• C57BL
  • Strain Development Weaver (Kcnj6wv) arose spontaneously in the pedigreed expansion stocks of C57BL/6J at The Jackson Laboratory in 1961. (neurolex.org)
  • A transgenic construct containing 2.1kb of the human amyloid beta-precursor protein, APP gene, 770 isoform, with the Swedish K670N/M671L, Dutch E693Q and Iowa D694N mutations, under the control of the mouse thymus cell antigen 1, theta, Thy1 , promoter was injected into fertilized C57BL/6 mouse eggs. (jax.org)
  • The resulting chimeric animals were crossed to C57BL/6J mice, and then backcrossed to the same for 12 generations. (jax.org)
  • Beginning in the early 1900s Drosophila entered the research laboratories and opened up the doors for other model organisms like Tobacco mosaic virus, E. coli, C57BL/6 (lab mice), etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanger Mouse Genetics Project Brown SD, Moore MW (May 2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse News Letter (MNL) was a bulletin of mouse genetics information published from 1949 to 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse News Letter now exists as a company, Mouse News Letter Ltd, which promotes the science of Genetics and provides funds to enable younger scientists to attend Genetics Conferences. (wikipedia.org)
  • To survey the history of the Mouse News Letter is to see the history of mouse genetics unfold. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the Eighth International Genetics Congress in 1948 eminent geneticists Douglas Falconer, R.A.Fisher, Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch, Hans Grüneberg and Paula Hertwig agreed that investigators working on mouse genetics and development needed a regular information bulletin. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1990s it became clear with the exponential increase in knowledge that the long term future of mouse genetics information was an electronic one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the premiere location for rat genomics, genetics, physiology and functional data, as well as data for comparative genomics between rat, human and mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Finally, analyzing the clock-controlled cell cycle genes p21, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and p27, we found that the relative phases between p21 and Cyclin D expression profiles have been changed significantly in these Per2 allele mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • GSE10341), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 target genes are induced to a greater extent in null fetuses than in wt siblings, supporting the notion that mutants experience lower oxygen tension or have an enhanced response to hypoxia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyon published many peer-reviewed papers on radiation and chemical mutagenesis and on studies of mutant genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These included lists and maps of mouse genes and mutants, information on inbred strains, and brief reports of useful results that did not merit a full paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • On behalf of the Committee for Standardised Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, nomenclature rules for naming mouse genes and mouse strains were published. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new maps ranged from a Mouse Chromosome Atlas that showed man-mouse homologies and correspondence between the genetic and G-band maps and replaced the previous linkage map, to maps of man-mouse homologies, cancer-related genes, the Genetic Imprinting map (http://mousebook.org), the chromosome aberration map, and a probe/clone map. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first issue of the year was a "Maps" issue, the second issue was a "Genes" issue, the third issue was "Inbred Strains" and the fourth issue was a DNA probes and Restriction fragment length polymorphism issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • RGD is responsible for attaching biological information to the rat genome via structured vocabulary, or ontology, annotations assigned to genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and for consolidating rat strain data and making it available to the research community. (wikipedia.org)
  • RGD curators review the literature and manually curate GO, diseases, phenotypes and pathways for rat genes, diseases and pathways for mouse genes, and diseases, phenotypes and pathways for human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • QTL records link to information about related strains, candidate genes, associated markers and related QTLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strain records link to information about related genes and QTLs, associated strains (e.g. parental strains or substrains) and, where available, strain-specific nucleotide variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic mice
  • These transgenic mice exhibit increasing expression of human amyloid beta precursor protein in the cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and cerebellum with age. (jax.org)
  • These transgenic mice express neuronally derived human amyloid beta-precursor protein, APP gene, 770 isoform, containing the Swedish K670N/M671L, Dutch E693Q and Iowa D694N mutations, under the control of the mouse thymus cell antigen 1, theta, Thy1 , promoter. (jax.org)
  • 2004. Early-onset and robust cerebral microvascular accumulation of amyloid beta-protein in transgenic mice expressing low levels of a vasculotropic Dutch/Iowa mutant form of amyloid beta-protein precursor. (jax.org)
  • Human amyloid beta precursor protein expression is detected in the brains of transgenic mice. (jax.org)
  • We have recently described a mouse model for HCC in which somatic delivery of avian retroviral vectors encoding the mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen (PyMT) to the livers of albumin- tv-a transgenic mice leads to the formation of hepatic tumors ( 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Significantly, we found that whereas induction of tumors in tv-a transgenic mice with germ line Trp53 deletion did not lead to a higher tumor incidence, it led to a higher rate of lung metastases ( 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This function depends on extracellular dystroglycan interactions, since the cerebral cortex developed normally in transgenic mice that lack the dystroglycan intracellular domain. (jneurosci.org)
  • genetic
  • The Donating Investigator reports that the myoclonic seizures, kyphosis and reduced survival were observed in aged male mutants on a 129/SvEv genetic background. (jax.org)
  • The researchers said their findings in mice offer a possible animal model for developing treatments for schizophrenia and depression, which have been proven to share common genetic mechanisms by the researchers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We utilize a combination of mouse genetic, cell biological, biochemical, and genomic approaches to address understand how p53 acts mechanistically. (stanford.edu)
  • The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine susceptibility and resistance to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 Mouse Genome, the official journal of the International Committee for Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, merged with Mammalian Genome the official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • C ) Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from scraped epidermis from control (Ctrl, n = 2) and N1N2K5 mice (n = 3) showing the floxed and the recombined (Recomb) alleles of Notch1 and Notch2 respectively. (nih.gov)
  • RGD is working with groups such as the Programs for Genomic Applications at MCW and the National BioResource Project for the Rat (NBPR-Rat) in Japan to collect and make available comprehensive physiologic data for a variety of rat strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also developing a suite of tools for mining and analyzing genomic, physiologic and functional data for the rat, and comparative data for rat, mouse and human. (wikipedia.org)
  • For congenic and mutant strains, genomic positions are assigned for the introgressed region (congenic strains) or the location of the mutated sequence (mutant strains). (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • When catecholamine-deficient [tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) null] mouse fetuses die at embryonic day (E)13.5-14.5, they resemble wild-type (wt) fetuses exposed to hypoxia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mouse strains are characterized in a broad based phenotyping pipeline that is focused on revealing insights into human disease by measuring embryonic, neuromuscular, sensory, cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, haematological, and neurological parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 30% of all targeted gene knockouts in mice result in embryonic or perinatal death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013 the IMPC published the Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping, outlining a standard pipeline for the screening of embryonic-lethal knockouts in homozygote mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals used as models for schizophrenia include rats, mice, and primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • Mouse models of nucleotide-excision-repair syndromes reveal a striking correlation between the degree to which specific DNA repair pathways are compromised and the severity of accelerated aging, strongly suggesting a causal relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomedical research
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Origin
  • We additionally find that cholangiocarcinoma also develops in these mice, and some tumors display features of both HCC and cholangiocarcinoma, suggestive of origin from liver progenitor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • abnormal
  • In this study, we evaluated the effect of such a diet on the retinas of Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice, a model that develops AMD-like retinal lesions that include focal deep retinal lesions, abnormal retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptor degeneration, and A2E accumulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This patient had intellectual disability (inability to read or write) and had abnormal glucose homeostasis, similar to mice lacking CPE activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Normal levels of mRNA are observed, but no accumulation of protein is observed in the jerker mouse. (jax.org)
  • Both types of DISC1 mutant mice exhibited the same kind of reduced brain volume seen in people with schizophrenia and depression, and both types showed biochemical abnormalities in the function of the protein produced by the DISC1 gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The overarching goal of our research is to better define the mechanisms by which the p53 protein promotes different responses in different settings, ranging from tumor suppression to responses to chemotherapeutics, using the mouse as an in vivo model system, with the ultimate goal of gaining insight that may facilitate clinical advances in diagnosis, prognostication and therapy. (stanford.edu)
  • obesity
  • Cholesterol gallstone formation in overweight mice establishes that obesity per se is not linked directly to cholelithiasis risk. (jax.org)
  • Mice with mutant carboxypeptidase E, Cpefat, display endocrine disorders like obesity and infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other mouse species sometimes used in laboratory research include the American white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory mice are the same species as the house mouse, however, they are often very different in behaviour and physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mendel created a practical guide to breeding and this method has successfully been applied to select for some of the first model organisms of other genus and species such as Guinea pigs, Drosophila (fruit fly), mice, and viruses like the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphyloxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that is produced by some strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and is responsible for the characteristic golden color that gives S. aureus its species name. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • To study the function of Notch signaling in the skin of adult mice, we made use of a series of conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of several components of the Notch signaling pathway specifically in the skin. (nih.gov)
  • wildtype
  • The possibility of altering the course of retinal degeneration through subretinal injection of recombinant replication defective adenovirus that contained the murine cDNA for wildtype PDE6β was tested in rd1 mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers said their findings in mice offer a possible anima. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers' theory was that different mutant variations of DI. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers' theory was that different mutant variations of DISC1 might have different pathological effects. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers concluded that the different effects of anti-psychotic and antidepressant drugs on the two mutant strains "might provide clues to effective medications for these patient groups. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Strains: As for QTL records, RGD strain records are either manually curated from the literature or submitted by researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st Centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • Our findings in these mice are in line with human studies of AMD risk reduction by long-chain n-3 fatty acids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of TP53 is a late event associated with tumor progression in HCC, as well as with previously published findings on Trp53 loss and tumor progression in mouse models ( 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • antigen
  • We describe here a metastatic HCC model generated after the somatic introduction of the mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen to mice with liver-specific deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor locus and show the cell autonomous effect of p53 loss of function on HCC metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • primates
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • granule
  • Elimination of tPA delayed the apoptotic death of Purkinje and granule neurons in Lurcher mice, and reduced the phosphorylation of Jun and the activation of caspase 8. (biologists.org)
  • mammalian
  • The merged journal kept the name Mammalian Genome and includes the words "Incorporating Mouse Genome" on its front cover. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In fact, because of similarities in the pathways for biosynthesis of staphyloxanthin and human cholesterol, a drug developed in the context of cholesterol-lowering therapy was shown to block S. aureus pigmentation and disease progression in a mouse infection model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Staff monitor for the same agents in all of our JAX® Mice, Repository, Breeding Services, Research, and In Vivo Services rooms. (jax.org)
  • General do's and don'ts, valuable tips and troubleshooting advice for genotyping research mice. (jax.org)
  • The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • premature
  • compiled a lengthy list of mouse mutational models with pathologic features of premature aging, all caused by different DNA repair defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice that ingested a high n-3 fatty acid diet showed a slower progression of retinal lesions compared with the low n-3 fatty acids group. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We describe the attenuation of the Lurcher cell death progression in tPA-deficient mice. (biologists.org)
  • The progression of apoptotic neuronal death in Lc mice accordingly provides a physiologically relevant model for excitotoxic cell death. (biologists.org)
  • However, mice with germ line deletion of Trp53 are not suitable for studies of cancer progression because of the rapid occurrence of thymic lymphomas and sarcomas that lead to a shortened life span ( 26 , 27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • tend
  • Thus, in a population of cells comprising a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonies
  • The Jackson Laboratory is committed to setting quality standards in animal care and ensuring that these standards are maintained throughout all of our mouse colonies. (jax.org)
  • The Animal Health Program at JAX ensures the health of our mouse colonies by preventing the entry of pathogens and minimizing opportunities. (jax.org)
  • Colonies of the two strains were also exposed to human neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutant colonies quickly succumbed while many of the pigmented colonies survived. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Earmarking a mutant strain of mice called MRL/MpJ led to the accidental discovery that they had the ability to regenerate tissue very quickly, when scientists working with them found that the holes punched in their ears kept growing back. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • Earmarks may be used, although non-traumatic methods such as tattooing their tails and painting spots on white mice with crystal violet or permanent markers can be used as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletion
  • Also, forebrain histogenesis was preserved in mice with neuron-specific deletion of dystroglycan, but hippocampal long-term potentiation was blunted, as is also the case in the Large myd mouse, in which dystroglycan glycosylation is disrupted. (jneurosci.org)
  • exhibit
  • By 6 weeks of age, male mutant mice of this strain begin to exhibit tremors, progressive motor dysfunction, oily disheveled fur, hypoactivity, myoclonic seizures, and kyphosis. (jax.org)
  • All mutant male mice and 62% of female heterozygotes exhibit a repetitive clasping movement of their forelimbs and exhibit tremors. (jax.org)
  • Mutant mice defective in Ku70, or Ku80, or double mutant mice deficient in both Ku70 and Ku80 exhibit early aging. (wikipedia.org)