• tract
  • Larvae within the cyst develop into adult tapeworms in the intestinal tract of the definitive host. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENPP7 is a new name for an old enzyme whose activity was originally identified in 1969 by Nilsson as a type of sphingomyelinase that hydrolyses sphingomyelin to ceramide in the intestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intestinal tract, ENPP7 activity is low in the duodenum and colon but high in the middle of the jejunum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike acid and neutral SMases in the intestinal tract that are rapidly inactivated by pancreatic trypsin, alk-SMase is resistant to trypsin digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENPP7 may have important roles in preventing tumorigenesis in the intestinal tract, as ceramide, the product of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, can inhibit cell proliferation and stimulate cell differentiation and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intestinal tract cholesterol and sphingomyelin are co-exiting in plasma membrane and in lipid vesicles, liposomes and micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a separate study, IBS patients were found to have lower levels A. muciniphila in their intestinal tract than individuals without IBS. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is localized to the mucosa of the lower intestinal tract, particularly to the apical membrane of columnar epithelium and some goblet cells, and is instrumental in chloride reuptake, aiding in the creation of an osmotic gradient for resorption of fluid from the lumen of the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • duodenal
  • Our recent studies show that restraintstress reduces IgA levels in mouse intestine as well as the intraepithelial lymphocytepopulation in mouse duodenal mucosa [13, The immune system of the mucosa can be divided into inductor and effector sites. (slideshare.net)
  • gene
  • Campylobacter colonization of nursing mouse pups was inhibited if their dams had been transfected with a human alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase gene that caused expression of H(O) antigen in milk. (nih.gov)
  • Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 7 (E-NPP 7) also known as alkaline sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (Alk-SMase) or intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENPP7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transgenic mouse was created by combining a β-galactosidase (β-gal) reporter gene with a signal sequence and the transmembrane domain of the type I transmembrane protein CD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) It promotes colon cancer development in Azoxymethane-induced and APC gene knockout mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Studies in mice, rats, and guinea pigs have found EP1 Messenger RNA and protein to be expressed in the papillary collecting ducts of the kidney, in the kidney, lung, stomach, thalamus, and in the dorsal root ganglia neurons as well as several central nervous system sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggs
  • Sometimes eggs can enter the blood and lymph vascular systems through mucosa go into the ectopic sites in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • On the other hand, studies done on the effects of stress on the mucosal immunesystem have focused almost exclusively in relation to inflammatory diseases of the intestineand the secretion of IgA in saliva.The abundant information available confirms that psychological stress plays a fundamentalrole in the physiopathology and clinical symptoms of intestinal inflammatory diseases inhumans [9, (slideshare.net)
  • Research has suggested that some types produce few or no symptoms, while others producing illness and intestinal inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Immunohistochemical and immunoblot assays of survivin were performed in intestinal tissue sections and total cell lysates respectively, using a rabbit anti-survivin antibody previously tested by us in cancer cells expressing high survivin levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings not only are consistent with down regulation of survivin expression by Apc, but they must also be interpreted in view of the Apc genotype of intestinal Apc Min cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A related, but distinct protease was isolated from peritoneal cavity mast cells of mice. (bl.uk)
  • TFF3, or intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), is present mainly in the intestinal goblet cells. (bmj.com)
  • 3. 3AbstractThe few reports that analyze the effects of stress on the immune cells of the intestinalmucosa or the functions of these cells tend to focus on S-IgA levels in saliva, and thesestudies have shown contradictory results. (slideshare.net)
  • Mice generated from these ES cells were viable, suggesting that PTPkappa phosphatase activity is not necessary for embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteases
  • The proteases were all identified as variants of mouse mast cell protease-1 which differed only in their carbohydrate moieties. (bl.uk)
  • tissue
  • In theformer, consisting of principally of lymphoid tissue in PPs, the appendix and solitary nodes[15, the antigens captured from the mucosa surface stimulate a response from T and Blymphocytes. (slideshare.net)
  • contrast
  • in contrast, survivin expression in adenomatous polyps from Apc Min/+ mice was significantly increased. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, DGAT2−/− mice have reduced triglyceride levels but are lipopenic, suffer from skin barrier abnormalities (including the inability to retain moisture), and die shortly after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Guentzel MN, Herrera C. Effects of compromising agents on candidosis in mice with persistent infections initiated in infancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • lean
  • The study was carried out with mice, overfed to contain three times more fat than its lean cousin. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Mice with genetic disruption of the DGAT1 or DGAT2 genes have been made by the Farese laboratory at UCSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • during a screen to identify genes important in mouse development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Response
  • These contradictions make it difficult to reach anyconclusion about the effects of stress on the humoral immune response of the mucosas,which is represented by secretory IgA (sIgA) levels. (slideshare.net)
  • Boosting levels of A. muciniphila in mice seemed to also boost their response to immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Use of fluorescent antibody in studies of immunity to cholera in infant mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies on ENPP7 knockout mice clearly showed that digestion of sphingomyelin and generation of ceramide is severely affected in ENPP7 deficiency mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • except
  • 5-Fluorouracil, in therapeutic doses, produced a doubling of the incorporation of thymidine into DNA in bone marrow, but had a negligible effect on incorporation of DNA in the intestinal mucosa, except under conditions of starvation and very high dosage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • normal
  • 120-day old Apc Min/+ mice which carry a chemically induced nonsense mutation in Apc codon 450 and their normal ( Apc +/+ ) C57BL/6 littermates were studied. (aacrjournals.org)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme, also a chymase, had N-terminal sequence identity with mouse mast cell protease-4. (bl.uk)
  • development
  • Adamson ED, Meek J (1984) The ontogeny of epidermal growth factor receptors during mouse development. (springer.com)
  • Azoulay M, Webb CG, Sachs L (1987) Control of hematopoietic cell growth regulators during mouse fetal development. (springer.com)
  • shown
  • The obese mice were then fed the bacteria, which were shown to reduce the fat burden of the mice by half without any change to the mice's diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Surprisingly, DGAT1−/− mice are healthy and fertile and have no changes in triglyceride levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite receiving the same lard-based diet for 3 weeks, recipients of transplants from lard-fed donor mice showed increased levels of Lactobacillus and increased levels of inflammation, while recipients of transplants from fish oil-fed donors showed increased levels of A. muciniphila and decreased levels of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • native
  • Additional testing was performed by conducting fecal transplants from mice on the fish oil diet or the lard based diet into a new group of mice which had their native gut flora eradicated with antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)