• C57BL
  • For each mutant line, groups of seven male and seven female mice move through a standard analysis pipeline aimed at detecting traits that differ from healthy C57BL/6 mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Over the past few years, multiple urea transporter knockout mouse models have been generated enabling us to explore the physiological roles of the different urea transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genome
  • The SAP Knockout mouse was generated in 2001 by Michael J. Czar and Pamela Schwartzberg of the National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH. (taconic.com)
  • The first involves pronuclear injection into a single cell of the mouse embryo, where it will randomly integrate into the mouse genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormalities
  • Since UT-B has a wide tissue distribution, multiple phenotypic abnormalities have been found in UT-B null mice, such as defective urine concentration, exacerbated heart blockage with aging, depression-like behavior, and earlier male sexual maturation. (frontiersin.org)
  • sequences
  • Artificial DNA sequences typically are introduced into mouse ES cells using a retrovirus or other viral vector, and the modified ES cells are then grown in cell cultures . (britannica.com)
  • studies
  • This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs, gleaned from studies of urea transporter knockout mice, and explores some of the potential pharmacological prospects of urea transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mouse knockout studies show that PDGF-C is required for palatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in mice have characterized the importance of the type 2 effector molecule IFNγ in various cell types and gone on to determine the importance of these proteins in intracellular pathogen resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dependency on the IRGs is best exemplified in mouse studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Considering the high concentration of urea in human (285 mmol/L), rat (700 mmol/L), and mouse (1800 mmol/L) urine, the amount of urea in the urine should inevitably cause osmotic diuresis in the renal collecting ducts. (frontiersin.org)
  • generations
  • In 1981 the laboratories of Frank Ruddle from Yale University, Frank Costantini and Elizabeth Lacy from Oxford, and Ralph Brinster and Richard Palmiter in collaboration from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Washington injected purified DNA into a single-cell mouse embryo utilizing techniques developed by Brinster in the 1960s and 1970s, showing transmission of the genetic material to subsequent generations for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to target IRGs in mice allowing for resistance from the host immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The SAP-deficient mouse model recapitulates several features of XLP: hyperproliferative T cell response following infections, impaired NK and CD8 cell cytotoxicity, defective humoral immune responses, abnormal germinal center formation, reduction in IgG+ memory B cell numbers, and the absence of NKT and other innate T cells. (taconic.com)
  • Irg1 knockout mice infected with Mycobacterium resulted in pancytopenia as a result of inadequate hematopoietic stem cell expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Examples of research in which knockout mice have been useful include studying and modeling different kinds of cancer, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, substance abuse, anxiety, aging and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • Even basic issues like choosing the correct "wild-type" control mouse to use for comparison are sometimes overlooked. (wikipedia.org)