• 1960s
  • Research has been ongoing since the 1960s to determine what the proportion of 14 C in the atmosphere has been over the past fifty thousand years. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the main source of lead in teeth had been lead from paint and food can solder that were commonly used at the turn of the last century up through the 1960s, the data would have shown consistently high levels of lead in teeth already in the 1930s and a modest rise as lead was introduced into gasoline from that decade up until usage peaked in the mid 1960s. (innovations-report.com)
  • With rapid development of various fields in social sciences in 1960s, the number of medical researches including animal experiment had soared in the latter half of the 20th century [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Institutes
  • We have lots of experience with this-15 to 20 years of failure," says Ricardo Dolmetsch, the global head of neuroscience at the Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research. (nautil.us)
  • His research has been funded, among other international agencies, by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (AvH), the German Research Foundation (DFG), the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), The Gerda Henkel Foundation, Associated Medical Services (AMS), the Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation (NSHRF), the Social Sciences Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). (wikipedia.org)
  • latter
  • Leaded gasoline was responsible for about two-thirds of toxic lead that African-American children in Cleveland ingested or inhaled during the latter two-thirds of the 20th century, according to a new study in Science of the Total Environment. (innovations-report.com)
  • biological
  • Although biological activity in a model organism does not ensure an effect in humans, many drugs, treatments and cures for human diseases are developed in part with the guidance of animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • My main stream of research, has been concentrating on the analysis and interpretation of high-throughput biological data, with the aim to produce feasible and robust hypothesis for a deeper understanding of the biological systems under study. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • My research mainly focused on developing computational tools that are assisting in improving accuracy of both low-level and downstream analysis of biological data. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Shortly after the turn of the 20th century, The Wistar Institute began to embody Isaac Wistar's vision of a center for "new and original research" in the biological and medical sciences. (wistar.org)
  • principles
  • In the Weimar Republic of 20th century pre-Nazi Germany, the entity known as Reichsgesundheitsamt (translating roughly to National Health Service), under the Ministry of the Interior formulated a list of 14 points detailing these ethical principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • The equivalent body responsible for overseeing U.S. federally funded research using animals is the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mendl, an animal welfare researcher in the veterinary school at the University of Bristol in England, was looking for an objective way to tell whether animals in captivity were suffering. (nautil.us)
  • The use of animals in research dates back to ancient Greece, with Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE) among the first to perform experiments on living animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He went on to develop an antitoxin against diphtheria in animals and then in humans, which resulted in the modern methods of immunization and largely ended diphtheria as a threatening disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, the animal lentivirologists knew that the majority of infected animals develop disease. (vaccineenterprise.org)
  • Model animals are crucial to biomedical research. (xenbase.org)
  • The history of animal testing goes back to the writings of the Ancient Greeks in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, with Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE) one of the first documented to perform experiments on animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Up and down the aisles at the world's leading supplier of research animals, workers in solid-color scrubs-turquoise, purple, coral-stand on rolling stepladders with their arms inserted into the sleeves of one germ-free bubble or another, faces close up to the bulging plastic, manipulating the mice or moving them from cage to cage as if they were playing arcade games. (slate.com)
  • In May 2016, the paper Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Chinese Journal Reports on Neoplasms in Animals was published on Plos One, in which the author evaluated the quality of reports on neoplasms area animal experiment financed by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) published on Chinese journals on the basis of ARRIVE Guidelines [ 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • and the socialization of children would be viewed as one example of the training or domestication of animals (making parents and teachers a subtype of animal trainers). (wikiquote.org)
  • genome
  • To provide context, by 1982 the Sanger group sequenced the 172 kb genome of Epstein-Barr virus by shotgun M13 dideoxy methods. (vaccineenterprise.org)
  • The medaka genome project was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Area "Genome" from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Japan (MEXT) and Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST). (springer.com)
  • experimental
  • For example, it is explicitly recommended in the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" issued by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (previously called the Vancouver guidelines): The text of observational and experimental articles is usually (but not necessarily) divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Claude became a leader in using the scientific method and, in fact, is generally considered the founder of modern experimental physiology. (tamu.edu)
  • Avenzoar, an Arabic physician in 12th-century Moorish Spain who also practiced dissection, introduced animal testing as an experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research interests in the history and philosophy of the biomedical sciences cover: the development of modern physiology and experimental medicine, the history of neuroscience and the history of psychiatry, as well as the development of modern medical visualization practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • It became subsequently published with LIT Press in Muenster, Hamburg, London in 2003, being one of the first specialized works in German language on experimental practices in modern medical research laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Empirical method - Experimental method - The steps involved in order to produce a reliable and logical conclusion include: Asking a question about a natural phenomenon Making observations of the phenomenon Forming a hypothesis - proposed explanation for a phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jahrhundert' (Franz Steiner Verlag 1992), 'Drugs on Trial: Experimental Pharmacology and Therapeutic Innovation in the Eighteenth Century' (Rodopi 1999), 'Doctors, Honour and the Law: Medical Ethics in Imperial Germany (Palgrave Macmillan 2009), and 'Contesting Medical Confidentiality: Origins of the Debate in the United States, Britain, and Germany' (University of Chicago Press 2016). (dur.ac.uk)
  • scientific
  • IMRAD is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Although the IMRaD structure emphasizes the organization of content, each section (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) has unique conventions for scientific writing style. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dominance versus overdominance is a scientific controversy in the field of genetics that has persisted for more than a century. (wikipedia.org)
  • During most of the 1800s, France was the world leader in medicine, and Claude Bernard grew up in that culture where advances in medicine were being driven by the scientific method. (tamu.edu)
  • Initially inclined to make a donation to help revitalize the Wistar and Horner Museum, he eventually opted for a bigger commitment and funded an endowment and a research building for The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, which would house the Wistar and Horner Museum while also initiating "any other work for the increase of original scientific knowledge. (wistar.org)
  • These procedures are known as the scientific method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outline of scientific method Scientific method - body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deductive-nomological model Scientific modelling - Models of scientific method Hypothetico-deductive model - proposed description of scientific method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields. (omicsonline.org)
  • Animal experiment , an important means and basic approach for biomedical research, serves as a bridge connecting fundamental research and clinical trials [ 1 ] and also is one of the most controversial fields in scientific community [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Research results with incomplete report information can make the obtainment of scientific information extremely difficult or even be misleading, hence influencing the effective utilization of themselves [ 2 ] and causing waste to input capital and experiment animal, which could have been avoided. (omicsonline.org)
  • Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. (fightaging.org)
  • ethical
  • An institutional review board (IRB), also known as an independent ethics committee (IEC), ethical review board (ERB), or research ethics board (REB), is a type of committee that applies research ethics by reviewing the methods proposed for research to ensure that they are ethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with developed countries, many developing countries have established National, regional or local Institutional Review Boards in order to safeguard ethical conduct of research concerning both national and international norms, regulations or codes. (wikipedia.org)
  • With growing public awareness of such experimentation, and the evolution of professional ethical standards, such research became regulated by various legislation, most notably, those that introduced and then empowered the institutional review boards. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Oryzias latipes , also known as the medaka or Japanese killifish, has long been considered one of the most powerful animal models in the field of genetics. (springer.com)
  • human
  • A key goal of IRBs is to protect human subjects from physical or psychological harm, which they attempt to do by reviewing research protocols and related materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Department of Health and Human Services (specifically Office for Human Research Protections) regulations (see Human subject research legislation in the United States) have empowered IRBs to approve, require modifications in planned research prior to approval, or disapprove research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formal review procedures for institutional human subject studies were originally developed in direct response to research abuses in the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRBs are themselves regulated by the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (wikipedia.org)
  • This DoD Addendum includes further compliance requirements for studies using military personnel, or when the human research involves populations in conflict zones, foreign prisoners, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] In researching human disease, model organisms allow for better understanding the disease process without the added risk of harming an actual human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Named after Caspar Wistar, M.D., a well-respected Philadelphia physician, Wistar has an impressive legacy of biomedical research milestones that have impacted the modern history of human health. (wistar.org)
  • Various organizations have created guidelines for human subject research for various kinds of research involving human subject research and for various situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal testing should be conducted first, and human experiments are to be avoided if other means of collecting data are still available. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human subject research in the United States was mostly unregulated until the 20th century, as it was throughout the world, until the establishment of various governmental and professional regulations and codes of ethics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The code highlighted 3 key elements (voluntary informed consent, favorable risk/benefit analysis, and right to withdraw without repercussions) which later became the foundation for further human research regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was addressed by the Drug Amendments legislation of 1962, which introduced a requirement for a series of animal tests before proceeding with human experimentation, and a total of three phases of human clinical trials before a drug can be approved for the market. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Alliance funds research projects that present new avenues of looking at lupus with animal models and human patients, echoing the NIH's inclusion of these study methods in " The Future Directions of Lupus Research ," a document that outlines five major interest areas of study and was created with input from experts in the research community. (fbresearch.org)
  • While animal-to-human surgeries are generally unsuccessful, last month the New York Times reported new research that suggests the implantation of organs from gene-altered pigs into human patients might one day be possible. (fbresearch.org)
  • The National Kidney Foundation cites promising animal research -research involving the very same recombinant DNA technology that could re-open the possibility of successful animal-to-human procedures-that could allow scientists to precisely identify "the location of defects in the genetic material of cells that cause certain hereditary disorders," making realistic "the possibility of replacing genetic material to correct these defects before they cause disease. (fbresearch.org)
  • models
  • The evolution of animal models for neuroactive medicine. (nautil.us)
  • O ne word explains why testing neuropsychiatric drugs in animal models is hard, and that word is language. (nautil.us)
  • Research using animal models has been central to most of the achievements of modern medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Wistar also built an immense collection of anatomical models, including wax-injected organs, bones and skeletal parts, and preparations of animal tissues. (wistar.org)
  • In his aptly-titled paper, " From mice to man: the preclinical history of mycophenolate mofetil ," Dr. Sollinger explains how the animal models demonstrated the success of MMF in prolonging organ survival and preventing organ rejection, which paved the way for its use to treat lupus patients. (fbresearch.org)
  • mice
  • The company sells research rodents in dozens of standard and specialized strains-mice, mostly, but also rats, and some rabbits, gerbils and hamsters, too. (slate.com)
  • The more research you do on something, the more valuable it becomes," says geneticist and statistician Michael Festing , one of the world's experts on inbred lab mice. (slate.com)
  • developmental
  • Philosophers of biology have shown renewed interest in developmental biology due to the potential relevance of development for understanding evolution, the theme of reductionism in genetic explanations, and via increased attention to the details of particular research programs. (stanford.edu)
  • development
  • Trace that back to the root of the problem, and one big stumbling stone along the drug development pathway is the point where animal tests-and most are done in rodents-wrongly predicted they would. (nautil.us)
  • Dr. Parsonnet also has an active research enterprise in which she studies the way infections contribute to the development of chronic diseases including cancer, allergy and obesity. (stanford.edu)
  • Fellow
  • In 2015, he also became a Research Fellow of the Calgary Centre for Military, Security and Strategic Studies (CMSS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Moving to England, he was a Wellcome Trust Research Fellow at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, University College London (1991-94) and a Wellcome Trust University Award Holder and Research Fellow at Durham University (1994-96). (dur.ac.uk)
  • half
  • The IMRAD format has been adopted by a steadily increasing number of academic journals since the first half of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The older a sample is, the less 14 C there is to be detected, and because the half-life of 14 C (the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is about 5,730 years, the oldest dates that can be reliably measured by this process date to around 50,000 years ago, although special preparation methods occasionally permit accurate analysis of older samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among
  • It was on account of his " widespread use among the research community and favorable breeding characteristics ," they wrote. (slate.com)
  • advances
  • Subsequent research in model organisms led to further medical advances, such as Frederick Banting's research in dogs, which determined that the isolates of pancreatic secretion could be used to treat dogs with diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanomaterials research takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology, leveraging advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of microfabrication research. (wikipedia.org)
  • welfare
  • The purpose of the IRB is to assure that appropriate steps are taken to protect the rights and welfare of humans participating as subjects in a research study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some scientists-himself included-have begun to ask whether there's a role for it beyond animal welfare. (nautil.us)
  • experimentation
  • Beecher's study listed over 20 cases of mainstream research where subjects were subject to experimentation without being fully informed of their status as research subjects, and without knowledge of the risks of such participation in the research. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • However, there was only little data about the anti-influenza effect of SGE since the use of nonsuitable animal model and positive result was difficult to obtain through in vitro antiviral experiments. (hindawi.com)
  • For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical trials
  • In 1892, Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser, a German physician who is credited with the discovery of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, performed two sets of clinical trials attempting to find a method of prevention for syphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • late
  • The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s and soon became a standard tool for archaeologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sun and former PhD student Zhong-Fa Zhang, now at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, who joined in the study in late 2003, developed and applied modern statistical methods to mine the information and compare data curves created with the tooth, blood, sediment and usage data. (innovations-report.com)
  • experiments
  • In Vivo Experiments Guidelines (ARRIVE Guidelines) [ 8 ] and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC) [ 9 ] were published in succession, laying the foundation for standardizing animal experiment for improving animal experiment report quality. (omicsonline.org)
  • In fact, this class of drugs helped to make organ transplantation possible, along with advancements in the surgical method-which is another story of animal experiments . (fbresearch.org)
  • risks
  • An IRB may only approve research for which the risks to subjects are balanced by potential benefits to society, and for which the selection of subjects presents a fair or just distribution of risks and benefits to eligible participants. (wikipedia.org)
  • measures
  • The basic goal of pre-clinical animal experiment lies in primarily verifying the safety and effectiveness of intervention measures, and its result is the direct evidence to determine whether or not new intervention measures should enter clinical research stage and further design clinical trial, so as to protect the volunteers of phase I clinical experiment [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • ethics
  • The protocol review assesses the ethics of the research and its methods, promotes fully informed and voluntary participation by prospective subjects capable of making such choices (or, if that is not possible, informed permission given by a suitable proxy), and seeks to maximize the safety of subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2000 he has been Professor of History of Medicine and Medical Ethics, Department of Philosophy, Durham University, and since 2001 in addition Director of the Centre for the History of Medicine and Disease, Wolfson Research Institute, Durham University. (dur.ac.uk)
  • His current research is on 19th- and 20th-century medical ethics, especially in Britain, and the history of hypnotism. (dur.ac.uk)
  • He would be happy to supervise new PhD students who would like to do research on topics in the history of medicine and medical ethics. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Biomedical Ethics Past and Present (33 hours/year. (dur.ac.uk)
  • physician
  • Dr. Wistar was an eminent physician and professor, beloved by his patients for his compassionate and comforting manner, and respected by his students for his clear and charismatic teaching methods. (wistar.org)
  • immunology
  • Today, Wistar is a world leader in cancer and vaccine research, continuing its tradition of pioneering work in cancer biology, gene expression and epigenetics, immunology, virology and translational research. (wistar.org)
  • great
  • In addition to permitting more accurate dating within archaeological sites than previous methods, it allows comparison of dates of events across great distances. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulations
  • These regulations define the rules and responsibilities for institutional review, which is required for all research that receives support, directly or indirectly, from the United States federal government. (wikipedia.org)
  • Institute
  • The Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, informally known as the Lister Institute, was established as a research institute (the British Institute of Preventive Medicine) in 1891, with bacteriologist Marc Armand Ruffer as its first director, using a grant of £250,000 from Edward Cecil Guinness of the Guinness family. (wikipedia.org)
  • medicine
  • The science-based medicine community has criticized the infiltration of alternative medicine into mainstream academic medicine, education, and publications, accusing institutions of "diverting research time, money, and other resources from more fruitful lines of investigation in order to pursue a theory that has no basis in biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • guinea
  • John Cade's research in guinea pigs discovered the anticonvulsant properties of lithium salts, which revolutionized the treatment of bipolar disorder, replacing the previous treatments of lobotomy or electroconvulsive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Much of what is now known about lupus, and many of the most successful treatment options-including lifesaving kidney transplants, pain relievers, and the medications most widely prescribed to lupus patients-were made possible by animal research. (fbresearch.org)