• genome-wide
  • Here, we utilized 31 CC lines (160 mice of both sexes in total) to perform genome-wide haplotype mapping across 77,808 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have demonstrated for the first time genome-wide significant association between several genetic loci and trabecular microstructural parameters for genes with previously reported experimental observations, as well as proposing a role for new candidate genes with no previously characterized skeletal function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But it was the landmark article of Lander and Botstein (1989) that brought together the power of model organism crosses with genome-wide RFLP maps and provided a systematic strategy for mapping the long sought factors or quantitative trait loci (QTL). (genetics.org)
  • 1989
  • Lander and Botstein's (1989) interval mapping has revolutionized genetic mapping and made it possible to locate QTL in intervals between observed markers. (genetics.org)
  • Such factors may play a much more important role than the traditional criteria for reproductive isolation--hybrid inviability and sterility (Coyne & Orr 1989)--which are frequently absent in recently diverged taxa suggesting that such postzygotic effects are the by-products of genetic divergence rather than a driving force in speciation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • genes
  • Genetic mapping studies in the mouse and other model organisms are used to search for genes underlying complex phenotypes. (g3journal.org)
  • Most human genes have functional mouse counterparts, and genomes of both organisms are organized similarly. (g3journal.org)
  • Previously, we applied a house dust mite model of asthma to incipient lines of the Collaborative Cross (CC) population to identify novel genes and pathways associated with neutrophil recruitment responses in the context of allergic inflammation. (g3journal.org)
  • Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) in the US linked specific genes in an animal - in this case, a mouse - to the presence and abundance of specific microbes in its gut. (business-standard.com)
  • Some of those genes in mice are very similar to human genes that are involved in the development of diseases like arthritis, colon cancer, Crohn's disease, celiac disease and diabetes. (business-standard.com)
  • phenotypes
  • Heritability calculation showed that these phenotypes are mainly controlled by genetic factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The incorporation of cotransmission into existing genetic epidemiology models may enhance our ability to characterize and predict changes in population structure associated with reduced transmission intensities and the emergence of important phenotypes like drug resistance that threaten to undermine malaria elimination activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • QTL mapping of molecular phenotypes has since revealed elaborate networks of genetic regulation. (genetics.org)
  • Depending on the region being assessed, forward genetic screens can be classified as illustrated in Figure 2 as: Region Specific screens: Studies are designed specifically to obtain a gradient of phenotypes by generating an allelic series which are helpful in studying the region of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (jax.org)
  • Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different if selection was for a genotypic region, or to identify the critical genetic locus, if selection was for a phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomes
  • At this point the individuals' genomes will on average have only 0.01 residual heterozygosity (excluding any genetic drift) and can be regarded for most purposes as genetically identical. (jax.org)
  • C57BL
  • Here, C57BL/6- Min male mice were mated with females from 27 Collaborative cross lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, in eight selected F1 Collaborative cross-C57BL/6 -Min lines, body weight was monitored and compared to control mice carry wildtype Adenomatous polyposis coli gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The donating investigator reported that the resulting Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creERT2 mice (floxed-neo removed) were then backcrossed to C57BL/6J (see SNP note below) for at least 4 generations. (jax.org)
  • C57BL/6, often referred to as "C57 black 6", "C57" or "black 6" (standard abbreviation: B6), is a common inbred strain of laboratory mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • C57BL/6 mice have a dark brown, nearly black coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C57BL/6 mouse was the second-ever mammalian species to have its entire genome published. (wikipedia.org)
  • There now exist colonies of mice derived from the original C57BL/6 colony that have been bred in isolation from one another for many hundreds of generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • By far the most popular laboratory rodent, the C57BL/6 mouse accounts for half to five-sixths of all rodents shipped to research laboratories from American suppliers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013 C57BL/6 mice were flown into space aboard Bion-M No.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inbred strain of C57BL mice was created in 1921 by C. C. Little at the Bussey Institute for Research in Applied Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collaborative
  • Using a mouse ( Mus musculus ) model of asthma applied to the Collaborative Cross population, we previously identified a lung gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for Zinc finger protein 30 ( Zfp30 ) that was also a QTL for neutrophil recruitment and the hallmark neutrophil chemokine CXCL1. (g3journal.org)
  • populations
  • As public health interventions drive parasite populations to elimination, genetic epidemiology models that incorporate population genomics can be powerful tools for evaluating the effectiveness of continued intervention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, current genetic epidemiology models may not accurately simulate the population genetic profile of parasite populations, particularly with regard to polygenomic (multi-strain) infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, more recently collected genetic evidence reported by Fonseca and others suggests a single C. p. molestus form has spread throughout Europe and beyond, since populations over a large area share a common genetic heritage. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • For his PhD thesis, Crusio studied the inheritance of the effects of anosmia on exploratory behavior of mice, and more in general the genetic architecture of exploratory behavior, using quantitative-genetic methods such as the diallel cross. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is currently adjunct director of the Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives et Intégratives d'Aquitaine and the chief consultant for Mouse Behavior Consulting Group. (wikipedia.org)
  • As it had been suggested that deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis might underlie depression, Crusio and collaborators undertook a series of experiments investigating changes in behavior and neurogenesis in mice that had undergone UCMS. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review of the findings obtained with these mice in many different laboratories did indeed indicate that these animals display autistic-like symptoms, especially changes in social behavior, a key symptom of autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It argues that just as selection pressure led to animals evolving useful ways of interacting with the natural environment, so also it led to the genetic evolution of advantageous social behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group-housed B6 mice display barbering behavior, in which the dominant mouse in a cage selectively removes hair from its subordinate cage mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • However, it is straightforward to engineer mutant mice in which a known susceptibility locus is altered to change the risk of disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The correct models for quantitative trait locus mapping are the ones that simultaneously include all significant genetic effects. (genetics.org)
  • New data eliminate close linkage between the α-chain locus and genetic markers in linkage groups Ill, IV, XI, XIII, and XVI. (sciencemag.org)
  • knockout
  • In gene knockout experiments in particular, where the knockout is performed on easily cultured stem cell lines, but is required in an animal with a different genetic background, the knockout animal is backcrossed against the animal of the required genetic background. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the figure shows, each time that the mouse with the desired trait (in this case the lack of a gene (i.e. a knockout), indicated by the presence of a positive selectable marker) is crossed with a mouse of a constant genetic background, the average percentage of the genetic material of the offspring that is derived from that constant background increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, Crusio has been investigating the possibility that Fmr1 knockout mice might perhaps be used as a model for autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant mice
  • We found that movement of APP and BDNF is impaired in striatal and hippocampal, but not cortical, neurons from presymptomatic homozygous mutant mice carrying 150Q huntingtin knock-in mutations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Identification of the candidate gene is then achieved by positional cloning of the mutant mice with the phenotype of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • In this case, the filial generation formed after the back cross may have a phenotype ratio of 1:1 if the cross is made with recessive parent or else all offspring may be having phenotype of dominant trait if back cross is with parent having dominant trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • it has been used in forward (phenotype based) genetic screens with which one can identify and study a phenotype of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically selection for either phenotype or genotype is performed prior to each back-cross generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • This is also known as marker-assisted congenics, due to the use of genetic markers, typically microsatellite markers, but now, more commonly, single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Genetic mapping using bin data points to a new direction of genomic data analysis. (genetics.org)
  • Population genomic analyses and genetic epidemiology models can be powerful tools for monitoring declining transmission rates and evaluating the efficacy of public health interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • trait
  • The microstructure of trabecular bone is a composite trait governed by a complex interaction of multiple genetic determinants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genotype of each member of offspring may be assessed to choose not only an individual that carries the desired genetic trait, but also the minimum percentage of genetic material from the original stem cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficient
  • In a BALB/c genetic background, IL1RN -deficient mice have histological features in common with psoriasis ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Mice deficient in IL1R1 , IL1RAP , IL18R1 , and IL18RAP have no overt skin abnormalities ( 14 - 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, in Netrin-1 deficient mice, trochlear axon projections are normal, suggesting the existence of other redundant guidance cues working in tandem with Netrin-1 to repel trochlear axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The T-stock mouse harbors 7 recessive, viable mutations affecting easily recognizable traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer is a genetic disease caused by accumulation of DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations leading to unrestrained cell proliferation and neoplasm formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • Using the bin data of a recombinant inbred line population of rice, we demonstrated genetic mapping, using all bins in a simultaneous manner. (genetics.org)
  • Previous studies have largely relied on the sequences obtained from monogenomic (single-strain) infections, which may not provide an accurate representation of the genetic structure within the population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists studied more than 50,000 genetic variations in mice and ultimately identified over 100 snippets that affect the population of microbes in the gut. (business-standard.com)
  • Genetic data indicate the molestus form in the London Underground appear to have a common ancestry, rather than the population at each station being related to the nearest above-ground population. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory mice
  • Most laboratory mice have contributions from both Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus . (jax.org)
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (jax.org)
  • strain
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/amsp_submission.cgi . (jax.org)
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (jax.org)
  • e.g. , mouse strain 129P1/J). (jax.org)
  • Note: a few historical examples exist of similar mouse and rat strain designations and these are allowed to stand, with their substrain designations identifying them as unique). (jax.org)
  • Now, the persistence of hybrids in northern climates apparently may be another evolutionary problem that can be solved, but only rarely: the Fonseca paper obtained genetic evidence that the recent colonization of America by Culex mosquitoes actually involves a strain derived from a rare successful hybridization between C. pipiens and C. p. molestus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speed congenics can be produced in as little as five back-cross generations, through the selection at each generation of offspring that not only retain the desired chromosomal fragment, but also 'lose' the maximum amount of background genetic information from the donor strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • drift
  • The species have very different behaviours, are extremely difficult to mate, and with different allele frequencies consistent with genetic drift during a founder event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to genetic drift these colonies differ widely from one another (and, it goes without saying, from the original mice isolated at the Bussey Institute). (wikipedia.org)
  • variations
  • Since both maternal and paternal haplotypes of each RIX are readily available, RIX is a powerful resource for studying both standing genetic and epigenetic variations of complex traits, in particular, the parent-of-origin (PoO) effects, which are important contributors to many complex traits. (g3journal.org)
  • Crusio and his collaborators found that neuroanatomical variations in the mouse hippocampus, in particular the sizes of their intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fibers (IIPMF) correlated with learning performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Mice carrying and non-sense mutation in Adenomatous polyposis coli gene at site R850, which designated Apc R850X/+ ( Min ), develop intestinal adenomas, while the bulk of the disease is in the small intestine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This could be illustrated by the extremely low mutation rate in mice given by DEN (3 in 60,179 offsprings). (wikipedia.org)
  • founder
  • We present a complete analytical pipeline for genetic mapping in DO mice, including algorithms for probabilistic reconstruction of founder haplotypes from genotyping array intensity data, and mapping methods that accommodate multiple founder haplotypes and account for relatedness among animals. (g3journal.org)
  • genetically similar
  • Backcrossing is a crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents or an individual genetically similar to its parent, in order to achieve offspring with a genetic identity which is closer to that of the parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Backcrossed hybrids are sometimes described with acronym "BC", for example, an F1 hybrid crossed with one of its parents (or a genetically similar individual) can be termed a BC1 hybrid, and a further cross of the BC1 hybrid to the same parent (or a genetically similar individual) produces a BC2 hybrid. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormalities
  • Mice that lack expression of individual glycoproteins exhibit hearing abnormalities, including, most notably, enhanced frequency selectivity in Tecb−/− mice, which lack expression of β-tectorin. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Genetic modification caused by human activity has been occurring since around 12,000 BC, when humans first began to domesticate organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, recent genetic , mechanical and mathematical studies have highlighted the importance of the TM for healthy auditory function in mammals. (wikipedia.org)