• Humans
  • Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans. (mendeley.com)
  • Mups are encoded by a cluster of genes, located adjacent to each other on a single stretch of DNA, that varies greatly in number between species: from at least 21 functional genes in mice to none in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are close similarities of physiology, development and cell biology between mice and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans and mice both have around 30,000 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many drugs used to treat alcoholism in humans have been shown to lead to reduced ethanol consumption in mice used in this model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic deletion of Homer1a restored mGluR5-long Homer scaffolds and corrected several phenotypes in Fmr1(-/y) mice, including altered mGluR5 signaling, neocortical circuit dysfunction and behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Even within a single strain, large amounts of variation in the phenotype can be seen, despite each mouse having identical genetic backgrounds, which greatly hinders reproducibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the most widely used "genetic background" for genetically modified mice for use as models of human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to genetic drift these colonies differ widely from one another (and, it goes without saying, from the original mice isolated at the Bussey Institute). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic mapping of the loci controlling the class I and class II antigens of the mouse showed them to be part of a cluster, which Klein mapped to the chromosome 17 and for which he championed the name Major histocompatibility locus, Mhc. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice (January 2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • As genotyping became progressively less expensive and more accurate the main advantage of using recombinant inbred strains and other genetic reference panels shifted to the ability to assemble massive and coherent databases on phenotypes (e.g., the GeneNetwork web service), and to use these coherent open-source data sets for large-scale collaborative research projects in predictive medicine and plant and animal research. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to accumulate extensive genetic and phenotype data for each member of a family of recombinant inbred strains under several different conditions (e.g., baseline environment versus stressful environment). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as Maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory has additional features to maintaining mice, one can order mice that have been altered with genetic tools such as Gal4/UAS or CRISPR, meaning that even if the strain does not currently exist, you can still obtain a line of mouse that is useful to your research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences would be due to the single genetic change, or to a difference in environmental conditions between two individuals of the same strain, one of the more specific uses of Drosophila inbred strains are the use of Gal4/UAS lines in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding animals will sometimes lead to genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodent
  • By far the most popular laboratory rodent, the C57BL/6 mouse accounts for half to five-sixths of all rodents shipped to research laboratories from American suppliers. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this occurred independently of the duplications in mice, meaning that both rodent species expanded their Mup gene families separately, but in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abbie E. C. Lathrop (1868 - 1918) was a rodent fancier who bred fancy mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NOG mouse accepts heterologous cells much more easily compared with any other type of immunodeficient rodent models, such as, nude mouse and NOD/scid mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity
  • In agreement with human fracture trends, adult mice may be similarly susceptible to bone fracture to the young group, although cortical bone in the two age groups responds to diabetic obesity differently. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This test focused on the obesity-resistant 6C2d congenic strain, which carries the Obrq2a(A/J) allele on an otherwise C57BL/6J background. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Various crosses between 6C2d and the control C57BL/6J strain showed that the Obrq2a(A/J) allele in the paternal or grandpaternal generation was sufficient to inhibit diet-induced obesity and reduce food intake in the normally obesity-susceptible, high food intake C57BL/6J strain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some common mouse strains show large variations in their level of resistance to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • BALB
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common ( Vadasz et al, 1996 ). (jax.org)
  • BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Michael Festing's Inbred Strains of Mice, BALB/c substrains are "particularly well known for the production of plasmacytomas on injection with mineral oil," an important process for the production of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eicher E. M., Beamer W. G., Washburn L. L., and Whitten W. K. (1980) A cytogenetic investigation of inherited true hermaphroditism in BALB/cWt mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spleen
  • In 20 cGy-exposed C57BL/6 mice, the caspase activity and apoptosis were reduced in con A-stimulated spleen cells as compared to sham controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mitochondrial stability was increased in spleen cells of LDR-treated mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Analyses of survivin peptide-pulsed spleen and lymph node cells from vaccinated mice using ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed antigen-specific, interferon-γ-producing CD8(+) T-cell responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • phenotypes
  • Acute, peptide-mediated disruption of mGluR5-Homer scaffolds in wild-type mice mimicked many Fmr1(-/y) phenotypes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • this very uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • colony
  • There now exist colonies of mice derived from the original C57BL/6 colony that have been bred in isolation from one another for many hundreds of generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora's Guide to Mouse Colony Management" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1920, the progeny of the original colony were systematically inbred, sibling to sibling, for 26 generations over 15 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding
  • After her poultry business failed, she started breeding rats and mice for hobbyists and pet owners. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a career project, Rhodes tries to understand the evolution of behavior by selectively breeding for hyperactivity in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses of tumors from vaccinated mice showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltration, and real-time PCR demonstrated increased mRNA and protein levels of immunostimulatory cytokines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genes
  • Between 1979 and 1981, it was estimated that Mups are encoded by a gene family of between 15 and 35 genes and pseudogenes in the mouse and by an estimated 20 genes in the rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • As all the Class B genes are almost identical to each other, researchers have concluded that these duplications occurred very recently in mouse evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the repetitive structure of these central Mup genes means they are likely to be unstable and may vary in number among wild mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the Mup gene cluster is one of the few parts of the mouse whole genome sequence with gaps remaining, and further genes may remain undiscovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Here, we showed that serum FGF21 level is increased in mice after a single bout of acute exercise, and that this is accompanied by increased serum levels of free fatty acid, glycerol and ketone body. (mendeley.com)
  • FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise, and further, the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were also increased. (mendeley.com)
  • Liver
  • Like Helicobacter hepaticus, it colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice, and is associated with multifocal chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • In DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, a benzodiazepine, barbiturate, and GABAergic neuroactive steroids all substituted for the stimulus effects of pregnanolone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pentobarbital and midazolam were more potent in producing pregnanolone-like discriminative stimulus effects in DBA/2J mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results provide a comprehensive look at pregnanolone's discriminative stimulus effects in two commonly used strains of mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An X-Ray diffraction study on mouse cardiac cross-bridge function in vivo: effects of adrenergic {beta}-stimulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For instance, the age at which mice begin the high-fat diet greatly impacts the metabolic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • females
  • In 2015 C57BL/6NTac females provided by Taconic Biosciences were sent to the International Space Station on SpaceX CRS-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Disrupted Homer scaffolds mediate abnormal mGluR5 function in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings reveal new functions for mGluR5-Homer interactions in the brain and delineate distinct mechanisms of mGluR5 dysfunction in a mouse model of cognitive dysfunction and autism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Rhodes was one of the developers of the Drinking in the Dark model in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model, a specific mouse strain is found to voluntarily drink to the levels of intoxication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the mouse can be the best model as a highly efficient recipient of human cells to engraft, proliferate and differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • A NOG (NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull) mouse is a new generation of severely immunodeficient mouse, developed by Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA) in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NOG mouse was generated in CIEA in 2000 by back-cross mating of C57BL/6J-IL-2Rγnull mouse that was originally developed by Kazuo Sugamura, a professor of Tohoku University, to NOD/Shi-scid mouse that was developed in CIEA. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. rappini has also been isolated from the feces of healthy people, dogs, and mice, as well as from patients with bacteremia. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • The metastatic potential of sub populations within mouse mammary cells is now considered as relatively an early event and dissemination occurs at the same time of pre invasive or micro-invasive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as 1908 Lathrop found that unusual skin lesions were developing in some of her mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Low doses of ionizing radiation (LDR) are reported to induce transient changes in mouse lymphocytes, such as enhanced response to polyclonal T cell mitogens, increased expression of heat shock proteins, and p53. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We evaluated the role of cell cycle proteins and apoptosis in lymphocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to 20 cGy fractionated LDR. (biomedsearch.com)
  • urine
  • Characterization of thiol-conjugated metabolites of ginger components shogaols in mouse and human urine and modulation of the glutathione levels in cancer cells by -shogaol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • SCID
  • No activity of T cell, B cell and NK cell Reduced complement system activity Dysfunction of macrophage Dysfunction of dendritic cell No leakiness: no incidence of T, B cells with aging No incidence of lymphoma NOG mouse has multiple immunodeficiencies that are principally derived from three strains of mice: 1) NOD/Shi inbred strain, 2) SCID, 3) IL-2Rγnull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Infectious Diseases Regenerative Medicine Hematology Humanized mouse Nude mouse SCID mouse M. Ito and, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • RESULTS: In both young and adult mice fed on HFD, femoral strength, stiffness, and toughness are all dramatically lower than controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • biomedical research
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 1900-1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnancy
  • In 1982, the stimulation of expression from the MMTV-LTR (Mouse mammary tumor virus-Long terminal repeat) was done by multiple rounds of pregnancy and lactation to evaluate the relevance of a cellular proto-oncogene, c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • wild mice
  • The United States government purchased her guinea pigs to test for toxic gas in the trenches of World War I. For the Granby Mouse Farm Lathrop sourced wild mice from Michigan and Vermont. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Group-housed B6 mice display barbering behavior, in which the dominant mouse in a cage selectively removes hair from its subordinate cage mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all the test animals should be as similar as possible. (wikipedia.org)