminated from the genome. (genetics.org)
  • Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • This will not only yield more accurate estimates of the rates of gene insertions/deletions, but also provide a quantitative view of the effect of truncated genes on rate estimation, which has been understudied in bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • Overprinting has been hypothesized as a mechanism for de novo emergence of new genes from existing sequences, either older genes or previously non-coding regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the same nucleotide sequence to encode multiple genes may provide evolutionary advantage due to reduction in genome size and due to the opportunity for transcriptional and translational co-regulation of the overlapping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • in most cases the overprinted gene is more phylogenetically restricted and is less likely to match the codon usage distribution found in the genome overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Smith MW, Allen LZ, Allen AE, Herfort L, Simon HM (2013) Contrasting genomic properties of free-living and particle-attached microbial assemblages within a coastal ecosystem. (springer.com)
  • Combination of these two benefits to permit the detection of low copy genomic targets in diverse microbial populations has remained problematic. (frontiersin.org)
  • A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach is used to fluorescently label the picoreactors containing genomic DNA that contains the target gene. (frontiersin.org)
  • The latter served as reference genomic sequences - 3000 such sequences of individual bacterial isolates are currently planned - for comparison purposes during subsequent metagenomic analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hall's work has characterized a variety of mobile elements, including plasmids, genomic islands, transposons, gene cassettes and integrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hall's recent work has identified large antibiotic resistance gene clusters, including genomic resistance islands in Salmonella, Klebsiella pneumonia and in Acinetobacter baumanni and examined their evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinted genes are particularly common features of the genomic organization of viruses, likely to greatly increase the number of potential expressible genes from a small set of viral genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • It involves the digestion of bacterial genomic DNA with specific restriction enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • She attended Hornsby Girls High School and graduated from the University of Sydney with a BSc(Hons) (1966) and MSc (1968) before taking up a scholarship to do a PhD course on bacterial genetics in the MRC Microbial Genetics Unit at the University of Edinburgh (awarded 1971). (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal Gene Tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transposable element (TE) (also called a transposon or jumping gene) is a mobile segment of DNA that can sometimes pick up a resistance gene and insert it into a plasmid or chromosome, thereby inducing horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Iron is a critical metal for essential cellular processes, such as respiration, in both human and microbial cells. (evmedreview.com)
  • Cosmic Ancestry holds that these processes cannot write useful new genes. (panspermia.org)
  • Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA), and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other genes of interest might be those that are key in various metabolic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, she has authored, co-authored and contributed to numerous book chapters, including "Root Interactions with Soil Microbial Communities and Processes" in The Rhizosphere: An Ecological Perspective (Z.G. Cardon and J.L. Whitbeck, Academic Press, 2007) and "Mechanisms Determining Patterns of Nutrient Dynamics" (with Valerie T. Eviner) in California Grasslands: Ecology and Management (M.R. Stromberg, J.D. Corbin, and C. M. D'Antonion). (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In this study, a novel and efficient delivery platform based on bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) were developed, and the efficiency of BMs in delivering small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) as well as antiproliferative effects in vitro were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel and efficient gene delivery system based on BMs was successfully produced for cancer therapy, and these innovative carriers will potentially find widespread applications in the pharmaceutical field. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Escherichia
  • Zambrano MM, Siegele DA, Almirón M, Tormo A, Kolter R. Microbial competition: Escherichia coli mutants that take over stationary phase cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbiome
  • this figure was based on estimates that the human microbiome includes around 100 trillion bacterial cells and an adult human typically has around 10 trillion human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm
  • The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • effectors
  • Thus, this term can encompass some conserved microbial signatures (also called pathogen or microbe associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs)) and pathogen effectors (e.g. bacterial type III effectors and oomycete effectors) as well as any genes that control variation in the activity of those molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Arsenite in water can be thought of as an inorganic equivalent of non-ionized glycerol and is transported across cell membranes from bacterial cells to human cells by glyceroporin membrane channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Pseudogenes could also result from the degradation of transferred genes and might even be acquired directly via lateral gene transfer. (genetics.org)
  • community
  • Yannarell AC, Triplett EW (2005) Geographic and environmental sources of variation in lake bacterial community composition. (springer.com)
  • In the present study we verify the presence of a resident microbial community by fluorescence microscopy and focus on the cellulose-degrading members by culture-based and 13 C-labeled cellulose DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP) approaches. (mdpi.com)
  • Each dietary regime will affect the abiotic and biotic environment and alter the resident GI tract microbial community of the fish [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • instead, it presents an overall picture of a microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, one could study the pattern of microbial succession in a habitat, or one could examine the response of a microbial community to an environmental perturbation, such as the release of a pollutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it is difficult for the DGGE method to detect microbes that comprise less than 0.5%-1% of a bacterial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of culturing status, the Zetaproteobacteria show up worldwide in estuarine and marine habitats associated with opposing steep redox gradients of reduced (ferrous) iron and oxygen, either as a minor detectable component or as the dominant member of the microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecologically, the Zetaproteobacteria play a major role in the engineering of their own environment through the use of the controlled deposition of mineralized iron oxides, also directly affecting the environment of other members of the microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus significantly modifies the soil bacterial community and nitrogen cycling during litter decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013. Challenges in assessing links between root exudates and the structure and function of soil microbial community. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2012. Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and a soil microbial community mediating litter decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbes
  • This approach offers an alternative to microbial culturing, which is important because most microbes cannot be cultured in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Out of various non-viral vectors available, cationic polymers have gained the significant importance for the efficient conveyance of genes due to their advantages such as high stability in physiological fluids, controlled release of active pharmaceutical agents (APIs) including genes, large capacity of gene packing and ease of structural modification to improve the transfection efficiency and stability of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • distinct
  • 2014) presents a fascinating study of examples in which bacterial genes have found their way to a number of distinct eukaryotic lineages including ticks and mites, gastropod (e.g., snails and slugs) and bivalve mollusks (e.g. clams and oysters), and choanoflagellates (a subset of ptotozoans). (evmedreview.com)
  • Biogeochemical stratification of microbial mats may produce distinct morphological features that can be preserved (e.g., iron formations and marine carbonates), and provide insights into past geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unidirectional genes with phase 0 overlap are not considered distinct genes, but rather as alternative start sites of the same gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Gene cassettes are mobile genetic units each carrying only one gene which can be readily transferred into and between larger, stable genetic backbones called integrons that are responsible for moving the cassettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In doing so, he discovered the differential interaction that is common to all gene-for-gene relationships and that is now known as the Person differential interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "avirulence gene" remains useful as a broad term that indicates a gene that encodes any determinant of the specificity of the interaction with the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • variation
  • Bacterial gene content variation during the course of evolution has been widely acknowledged and its pattern has been actively modeled in recent years. (genetics.org)
  • Unfortunately, the information of truncated genes has not been considered in any existing mathematical models on gene content variation. (genetics.org)
  • Rate variation among genes is allowed in the model by incorporating a discrete Γ-distribution. (genetics.org)
  • LRRs are involved in protein-protein interactions, and the greatest variation amongst resistance genes occurs in the LRR domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Flor showed that the inheritance of both resistance in the host and parasite ability to cause disease is controlled by pairs of matching genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One is a plant gene called the resistance (R) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene-for-gene relationships are a widespread and very important aspect of plant disease resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes the N resistance gene of tobacco against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein products encoded by this class of resistance gene are located within the plant cell cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PRR class of R genes includes the rice XA21 resistance gene that recognizes the ax21 peptide and the Arabidopsis FLS2 peptide that recognizes the flg22 peptide from flagellin. (wikipedia.org)
  • examples include rice Xa21D for resistance against Xanthomonas and the cf genes of tomato that confer resistance against Cladosporium fulvum. (wikipedia.org)
  • LRR swapping experiments between resistance genes in flax rust resulted in the specificity of the resistance gene for the avirulence gene changing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most resistance genes are autosomal dominant but there are some, most notably the mlo gene in barley, in which monogenic resistance is conferred by recessive alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • homology
  • Within the NBS-LRR class of R genes are two subclasses: - One subclass has an amino-terminal Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor homology region (TIR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The retinal chromophore is found solely in the opsin branch of this large gene family, meaning its occurrence elsewhere represents convergent evolution, not homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary advantage
  • Because there would be no evolutionary advantage to a pathogen keeping a protein that only serves to have it recognised by the plant, it is believed that the products of Avr genes play an important role in virulence in genetically susceptible hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundance
  • The pelagic zone of Lake Baikal is an ecological niche where phytoplankton bloom causes increasing microbial abundance in spring which plays a key role in carbon turnover in the freshwater lake. (springer.com)
  • freshwater
  • Jones AC, Liao TSV, Najar FZ, Roe BA, Hambright KD, Caron DA (2013) Seasonality and disturbance: annual pattern and response of the bacterial and microbial eukaryotic assemblages in a freshwater ecosystem. (springer.com)
  • study
  • In this study, we developed a model to incorporate truncated genes. (genetics.org)
  • To further address the problem, a study incorporating the information of truncated genes is highly desirable. (genetics.org)
  • In this study, we developed a model that considers the information of truncated genes and makes use of a parameter-rich time-reversible rate matrix. (genetics.org)
  • cells
  • Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Living cells (microbial or human) are generally exposed to arsenic as arsenate or arsenite. (wikipedia.org)
  • mats
  • This mechanism of photoautotrophy usually uses hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an electron donor and a single photosystem as a catalyst, oxidizing sulfide to sulfur and sulfate to support the growth of phototrophs in anoxic sulfidic environments exposed to light, such as laminated microbial mats and pycnoclines of stratified lakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests recent evolution of the Pto R gene and the pressure to evolve to target AvrPto, turning a virulence effector to an avirulence effector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • The underlying assumption is that each microbe in the sample will have a different sequence on the target gene, so a restriction enzyme will cut each microbe's DNA in a different place. (wikipedia.org)
  • An overlapping gene is a gene whose expressible nucleotide sequence partially overlaps with the expressible nucleotide sequence of another gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, a nucleotide sequence may make a contribution to the function of one or more gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinting refers to a type of overlap in which all or part of the sequence of one gene is read in an alternate reading frame from another gene at the same locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryota
  • The highly connected taxa in co-occurrence networks were operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and autotrophic and unclassified Eukaryota which might be analogous to microbial keystone taxa. (springer.com)
  • copies
  • Depending on the kind of transduction, some or all of the daughter viruses take copies of parts of the bacterial DNA with them. (panspermia.org)